Stabilization of Silty-Sand with Nontraditional Additives

By Rosa L. Santoni, Jeb S. Tingle, Steve L. Webster
2012-11-29
US Army Corps of Engineers; Engineer Research and Development Center

Objectives:

  • Screen off-the-shelf nontraditional stabilizers
  • Determine the benefits for SM soils

Approach:

  • Develop knowledge base on stabilizers
  • Laboratory investigation
  • Performance capabilities and guidance criteria

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Non-Traditional Stabilizers

  • Acids
  • Enzymes
  • Lignofulfonates
  • Polymers
  • Petroleum Emulsions
  • Tree Resin

Non-Traditional Stabilizers

  • Cement
  • Asphalt
  • Lime

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Table - Worldwide Soil Types

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Graph - Particle Distribution Silty Sand (SM)

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Chart - Experiment Design

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Photographs - Specimen Preparation (Including SM Soil Preparation, Additive Preparation, Soil-Additive Mixing, Sample Molding, Sample Compaction and Sample Curing)

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Photographs – Laboratory Test (Including Dry Test, Wet Test, UC Test)

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Graph – Effect of Stabilizer Type on Unconfined Compressive Stress - 1

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Graph – Effect of Stabilizer Type on Unconfined Compressive Stress - 2

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Graph – Effect of Stabilizer Type on Unconfined Compressive Stress - 3

Effect of Wet and Dry Conditions

Disintegration

  • Loss UC strength
  • Alter cross section area

Waterproofing

  • Prevent loss of fines
  • Potential for dust control

Poor Performers

  • Enzymes
  • Acid 1
  • Lignosulfonate 2

Excellent Performers

  • Polymers
  • Cement

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Photographs – Effect of Wet and Dry Conditions

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Graph – Effect of Additive Quantities on Unconfined Compressive Stress - 1

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Graph – Effect of Additive Quantities on Unconfined Compressive Stress - 2

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Graph – Effect of Curing Time on Unconfined Compressive Stress

 

Repeatability of tests

Samples

  • Wet Condition – 3 samples
  • Dry Condition – 3 samples

Variability

  • Height – 2.54 to 5.08 mm
  • Water Content – 0 to 0.5 %
  • Dry Density – 0-19 kg/m3
  • UC Strength – 0-110.3 kPa

CONCLUSIONS

  • Polymers and cement excellent stabilizers
  • Waterproofing potential
    • Petroleum Emulsion 1
    • Tree Resin 1
    • Lignosulfonate 1
    • Optimum additive quantity
      • Enzymes < 1
      • Lignosulfonates – 5%
      • Petroleum Emulsion – 2%
      • Polymers – 2.5 to 5%
      • Tree Resin – 9%
      • Nontraditional stabilizers gain strength quicker 

Recommendations

  • Evaluate long-term performance
  • Conduct field condition and traffic loading
  • Establish stabilization mechanisms
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