Definitions

Soilworks is writing the book on effective, efficient and ecologically sensitive dust control products. Our dust control experts are here to help you solve any problem that might arise. Want to become a dust control expert, too? Or perhaps you’re just eager to learn more about dust control and soil stabilization techniques? This list of definitions will help you understand the fascinating world of dust control and soil stabilization.

A

Aggregate Stabilizer

A soil stabilization compound (e.g. Soiltac) that is mixed with Non-plastic soil particles or up to 3”/75mm (coarse gravel) to increase the aggregate’s compressive, tensile and shear strength while improving load bearing capacity and durability.

Airborne Dust Control

The process of inhibiting harmful, fine, dry powder pollution (dust) consisting of tiny particulate matter (PM) of earth or waste from being suspended into the air.  

Alligatoring

A form of asphalt pavement distress. Specifically, fatigue (Alligator) surface cracking resembles the texture of an alligator’s skin. Possible causes include:

  • Excessive loading
  • Weak surface, base or subgrade
  • Thin surface or base
  • Poor drainage

B

Binding Agents

A compound (e.g. Soiltac) that bonds, restricts, coheres or restrains soil particles. Binding agents are often used to control dust and erosion, prevent migration of soil fines or serve as a surface wear course for unpaved roads.

C

California Bearing Ratio (CBR)

A penetration test for evaluation of the mechanical strength of road subgrades and base courses. It was developed by the California Department of Transportation before World War II.

The test is performed by measuring the pressure required to penetrate a soil sample with a plunger of standard area. The measured pressure is then divided by the pressure required to achieve an equal penetration on a standard crushed rock material.

The CBR test is described in ASTM Standards D1883-05 and D4429 and AASHTO T193. The CBR rating was developed for measuring the load-bearing capacity of soils used for building roads. The CBR can also be used for measuring the load-bearing capacity of unimproved airstrips or for soils under paved airstrips. The harder the surface, the higher the CBR rating.

Typical CBR Value

Description

≤5

OL Fine Grained Soil

≤5

OH Fine Grained Soil

≤10

MH Fine Grained Soil

≤15

ML Fine Grained Soil

≤15

CL Fine Grained Soil

≤15

CH Fine Grained Soil

1-5

Organic Soils (OH, OL, PT)

3-10

Clay Soils (CL, CH)

3-15

Silty Soils (ML, MH)

5-20

SC Course Grained Soil

5-40

Sandy Soils (SW, SP, SM, SC)

10-40

SP Course Grained Soil

10-40

SM Course Grained Soil

20-40

GC Course Grained Soil

20-40

SW Course Grained Soil

20-60

GM Course Grained Soil

20-100

Crushed Stone (GW, GP, GM)

30-60

GP Course Grained Soil

40-80

GW Course-Grained Soil

100

Crushed California limestone, the standard material for this test.

Certificate of Analysis (COA)

Legally binding document reports that certify the test results of a product.

Coarse Dust Particles

Particles between 2.5 and 10 micrometers in diameter are referred to as "coarse." Sources of coarse particles include crushing or grinding operations, and dust stirred up by vehicles traveling on roads.

D

Decomposed Granite

A natural landscaping stone available in many colors that has been weathered and fractured into tiny particles. Decomposed granite or DG is often used as a surface course on walking paths, low volume roads and parking lots as well as on slopes to minimize water erosion.

DG Stabilizer

A soil stabilization compound (e.g. Soiltac) mixed with decomposed granite (DG) to bond, restrict, cohere and restrain the natural stone’s particles.  A DG stabilizer in often used to solidify or create a surface crust on decomposed granite trails, roads and parking lots to increase load bearing capacity, control dust and prevent water erosion.

Dust Control

The process of inhibiting harmful, fine, dry powder (dust) consisting of tiny particles of earth or waste from being suspended into the air.  

Dust Control Polymer

A type of dust suppressant compound that is comprised of many repeated subunits, known as monomers. Polymers, both natural and synthetic (e.g. Soiltac), are created via polymerization of many monomers. Although polymer types have a diverse and broad range of properties, overall, their consequently large molecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form films and semi-crystalline structures rather than crystals.  The adhesive and coating properties of polymers are beneficial to suppressing fine particulates to control dust. 

Dust Suppression

The process of inhibiting harmful, fine, dry powder (dust) consisting of tiny particles of earth or waste from being suspended into the air with chemical additives (e.g. Soiltac or Durasoil).

Dwell time

The time it takes for a topically applied liquid dust suppressant to fully and completely penetrate into the ground (soil or aggregate). Initially, the lighter air is displaced from the ground’s voids as gravity draws the liquid down into the ground. Ultimately, the air voids return as the liquid continues to penetrate and coat the ground’s particles. Dwell time is primarily a function of the permeability of the ground, the viscosity of the liquid dust suppressant and the insitu moisture content of the ground.

E

Expeditionary

A military classification for products that do not require additional non-standard or specialized equipment in order to be utilized. Expeditionary products must rely on standard issue equipment that is locally available in the operational theater. Expeditionary products are intended to minimize logistical footprints and expedite usage.

F

Feedstock Supply

A raw material or feedstock is the basic material from which goods, finished products or intermediate materials (that are themselves feedstock for finished products) are manufactured or made. As feedstock, the term connotes it is a bottleneck asset critical to the production of other products. For example, crude oil is a feedstock raw material providing finished products in the fuel, plastic, industrial chemical and pharmaceutical industries. The term 'Raw material' is used to denote material is in an unprocessed or minimally processed state; e.g., raw latex, coal, iron ore, logs, crude oil, air or seawater.

Fine particles (PM2.5)

Particles less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter are called "fine" particles. These particles are so small they can be detected only with an electron microscope. Sources of fine particles include all types of combustion, including motor vehicles, power plants, residential wood burning, forest fires, agricultural burning, and some industrial processes.

FOD control

Foreign Object Debris (FOD) Control is the process of preventing earthen object (soil, gravel, rocks, etc.) that do not belong in or near airplanes from causing injury to airport or airline personnel and damage airplanes (Foreign Object Damage).

Frost Heave

Frost heaving (or a frost heave) results from ice forming beneath the surface of soil during freezing conditions. The ice grows in the direction of heat loss (vertically toward the surface), starting at the freezing front or boundary in the soil. It requires a water supply to keep feeding the ice crystal growth; and the growing ice is restrained by overlying soil, which applies a load that limits its vertical growth and promotes the formation of a lens-shaped area of ice within the soil. Yet the force of one or more growing ice lenses is sufficient to lift a layer of soil, as much as 30 cm or more. The soil through which water passes to feed the formation of ice lenses must be sufficiently porous to allow capillary action, yet not so porous as to break capillary continuity. Such soil is referred to as "frost susceptible." The growth of ice lenses continually consumes the rising water at the freezing front. Differential frost heaving can crack pavements and contributes to springtime pothole formation.

Fugitive Dust

A type of nonpoint source air pollution comprised of small airborne particles that do not originate from a specific point such as a gravel quarry or smoke stack.  Fugitive dust is generated primarily by wind action and human activities including traffic over unpaved dirt roads, construction activities and land development.  

G

Gravel Binder

A soil stabilization compound (e.g. Soiltac) that is mixed with Non-plastic soil particles or stones ranging in size from 0.19”/4.8mm (fine gravel) to 3”/75mm (coarse gravel) to increase the gravel’s compressive, tensile and shear strength while improving load bearing capacity and durability.

Gravel Stabilizer

A soil stabilization compound (e.g. Soiltac) that is mixed with Non-plastic soil particles or stones ranging in size from 0.19”/4.8mm (fine gravel) to 3”/75mm (coarse gravel) to increase the gravel’s compressive, tensile and shear strength while improving load bearing capacity and durability.

J

Joint Statement of Work (JSOW)

A formal document that captures and defines the work activities, deliverables, and timeline a vendor must execute in performance of specified work for a client. The JSOW usually includes detailed requirements and pricing, with standard regulatory and governance terms and conditions. A JSOW differs from a Statement of Work (SOW) because it is collaboratively developed by both the vendor and the client rather than just the vendor.

K

Kopp-Etchells Effect

This effect occurs when the sand and dust particles kicked up from the descent of a helicopter into the air clash with the fast-moving, metal helicopter blades. The blades are covered with an abrasion strip of titanium or nickel that is meant to protect the blades from wear and tear. However, sand is harder than this material, so when the two meet as the helicopter blades cut through the air, creating a halo of sparks around the helicopter.

M

MAG Spec(s)

Maricopa Association of Governments (MAG) develops and publishes specifications and details for public works construction for Maricopa County Arizona.

MDD

The maximum dry density (MDD) of a soil or aggregate is obtained from the peak point of the compaction curve (highest density) and its corresponding moisture content, also known as the optimal moisture content (OMC).

MSHA

The Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor which administers the provisions of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 (Mine Act) to enforce compliance with mandatory safety and health standards as a means to eliminate fatal accidents, to reduce the frequency and severity of nonfatal accidents, to minimize health hazards, and to promote improved safety and health conditions in the nation's mines. MSHA carries out the mandates of the Mine Act at all mining and mineral processing operations in the United States, regardless of size, number of employees, commodity mined, or method of extraction.

O

OMC

The Proctor compaction test is a laboratory method of experimentally determining the optimal moisture content (OMC) at which a given soil type will become most dense and achieve its maximum dry density. The maximum dry density is obtained from the peak point of the compaction curve and its corresponding moisture content, also known as the optimal moisture content.

P

PAH

Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), also known as poly-aromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, are fused aromatic rings and do not contain heteroatoms or carry substituents. PAHs occur in oil, coal, and tar deposits, and are produced as byproducts of fuel burning. They are potent atmospheric pollutants. Some compounds have been identified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic.

Paraffin

In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin, is a saturated hydrocarbon. Alkanes consist only of hydrogen and carbon atoms and all bonds are single bonds. All alkanes are colorless and odorless.

Particulate Matter (PM)

Particle pollution (also known as "particulate matter") in the air includes a mixture of solids and liquid droplets. Some particles are emitted directly; others are formed in the atmosphere when other pollutants react. Particles come in a wide range of sizes. Those less than 10 micrometers in diameter (PM10) are so small that they can get into the lungs, potentially causing serious health problems. Ten micrometers is smaller than the width of a single human hair. 

Permeability

The capability of a soil or aggregate to permit the flow of fluids through its pore spaces (air voids).

Polyolefin

Any of a class of synthetic resins prepared by the polymerization of olefins (hydrocarbons).

Pour Point

The pour point of a liquid is the temperature at which it becomes semi solid and loses its flow characteristics.

R

RED HORSE

Rapid Expeditionary Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineers (RED HORSE) squadrons are the United States Air Force's heavy-construction units. Their capabilities are similar to those of the U.S. Navy Seabees and U.S. Army heavy-construction organizations.

Road Dust Abatement

The process of inhibiting and suppressing harmful, fine, dry powder (dust) consisting of tiny particles of a road surface material (e.g. clay, sand, dirt and gravel particles) from being suspended into the air with chemical additives (e.g. Soiltac or Durasoil).

Runway Stabilizer

A compound (e.g. Soiltac) that is mixed with in-situ soil on an unimproved airfield runway to increase the runway’s compressive, tensile and shear strength while improving load bearing capacity and durability.  Runway stabilizers are often used for rapid airfield construction in remote austere locations where traditional runway materials (asphalt and concrete pavements) are unavailable or inaccessible.  The use of runway stabilizers inhibits Foreign Object Debris (FOD) and improves safety for both take-offs and landings while extending the useful life of the runway.   

S

SDS

The U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Hazard Communication Standard requires chemical manufacturers, distributors, or importers to provide Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) (formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets or MSDSs) to communicate the hazards of hazardous chemical products. SDSs are in a uniform format and include section numbers, headings and associated information under the sections below: 1. Identification includes product identifier; manufacturer or distributor name, address, phone number; emergency phone number; recommended use; restrictions on use. 2. Hazard(s) identification includes all hazards regarding the chemical; required label elements. 3. Composition/information on ingredients includes information on chemical ingredients; trade secret claims. 4. First-aid measures includes important symptoms/ effects, acute, delayed; required treatment. 5. Fire-fighting measures lists suitable extinguishing techniques, equipment; chemical hazards from fire. 6. Accidental release measures lists emergency procedures; protective equipment; proper methods of containment and cleanup. 7. Handling and storage lists precautions for safe handling and storage, including incompatibilities. 8. Exposure controls/personal protection lists OSHA's Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs); Threshold Limit Values (TLVs); appropriate engineering controls; personal protective equipment (PPE). 9. Physical and chemical properties lists the chemical's characteristics. 10. Stability and reactivity lists chemical stability and possibility of hazardous reactions. 11. Toxicological information includes routes of exposure; related symptoms, acute and chronic effects; numerical measures of toxicity. 12. Ecological information* 13. Disposal considerations* 14. Transport information* 15. Regulatory information* 16. Other information, includes the date of preparation or last revision.

Soil Binder

A soil stabilization compound (e.g. Soiltac) that bonds, restricts, coheres or restrains soil particles. Binding agents are often used to control dust and erosion, prevent migration of soil fines or serve as a surface wear course for unpaved roads.

Soil Binding Agent

A soil stabilization compound (e.g. Soiltac) that bonds, restricts, coheres or restrains soil particles. Soil binding agents are often used to control dust and erosion, prevent migration of soil fines or serve as a surface wear course for unpaved roads.

Soil Cement

A construction material made of a mixture of natural soil, portland cement and water. It form a semi-rigid durable material with good compressive and shear strength but is very brittle with very low tensile strength and is therefore prone to forming cracks.  Soil cement is often used for pipe bedding, slope protection and in road construction as a sub-base layer reinforcing and protecting he subgrade.  Other names may include cement-modified soils (CMS), soil-cement base (SCB), and cement-treated base (CTB).

Soil Hardener

A soil stabilization compound (e.g. Soiltac) that physically bonds and adheres soil particles together to increase their cohesive strength. Soil hardeners are often used to create a surface crust to control dust and erosion or to solidify unstable roads to increase their weight bearing capacity under vehicle traffic.

Soil Stabilization

The process of modifying soil to increase the soil’s compressive, tensile and shear strength while improving load bearing capacity and durability.

Soil Stabilizer

A compound (e.g. Soiltac) that is mixed with in-situ soil to increase the soil’s compressive, tensile and shear strength while improving load bearing capacity and durability.

Soil Surfactant

A chemical additive wetting agent, namely a surface-active agent that reduces the surface tension of water to allow water to penetrate the surface of soil more rapidly. 

Surface Tension

Surface tension is a contractive tendency of the surface of a liquid that allows it to resist an external force. Surface tension is exposed, for example, any time an object or insect (e.g. water striders) that is denser than water is able to float or run along the water surface. At liquid-air interfaces, surface tension results from the greater attraction of water molecules to each other (due to cohesion) than to air (due to adhesion). The net effect is an inward force at its surface that causes water to behave as if its surface were covered with a stretched elastic membrane. Because of the relatively high attraction of water molecules for each other, water has a high surface tension compared to that of most other liquids. Surface tension is an important factor in the phenomenon of capillarity.

SWPPP

A Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is a site-specific document or collection of documents that identifies the potential sources of stormwater pollution, describes stormwater control measures, such as BMPs, to reduce or eliminate the identified pollutants, and that also identifies procedures operators will implement to comply with specific permit conditions. A SWPPP can be provided for a number of circumstances, but the most common is to address stormwater pollutants during construction activities and during operation of industrial activities.

T

TOP

Tall Oil Pitch (TOP) is a semi-solid, dark brown and sticky substance at ambient temperature. TOP is obtained from the black liquor of alkaline digestion of coniferous wood, most notably the kraft wood pulping process. The black liquor is typically concentrated and settled to yield soap skimmings that contain sodium salts of fatty acids, sodium salts of resin acids and unsaponifiables.

U

USCS

The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is a soil classification system used in engineering and geology to describe the texture and grain size of a soil. The classification system can be applied to most unconsolidated materials, and is represented by a two-letter symbol.

W

Wetting agent

A chemical additive, namely a surface-active agent (surfactant) that reduces the surface tension of water.  Lower water surface tension allows water to penetrate surfaces such as soil, sand and clay more rapidly. Alternatively, a wetting agent can include chemical additives (e.g. Durasoil) that behave similar to water by coating “wetting” soil particles and agglomerate fine particulates to suppress dust often for long-term use.