SFO Intl Airpt A&E Standards - Airfield Civil - Earthwork Version 2.0

Jim Ogren; N. King
2012-12-01
San Francisco International Airport

A&E Standards

Airfield Civil − Earthwork

Division 31 − Earthwork

 

Version 2.0 | SEP Subgroup 3.1 |   December 2017

 

PURPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT

PREFACE

 

The intent of this document is to disseminate the San Francisco International Airport’s (SFO’s or Airport’s) expectations regarding the information presented to designers, engineers, general contractors and other industry specialists. The material provided in the following sections includes the minimal requirements, general information, design criteria, guide specifications and details for Airfield Civil - Earthwork installed at SFO. While  this document addresses major areas of concern to SFO, it is not an all-inclusive document.

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HOW TO USE THIS DOCUMENT

 

This document should be used as a resource for the development of project specific design documents including drawings, details and specifications. It is the responsibility of the design, engineering and construction professionals to adhere to all codes and regulations related to the content presented.

 

SCOPE

 

This section contains the Standards and Criteria for Airfield Civil - Earthwork. Any questions or concerns regarding the items or equals specified must be submitted to the Standards Committee in writing. All final decisions regarding products shall be made at the Airport’s discretion. If the Engineer of Record presents items that are not specified or named equals, they must be brought to the Standards Committee for evaluation of those products.

 

GENERAL INFORMATION

 

All work in this section must comply with Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) Advisory Circular AC 150/5370 - 10G – Standards for Specifying Construction of Airports, or latest equivalent.

 

DRAWING REQUIREMENTS

 

  1. All design disciplines including the  architectural/engineering  sub-consultants  and  the  trade  bid package subcontractors shall prepare documents using BIM in compliance with the Airport’s standards unless waived by the Airport Project Manager.
    1. When BIM models may not be applicable, (for example, tasks with underground infrastructure beyond a building footprint), Civil 3D shall be used to model utilities and applicable infrastructure.
    2. Contractor shall utilize the BIM or Civil 3D model for preparation of the Record and As-Built documents.
    3. Documents and plans submitted to SFO shall be searchable using the Bluebeam Revu software and Optical Character Recognition (OCR) enabled PDFs. This includes, but is not limited to text and symbols. The document shall also provide the capability to turn layers on and off.

 

 

Version

Publish Date

Revisions

Reviewed By

2.0

December 2017

Content edits, formatting

Jim Ogren, N. King

1.0

June 2015

---

SFO Civil Engineering

 


Table of Contents

 

PREFACE                                                                                                                                                                                     2

SECTION 02 01 00 – GENERAL SITE WORK                                                                                                                           4

SECTION 02 21 13.16 – STAINLESS STEEL ROD SURVEY MONUMENT

SECTION 02 22 26 – POTHOLING                                                                                                                                         16

SECTION 02 41 19 – SURFACE PREPARATION                                                                                                                   19

FAA ITEM P-101 SURFACE PREPARATION                                                                                                                  20

SECTION 02 41 26 – VINYL SEAWALL DEMOLITION                                                                                                         24

SECTION 02 41 29 – JET BLAST DEFLECTOR DEMOLITION                                                                                              26

SECTION 02 61 00 – DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED SOIL, SLUDGE, AND WATER                                                      28

SECTION 02 61 13 – EXCAVATION AND REMOVAL OF CONTAMINATED SOIL, SLUDGE, AND WATER                  35

SECTION 06 10 10 – ROUGH CARPENTRY                                                                                                                           48

SECTION 31 11 00 – CLEARING AND GRUBBING                                                                                                               54

FAA ITEM P-151 CLEARING AND GRUBBING                                                                                                             54

SECTION 31 23 00 – EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT                                                                                                  57

FAA ITEM P– 152 EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT                                                                                              58

SECTION 31 23 19 – DEWATERING                                                                                                                                      64

SECTION 31 23 23 – BACKFILL AND GEOTEXTILES                                                                                                            70

SECTION 31 25 00 – EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL                                                                                   81

SECTION 31 32 16.16 – SOIL STABILIZATION AND DUST CONTROL                                                                               86

SECTION 31 40 00 – SHORING AND BRACING                                                                                                                   91

SECTION 31 41 16.15 – VINYL SHEET PILING                                                                                                                     94

SECTION 31 50 00 – EXCAVATION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PITS                                                                                     96

SECTION 31 62 19 – TIMBER PILES                                                                                                                                    100

SECTION 31 63 29 – DRILLED CONCRETE PIERS AND SHAFTS                                                                                      107

SECTION 33 05 23.13 – HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING                                                                                    110

APPENDIX A – MASTER LIST OF MANUFACTURERS                                                                                                   116

 

SECTION 02 01 00 – GENERAL SITE WORK

PART 1 – GENERAL

 

1.1          SUMMARY

 

  1. The work to be performed under this section includes all labor, materials, and services to: furnish, install, test, and place in operation the complete systems as specified herein, and as shown on the drawings.

 

1.2          RELATED SECTIONS

 

  1. Specification 02 25 00 – Underground Utilities Locating

 

  1. Specification 31 23 19 – Dewatering

 

  1. Specification 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment

 

  1. Specification 31 23 23 – Backfill

 

  1. Specification 31 40 00 – Shoring and Bracing

 

  1. Specification 33 05 05.01 – CSLM for Abandoned Underground Pipes

 

1.3          REFERENCES

 

  1. The most recent version published specifications, standards, tests and recommended methods of the following trade, industry or governmental organizations apply to the work in Section 02 01 00:
    1. AUUDM – Airport Underground Utility Design Manual
    2. NEMA – National Electric Manufacturer’s Association
    3. ANSI – American National Standards Institute
    4. ASME – American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    5. NFPA – National Fire Protection Agency
    6. ARI – Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
    7. UL – Underwriters Laboratories
    8. SMACNA – Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors’ National Association
    9. UPC – Uniform Plumbing Code
    10. UMC – Uniform Mechanical Code
    11. UBC – Uniform Building Code
    12. NEBB – National Environmental Balancing Bureau
      1. CBC – California Building Code
      2. ASTM – American Society for Testing and Materials
      3. AASHTO – American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
      4. San Francisco International Airport Rules and Regulations/Airport Building Regulations
      5. Geotechnical Report by AGS.

 

 

1.4          PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

 

  1. The specifications and drawings are intended to provide the information for the purchase or fabrication, installation, and operational testing of the equipment and mechanical systems.

 

  1. Equipment and systems specified herein shall be suitable for installation within the overall  dimensional limits shown on the applicable drawings. The equipment and systems shall be complete and operable in every respect with all components and accessories necessary for meeting the applicable performance, and environmental and safety requirements. Equipment, systems and components thereof, shall be new, of first quality, and the standard product of one manufacturer unless otherwise specified.

 

1.5          EXAMINATION OF SITE

 

  1. Data in these specifications and on the drawings are as accurate as possible, but are not guaranteed. The contractor shall verify locations, levels, distances and features that may affect the work. No allowance will be made on his behalf for any extra expense resulting from failure or neglect in determining the conditions under which work is to be performed.

 

1.6          MANUFACTURER'S INSTRUCTIONS

 

  1. Where it is required in the specifications that materials, products, processes, equipment or the like be installed or applied in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, directions, or specifications, it  shall be construed to mean that said application or installation shall be in strict accordance with the current printed instructions furnished by the manufacturer of the material concerned for use under conditions similar to those at the job site.

 

1.7          MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP

 

  1. Finished work shall be plumb, level, well-anchored, smooth, and uniform, with no unsightly or hazardous protrusions, burrs, or sharp edges and shall have provision for expansion and contraction.

 

  1. Finished surfaces shall be free from bubbles, streaks, peeling, pits, dents, cracks, stains, chips, or excess sealant. Operating hardware and other moving devices shall be secured and adjusted to operate freely and smoothly.

 

  1. Wherever cutting of existing surfaces is required, perform that work to minimize damage to surrounding surfaces. Restore all surfaces to match adjoining undisturbed areas.

 

  1. Employ only experienced, competent, and properly trained workers.

 

 

1.8          AS-BUILT DRAWINGS

  1. See Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to Contract Closeout and Project Record Documents requirements.

 

  1. No progress payment will be processed prior to Project manager receiving all requested, acceptable updated as-built drawings from the contractor.

 

  1. No final payment will be made without the Engineer-approved as-built drawings and documentation.

 

1.9          SUBMITTALS

 

  1. Individual Equipment Inventory Sheet shall be submitted for all equipment

 

  1. Underground Utility Report form shall be submitted for all utilities encountered that are not shown   on the plans. The location and depth of any utilities that are shown on the drawing shall be updated  on the contract As-Built drawings.

 

PART 2 – MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

 

2.1          UNDERGROUND UTILITY DETECTION TAPE

 

  1. Install colored warning tape above underground utility lines, which are shown on the drawings. The Colored tape shall be non-detectable, 6" wide, installed 6" above the utility, colored and labeled as noted:

 

Utility

Color of Tape

Label

Electrical

Red

Buried Electrical Duct

Natural Gas

Yellow

Buried Gas Pipeline

Jet Fuel/Oil

Yellow

Buried Jet Fuel/Oil Pipeline

Telephone

Orange

Buried Telephone Duct

Water

Blue

Buried Water Pipeline

Sewer

Green

Buried Sewer Pipeline

Industrial Waste

Green

Buried Industrial Waste Pipeline

Drainage

Green

Buried Drainage Pipeline

 

2.2          STAINLESS STEEL BOLTS

  1. The contractor shall use Stainless Steel 316 bolts for all underground applications. There are no exceptions.

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          EXISTING UTILITIES

  1. The known existing utilities are shown on the drawings in their approximate location and the contractor shall exercise care in avoiding damage to these facilities, as the contractor will be held responsible for their repair if damaged. There is no guarantee that all utilities or obstructions are shown or that locations indicated are accurate.
  2. The contractor shall exercise extreme caution in operating heavy equipment over all existing utilities. All leaks or breaks caused by the contractor's operations shall immediately be repaired at no extra cost to the City. The contractor shall control the banks of all excavated areas as is necessary to prevent movement of soil and in areas supporting existing foundations, slabs, pole lines, pipelines or other structures. If, as a result of the excavation or through fault or neglect of the contractor, the earth or ground under or around such foundations, slabs, pole lines, pipelines or other structure slips or is otherwise disturbed, corrective measures shall be taken as directed by the Engineer and at the expense of the contractor. The location of existing utilities on the drawings does not excuse the contractor from liability for damage to any existing utilities.
  3. If interference occurs at locations other than shown on the plans, the contractor shall notify the Engineer, and a method for correcting said interference shall be supplied by the Engineer.
  4. Written request for utility service shutdown shall be submitted to the Engineer for approval three (3) working days prior to actual work. All shutdown operations of existing utility systems and equipment, except that under exclusive control of a single tenant, shall be performed by or under supervision of Airport personnel.
  5. Planned utility service shutdowns shall be accomplished during periods of minimum use. In some  cases this may require weekend work, at no additional cost to the City. The contractor shall program his work so that service will be restored in the minimum possible time, and shall cooperate with City  in reducing shutdowns of utility systems to a minimum.

 

3.2          ASPHALT PAVEMENT REMOVAL

  1. The contractor may use any method of cutting the edges of trenches which will minimize damage to adjacent pavement. However, prior to repaving, the edges of all trenches shall be sawed on straight lines between angle points. Broken edges of pavement and pavement edges around manholes and other appurtenances shall be saw-trimmed in a neat rectangular shape and primed prior to final repaving.

3.3          SHORING

  1. The sides of all excavations shall be supported in the manner set forth in the rules, orders and regulations prescribed by the Division of Industrial Safety of the State of California (Cal/OSHA). Submit shoring design to the Engineer for approval. See Specification 31 41 00 – Shoring and Bracing

3.4          WATER CONTROL

  1. See Specification 31 23 19 – Dewatering

3.5          DISPOSITION OF EXCAVATED MATERIAL

  1. When approved by the Airport Engineer, the excavated material may be placed carefully alongside of the trench, or at a designated area, and kept trimmed up so as to cause as little inconvenience as possible to public travel and the normal use of adjacent properties. Free access shall be provided to   all fire hydrants, valves, meters, and private drives and means shall be provided whereby storm and wastewater can flow uninterrupted.
  2. All material excavated and not required for backfilling, shall be immediately removed and disposed of off the site of the work and in a manner satisfactory to the Airport Engineer.
  3. The Engineer of Record shall determine whether or not, excavated material will be suitable for backfill. Unsuitable excavated material shall be disposed of off the Airport property by the contractor. New imported backfill sand or screened gravel shall be used to replace the unsuitable excavated material.

 

3.6          EXCAVATION FOR PIPING AND RELATED APPURTENANCES

  1. All excavation for piping and related appurtenances shall be done to the OD of the pipe plus 12-inch width minimum on each side and 36-inch mini mum cover. Excavation shall be made to such width outside the lines of piping and appurtenances to be constructed as may be required for proper working methods, the erection of forms and protection of the work.
  2. Excavation for pipe concrete thrust blocks shall be trimmed to undisturbed earth and  to dimensions  as required prior to placing concrete.

3.7          STRIPPING

  1. All vegetable matter, such as grass, weeds, shrubs, etc., shall be stripped or otherwise removed from all areas prior to excavation and backfill work.

3.8          LANDSCAPE REPLACEMENT

  1. Any landscape removed or damaged by the contractor's operations shall be replaced as required to match existing conditions.

3.9          CURB/SIDEWALK REPLACEMENT

  1. Any curbs and/or sidewalks removed or damaged by the contractor's operations shall be replaced as required to match existing conditions.

3.10       INSPECTION OF EXCAVATION

  1. The contractor shall notify the Airport when excavation for compacted fill or structure is complete and no forms, reinforcing steel, concrete, or pipe shall be placed until the excavation has been inspected by the Engineer.

3.11       BACKFILL FOR PIPING AND APPURTENANCES

  1. Backfill material shall consist of suitable site excavated material, or imported material, free from vegetable matter, rubbish or other substances which will prevent compaction of the fill. As far as practicable, depending on the type of excavating equipment used, the excavated material suitable for backfilling shall be deposited in separate piles from that which is unsuitable for use as backfill. The fill shall be placed in 8-inch uniform layers around the pipe before compaction. Water shall be removed from or added to backfill as necessary to achieve optimum moisture content for 90% density of compaction as established by laboratory tests made in accordance with requirements of ASTM D 1557, Method C except that the upper 3 feet of the backfill below subgrade or ground surface shall be compacted to not less than 95% density, provided that if the Engineer determines that the nature of the ground in which the trench lies precludes compaction of the backfill to the specified density, the backfill shall be compacted to the maximum practical density. See Division 31 specification sections    in the contract pertaining to Backfill and the Geotechnical Report.

3.12       ROADWAY REPAVING

  1. Where existing pavement is cut, removed or disturbed due to the contractor's operations it shall be repaired or replaced with a like type, but in no event less than the following:
    1. Replace roadway and shoulder bituminous pavement cut and removed during installation of piping system as specified in the contract drawings.

 

Thickness of

Bituminous Surface Course

Maximum Thickness

of One Lift

Maximum Size

of Aggregate

Feathering

3/8 or 1/2 inches

1-1/2 inches

1 lift

3/4 inches

2 inches

1 lift

1 inch

3 inches

1 lift

1 inch

4 inches

2 inches

1 inch

5 inches or more

3 inches

1 inch

 

  1. The final lift of bituminous surface shall be completed during daylight hours and at the proper temperature except when otherwise directed by the Engineer.
  2. Width and finished grade elevations of pavement replacement shall match existing adjacent pavement.
  3. All painted striping and markings damaged or removed by the contractor's operations shall be replaced to match existing.

3.13       UNDERGROND UTILITIES

  1. All underground utilities that are encountered and are not shown on the drawings shall be documented in the attached “Underground Utility Report” form. This report shall be submitted to the Airport as soon as possible after encountering the unknown utility.

3.14       ABANDONED PIPES

  1. Any underground piping that is encountered and is determined to be abandoned  by  Airport  Engineers shall be slurry sealed. See Specification 33 05 05.01 – CLSM for Abandoned Underground Pipes.

PART 4 – TESTING AND START-UP

4.1          INSPECTING AND TESTING

  1. The mechanical installation shall be inspected and tested to insure safety to building occupants, operating personnel, conformity to Code authorities and Contract Documents. The contractor shall follow recognized safety procedures and techniques during testing of all equipment to ensure employee safety.
  2. Special Inspector and BICE must be present during inspection and testing.

4.2          PERFORMANCE

  1. After completion of testing and adjustment, operate the different systems and equipment under normal working conditions for 2 days of 8 hours and show specified performance. If, in the opinion of the Owner, performance of equipment or system is not in accordance with Specifications or submitted data, alter or replace equipment at no increase in Contract Price. Contractor at its option may order tests from an independent, approved laboratory to prove compliance. All such tests shall be at no increase in Contract Price.

4.3          CERTIFICATION

  1. At completion of work, provide written certification that all systems are functioning properly without defects.

 

4.4          FIELD TESTS

  1. As an exception to requirements that may be stated elsewhere in the contract the Engineer shall be given 5 working days’ notice prior to each test.

4.5          TESTING EQUIPMENT

  1. The testing equipment and devices used in performing the required tests shall have a calibration sticker affixed to the device stating the date when calibrated, date due for re-calibration, and the signature of the individual who did the calibrations. In addition to the sticker, a certificate shall accompany the testing equipment stating to which standards the device was calibrated to, the name of the calibrating agency, the name and signature of the calibrating individual. The certificate shall  also contain the brand name and the serial number of the devices.

END OF SECTION 02 01 00

 

SAN FRANCISCO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT UNDERGROUND UTILITY REPORT

Date:          /         /         Reported By:                                                 Company:              Phone: Location (Sketch on Back):

Type of Utility:            Industrial Waste                   Electrical Duct Bank            Water                     Sewer Telephone             Drainage                Gas          Fuel        Unknown

Utility Asset:                Forced Pipeline                   Anode Test Station              Manhole                Catch Basin Gravity Pipeline                   Valve                      Cleanout                Other:

Depth or Invert El.:                                              Linear Feet of Utility Exposed: Coordinates (SFIA B Or Other):

       
       


Size:  in.                                 Wall Thickness: in. Material:

Soil Type:                     Bay Mud                Rock       Sandy Clay             Contamination Hard Clay               Sand       Other:

Utility Condition:

External - Rust:           None                      Light       Heavy                     N/A  Photo:          YES Pitting:          None                      Light       Heavy                     N/A         NO

Pit Depth (Max): Concrete Condition:

 
   

 

Internal - Rust:

None

Light

Heavy

 

N/A

Video:

YES

Inspection:

Clean

Dirty

Oily

N/A

NO

 

 

Condition:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coating:


None (Bare)


Double Wrap


Concrete - Color:

 

Single Wrap Wrap Condition:


Poly Bag Excellent


Other:

Fair         Poor:

 

Cathodic Protection:                 NO          YES (please explain):

BREAK REPORT or COMMENTS: (Cause or probable cause)

 

 

 

REPAIR REPORT or STATUS: (Who? When? How? Duration?) FOR INTERNAL USE ONLY

 

SECTION 02 21 13.16 – STAINLESS STEEL ROD SURVEY MONUMENT

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. Description of Work: Stainless Steel Rod Survey Monument required for Secondary Control to be established in the project area as shown on the Drawings.

1.2          RELATED SECTIONS:

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to survey control and monuments.
  2. Section 03 30 00 – Structural Portland Cement Concrete FAA Item P-610.

1.3          REFERENCE STANDARDS

  1. NOAA Manual NOS NGS 1

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. FAA AC 150/5300-18B - General Guidance and Specification for Submission of Aeronautical Surveys to NFS: Field Data Collection and Geographic Information System (GIS).

1.5          SUBMITTALS

  1. Manufacture’s literature.
  2. Record of driving: depth of rod at refusal.

1.6          COORDINATION

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to Coordination and project conditions. PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          MANUFACTURERS

  1. Berntsen [part numbers]
    1. Rod, stainless steel, 4-foot sections [MSS91604]
    2. Rod, stainless steel, one 4 inch [M1DPA]
    3. Studs (threads), stainless steel [M13 thread]
    4. Datum point, stainless steel [MSSDP1]
    5. Spiral (fluted) rod entry point, standard [MSS12]
    6. NGS logo caps, standard, aluminum [BMAC-6]
    7. Pipe, schedule 40 PVC, 6 inches inside diameter, 2-foot length [6PVC24]
    8. Pipe, schedule 40 PVC, 1 inch) inside diameter, 3- foot length [TSS3-Y]
    9. Caps, schedule 50 PVC, (Slip-on caps centered and drilled to 0.567 inch ±0.002 [TSSEC-Y]
    10. Cement, PVC solvent [Eclectic® UV-6800]
    11. Loctite (2 oz. bottle)
    12. Grease-MIL SPEC G-10924D (B15395A, Grade 7) [Bel-Ray NO TOX AA-1-1]
    13. Fine-grained washed or play sand
    14. Surv-Kap [part numbers]
      1. Rod, stainless steel, 1 foot x 9/16 w/ lock screw installed [ER-916-1SS]
      2. Rod, stainless steel, 2 foot x 9/16 w/ lock screw installed [ER-916-2SS]
      3. Rod, stainless steel, 3 foot x 9/16 w/ lock screw installed [ER-916-3SS]
      4. Rod, stainless steel, 4 foot x 9/16 w/ lock screw installed [ER-916-4SS] 5.       Lock screw 3/8-16 1 3/8” long [LS-108]
        1. 9/16 x 4 1/2 “ heat treated 4130 rod driving adapter [RDA-916]
        2. 3 ¼” flat plain cap w/ hole to fit 9/16 “ stainless steel [SRBH-916-3 1/4FS
        3. Cover [AC-WP]
        4. Pipe, schedule 40 PVC, 6 inches inside diameter, 2-foot length
        5. Pipe, schedule 40 PVC, 1 inch inside diameter, 3- foot length
        6. Caps, schedule 50 PVC, (Slip-on caps centered and drilled to 0.567 inch ±0.002
        7. Cement, PVC solvent [Eclectic® UV-6800]
        8. Loctite (2 oz. bottle)
        9. Grease-MIL SPEC G-10924D (B15395A, Grade 7) [Bel-Ray NO TOX AA-1-1]
        10. Fine-grained washed or play sand PART 3 – PRODUCTS

 

3.1           INSTALLATION

  1. Using the solvent cement [Eclectic UV-6800] formulated specifically for PVC, glue the aluminum logo cap [BMAC] to a 2-foot section of PVC pipe [5PVC24]. This will allow the glue to set while continuing with the following setting procedures.
  2. Glue the PVC cap with a drill hole [TSSEC-Y] on one end of the 3-foot section of schedule 40 PVC pipe 1-inch (25mm) inside diameter [TSS3]. Pump the PVC pipe full of grease. Thoroughly clean the open end of the pipe with a solvent, which will remove grease. Then glue another cap with drill hole on the remaining open end. Set aside while continuing with the next step. (*NOTE: This step can also be done in advance, prior to going into the field.)
  3. Using a power auger or post hole digger, drill or dig a hole in the ground 12 - 14 inches in diameter

 

and 43 inches deep.

  1. Attach the standard spiral (fluted) rod entry point [SS-12 point] to one end of the 4-foot section of stainless steel rod [SS-916-04] with the standard 3/8-inch stud [M-13 thread] using thread adhesive. On the opposite end, screw on a short 4 inch piece of rod [M-1 DPA] which will be used as the impact point for driving the rod. Drive this section of rod with a reciprocating driver such as a Pionjar 120, Cobra 148, Wacker BHB 25 or another machine with an equivalent driving force.
  2. Remove the short piece of rod used for driving [M1DPA] and screw in a new stud [M13 thread]. Attach another 4-foot section of rod [SS-916-04] using thread adhesive. Tighten securely (*using vise grips or pipe wrenches). Reattach the short piece of rod [M-1DPA] and drive the new section into the ground.
  3. Repeat step 6 until the rod refuses to drive further or until a driving rate of 60 seconds per foot is achieved, but not more than 90 feet. The top of the rod should terminate about 5 inches below ground surface. Carefully remove the driver [M1DPA].
  4. Insert the grease filled 3-foot section of 1-inch PVC pipe sleeve [TSS3] over the rod with the unfilled portion at the top. The rod and datum point should protrude through the sleeve about 3 inches. The sleeve should be resting at or near the bottom of the hole.
  5. Using the existing threaded rod end, install the threaded stud [M13] using thread adhesive. Install the datum point [MSSDP1] using thread adhesive. Tighten ¼ turn past finger tight. The following alternative procedure may be used with the approval of the Engineer. Cut off the top removing the tapped and threaded portion of the rod leaving about 3 inches below ground surface. The top of the rod must be shaped to a smooth rounded (hemispherical) top, using a portable grinding machine to produce a datum point. The datum point must then be center punched to provide a plumbing (centering) point OR use a compression-fit bronze cap center punched.
  6. Backfill and pack with fine-grained washed or play sand around the sleeve [TSS3] to about 20 inches below surface. Place the 6-inch PVC [6PVC24] and logo cap [BMAC] over and around the 1- inch sleeve [TSS3] and rod. The datum point [SSDP-1] should be about 3 inches below the cover of the logo cap.
  7. Continue to backfill and pack with sand inside the 6-inch PVC [6PVC24] and around the outside of the 1-inch sleeve [TSS3] and rod to about 1 inch below the top of the sleeve.
  8. Place concrete around the outside of the 6-inch PVC [6PVC24] and logo cap [BMAC], up to the top of logo cover. Trowel the concrete until a smooth neat finish is produced.
  9. Remove all debris and excess dirt to leave area in original condition. Make sure all excess grease is removed and the datum point [SSDP-1] is clean.
  10. Install a Carsonite fiberglass witness post 2 to 3 feet adjacent to and behind the installed monument [CBM6004SM110] or approved equal.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. The installation of survey monuments and all Work associated therewith shall be measured per each complete contract unit and accepted by the Contract Manager. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials and for all preparation, excavation, and for all labor, equipment, tools, and incidentals necessary to complete the installation of survey monuments.
    1. Contractor shall furnish and install survey monuments at the locations as shown on the Survey Control and New Monument Plans.

 

END OF SECTION 02 21 13.16

 

SECTION 02 22 26 – POTHOLING

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. Work Included:
    1. Exploratory excavations by potholing to verify or to discover the actual locations and the size of existing underground utilities and improvements.
    2. Potholing shall consist of excavations at the existing underground utilities within the  construction area, or locations indicated on the drawings or as directed by the Contract Manager.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to References.
  2. Section 02 25 00 – Underground Utility Locating
  3. All applicable codes, rules and regulations.
  4. San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.
  5. CAL/OSHA Standards.
  6. San Francisco International Airport Rules and Regulations/Airport Building Regulations.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. The contractor’s proposed method of potholing and schedule for potholing shall be submitted to the Contract Manager for approval, a minimum of 5 working days prior to the commencement of operation.
  2. The survey records shall be submitted to the Contract Manager within 2 working days after the completion of potholing in each area. The records shall also include dates of the potholing operations and any additional discovered information or pertinent data.
  3. Submit the specifications and capability of the equipment proposed to be used to the Contract Manager for approval, a minimum of 10 working days prior to the start of work.

1.4          QUALITY CONTROL

1.5          The contractor shall perform work in accordance with all applicable codes, rules and regulations, and the San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.

PART 2  – PRODUCTS

Not Used PART 3  – EXECUTION

3.1          EXAMINATION SUMMARY

  1. Verify the site conditions.

 

3.2          SURVEY

  1. The contractor shall use a licensed surveyor, at contractor’s expense to establish and record the coordinates, elevations and dimensions of all utilities and improvements verified or discovered by potholing.

3.3          PREPARATION

  1. The contractor shall provide the final report, as prepared under Section 02 25 00 – Underground Utility Locating, to the Contract Manager to obtain authorization before any potholing work can begin.
  2. Protect utilities from damage.
  3. Obtain information and assistance from respective utility companies.
  4. Provide measures to protect workers, passengers, vehicles, and aircraft traffic in the vicinity of work site.
  5. Be familiar with the Airport's procedures for construction, safety, emergencies, and utility shutdowns.
    1. Submit work plan, schedule, and Job Safety Procedures to Airport Contract Manager for approval, a minimum of 5 working days before start of work.
    2. File request for utility shutdown, as required, to the Contract Manager a minimum of three (3) working days before shutdown date.
    3. Comply with CAL/OSHA Standards.

3.4          EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

  1. The following alternative methods shall be utilized for potholing:
  2. Hand Digging - Hand digging is the method of excavating a pothole by manual means with hand- held, non- mechanical equipment such as a shovel.
    1. Vacuum Excavation - Vacuum excavation shall consist of air or water pressure to break up the soil and a vacuum device to collect the spoil. The contractor shall determine if air or water vacuum excavation shall be used dependent upon specific site and environmental characteristics. Soil type such as heavy clay may require water vacuum excavation. Air vacuum excavators shall be utilized if mud from water vacuum excavators cannot be disposed of properly. Air vacuum excavators shall be used if damage to utilities, such as cutting through cables, will occur with the use of water vacuum excavators.
    2. Air Vacuum - Air vacuum excavators shall utilize a high velocity air stream to penetrate, expand, and break-up the soil. The loosened particles of soil and rock shall be removed from the excavation through the use of a vacuum.
    3. Water - Water vacuum excavation systems shall excavate the pothole using high-pressure water to reduce and loosen the soil. The wet soil and mud slurry shall be removed to a spoil tank using a vacuum.

3.5          POTHOLING

  1. Contractor shall prepare a schedule for potholing utility lines and shall provide this schedule to the Contract Manager a minimum of five (5) working days prior to beginning potholing. Contractor shall not pothole any fuel line without a fuel line owner/operator representative present, unless directed otherwise by the Contract Manager.
  2. After receiving approval from Contract Manager for potholing schedule, contractor shall commence potholing to determine the actual location and elevation of all utility lines within the limits of excavations as shown on the Contract Drawings The utility lines shall be determined to be within the limits of the excavations based on the contract Drawings, on reference drawings included in the specifications, or drawings supplied by the utility owner/operators, as marked in the field by contractor and owner/operators or as indicated by surface signs. While performing the "potholing" operation, contractor shall exercise extreme care and caution so as not to damage any pipes, conduit, ductbank and directly buried cables and wires during excavation. Manual excavation may be required near the abandoned fuel lines as determined by the Contract Manager.
  3. Pothole excavations shall have surface dimensions of no more than 18 inches in diameter or 18 inch x 18 inch square, unless otherwise approved by the Contract Manager. Contractor shall backfill excavations after potholing is completed. In existing paved areas, backfill and restore to match  existing pavement.

 

3.6          REPORTING

  1. All the records shall be compiled, neatly organized, and presented to the Contract Manager. The records shall also include dates of the potholing operations and any additional discovered information or pertinent data and AutoCAD format (most recent version).
    1. The locations, elevations, and alignments of the underground utilities and pipes potholes shall be presented with identification, coordinates, all dimensions and elevations in accordance with the Airport's horizontal and vertical control systems.

3.7          BACKFILL AND RESTORATION

  1. Upon completion of potholing in each area, potholes shall be immediately backfilled and compacted  in accordance with the specifications, or restored as directed by the Contract Manager.
    1. All the existing structures or utilities damaged during potholing shall be reported to the Contract Manager and Inspector and repairs made immediately in accordance with the requirements of  General Conditions.
    2. Potholes shall be restored within 24 hours after the utility has been located. Potholes may only be left open if approved by the Contract Manager. Open potholes, where approved, shall be fenced with construction fencing 5 feet from the edge of the hole and delineated with approved barricades equipped with flashing lights.
    3. Clean up the site and remove all material and equipment immediately after the site work is completed. PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

A.    There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with the Bid Items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 02 22 26

 

SECTION 02 41 19 – SURFACE PREPARATION

PART 1 – GENERAL

 

1.1          SUMMARY

 

  1. The Work under this Section consists of providing surface preparation as shown on the Plans, as specified herein, or as directed by the Engineer.

1.2          REFERENCES

 

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with References.

 

  1. San Francisco International Airport Rules and Regulations/Airport Building Regulations.

 

  1. FAA Specification Item P-101 – Surface Preparation, and as modified herein.

 

  1. Section 32 01 16.71 – Cold Milling Asphalt Pavement.

 

1.3          SUBMITTALS

 

The contractor shall submit the following surface preparation information according to Division 01 Specification Sections associated with Submittals.

  1. Concrete and asphaltic concrete repair materials.

 

  1. Joint and crack sealing Materials.

 

  1. Paint and rubber removal method, material and equipment.

 

  1. Cold planning equipment.

 

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE Not used.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

 

2.1          MATERIALS

 

  1. Materials shall conform to FAA Specification Item P-101, and as modified herein.

 

PART 3 – EXECUTION

 

  1. The contractor shall prepare existing pavement for overlay and remove existing pavement, and other miscellaneous items in accordance with FAA Specification Item P-101, and as modified herein.
  2. For removal of existing pavement by cold milling method refer to Section 32 01 16.71 – Cold Milling Asphalt Pavement.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECFICATIONS

 

Item P-101 – Surface Preparation. PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. The method of measurement and payment for the work under this section shall be in accordance with FAA Specification Item P-101, and as modified herein.
  2. If there is no quantity shown in the bidding schedule, the work covered by this section shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation of the contractor covered under the other contract items.

 

 

FAA ITEM P-101 SURFACE PREPARATION

DESCRIPTION

 

  • 101-1.1 – This item shall consist of preparation of existing pavement surfaces for overlay, surface treatments, removal of existing pavement, and other miscellaneous items. The work shall be accomplished in accordance with these specifications and the applicable drawings.

EQUPIMENT

 

  • 101-2.1 – All equipment shall be specified here and in the following paragraphs or approved by the Engineer. The equipment shall not cause damage to the pavement to remain in place.

CONSTRUCTION

 

  • 101-3.1 – REMOVAL OF EXISTING PAVEMENT
  1. Concrete Pavement. The existing concrete pavement to be removed shall be freed from the pavement to remain by sawing through the complete depth of the slab one foot (30 cm) inside the perimeter of the final removal limits or outside the dowels, whichever is greater when the limits of removal are located on the joints. The pavement between the perimeter of the pavement removal and the saw cut shall be carefully broken up and removed using hand-held jackhammers, weighing 30 pounds (14 kg) or less, or other light-duty equipment which will not cause distress in the pavement which is to remain in place. The contractor shall have the option of sawing through the dowels at the joint, removing the pavement and installing new dowels. Where the perimeter of the removal limits is not located on the joint and there are no dowels present, then the perimeter shall be saw cut the full depth of the pavement. The pavement inside the saw cut shall be removed by methods suitable to the Engineer which will not cause distress in the pavement which is to remain in place. If the material is to be wasted on the airport site, it shall be reduced to a maximum size designated by the Engineer. The contractor’s removal operation shall not cause damage to cables, utility ducts, pipelines, or drainage structures under the pavement. Concrete slabs that are damaged by under breaking shall be removed. Any damage shall be repaired at the contractor’s expense.
  2. Asphaltic Concrete Pavement. Asphalt concrete pavement to be removed shall be cut to the full depth of the bituminous material around the perimeter of the area to be removed. The pavement shall be removed so the joint for each layer of pavement replacement is offset 1 foot (30 cm) from the joint in the preceding layer. This does not apply if the removed pavement is to be replaced with concrete or soil. If the material is to be wasted on the airport site, it shall be broken to a maximum size of 1 inches.

 

  • 101-3.2 – PREPARATION OF JOINTS AND CRACKS. Remove all vegetation and debris from cracks to a minimum depth of 1 inch (25 mm). If extensive vegetation exists treat the specific area with a concentrated solution of a water-based herbicide approved by the Engineer. Fill all cracks, ignoring hairline cracks (< 1/4 inch (6 mm) wide) with a crack sealant per ASTM D6690. Wider cracks (over 1-1/2 inch wide (38 mm)), along with soft or sunken spots, indicate that the pavement or the pavement base should be repaired or replaced as stated below. Any excess joint or crack sealer on the surface of the pavement shall also be removed from the pavement surface.
  1. Cracks and joints may be filled with a mixture of emulsified asphalt and  aggregate. The  aggregate shall consist of limestone, volcanic ash, sand, or other material that will cure to form a hard substance. The combined gradation shall be as shown in the following table.

Table 1

 

Sieve Size

Percent Passing

No. 4

100

No. 8

90-100

No. 16

65-90

No. 30

40-60

No. 50

25-42

No. 100

15-30

No. 200

10-20

 

  1. Up to 3% cement can be added to accelerate the set time. The mixture shall not contain more than 20% natural sand without approval in writing from the Engineer.
  2. The proportions of asphalt emulsion and aggregate shall be determined in the field and may be varied to facilitate construction requirements. Normally, these proportions will be approximately one part asphalt emulsion to five parts aggregate by volume. The material shall be poured or placed into the joints or cracks and compacted to form a voidless mass. The joint or crack shall be filled within 0 to 1/8 inches (0-3 mm) of the surface. Any material spilled outside the width of the joint shall be removed from the pavement surface prior to constructing the overlay. Where concrete overlays are to be constructed, only the excess joint material on the pavement surface and vegetation in the joints need to be removed.
  • 101-3.3 – REMOVAL OF PAINT AND RUBBER. All paint and rubber over 1 foot (30 cm) wide that will affect the bond of the new overlay shall be removed from the surface of the existing pavement. Chemicals, high- pressure water, heater scarifier (asphaltic concrete only), cold milling, or sandblasting may be used. Any methods used shall not cause major damage to the pavement. Major damage is defined as changing the properties of the pavement or removing pavement over 1/8 inch (3 mm) deep. If chemicals are used, they shall comply with the state’s environmental protection regulations. No material shall be deposited on the runway shoulders. All wastes shall be disposed of in areas indicated in this specification or shown on the plans. This shall not be used for removal of rubber deposits to improve skid resistance or obliterate traffic markings where a new overlay is not to be constructed.
  • 101-3.4 –CONCRETE SPALL OR FAILED ASPHALTIC CONCRETE PAVEMENT REPAIR.
  1. Repair of Concrete Spalls in Areas to be overlaid with Asphalt: The contractors shall repair all spalled concrete as shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. The perimeter of the repair shall be saw cut a minimum of 2 inches (50 mm) outside the affected area and 2 inches (50 mm) deep. The deteriorated material shall be removed to a depth where the existing material is firm or cannot be easily removed with a geologist pick. The removed area shall be filled with asphaltic concrete with a

 

minimum Marshall stability of 1,200 lbs (544 kg) and maximum flow of 20 (units of 0.01 in). The material shall be compacted with equipment approved by the Engineer until the material is dense and no movement or marks are visible. The material shall not be placed in lifts over 4 inches (100 mm) in depth. This method of repair applies only to pavement to be overlaid.

  1. Asphaltic Concrete Pavement Repair – The failed areas shall be removed as specified in paragraph 101-3.1b. All failed material including surface, base course, subbase course, and subgrade shall be removed. The base course and subbase shall be replaced if it has been infiltrated with clay, silt, or other material affecting the load-bearing capacity. Materials and methods of construction shall comply with the other applicable sections of this specification.
  • 101-3.5 – COLD MILLING. Milling shall be performed with a power-operated milling machine or grinder, capable of producing a finished surface that provides a good bond to the new overlay. The milling machine or grinder shall operate without tearing or gouging the under laying surface. The milling machine or grinder shall be equipped with automatic grade and slope controls. All millings shall be removed and disposed off Airport property, unless otherwise specified. If the contractor mills or grinds deeper or wider than the plans specify, the contractor shall replace the material that was removed with new material at no additional cost to the Owner.
  1. Patching. The milling machine shall be capable of cutting a vertical edge without chipping or spalling the edges of the remaining pavement and it shall have a positive method of controlling the depth of cut. The Engineer shall layout the area to be milled with a straightedge in increments of 1 foot (30 cm) widths. The area to be milled shall cover only the failed area. Any excessive area that is milled because the contractor doesn’t have the appropriate milling machine, or areas that are damaged because of  his negligence, shall not be included in the measurement for payment.
  2. Profiling, Grade Correction, or Surface Correction. The milling machine shall have a minimum width of 7 feet (2 m) and it shall be equipped with electronic grade control devices that will cut the surface to the grade and tolerances specified. The machine shall cut vertical edges. A positive method of dust control shall be provided. The machine shall have the ability to windrow the millings or cuttings or to remove the millings or cuttings from the pavement and load them into a truck.
  3. Clean-up. The contractor shall sweep the milled surface daily and immediately after the  milling until all residual aggregate and fines are removed from the pavement surface. Prior to paving, the contractor shall wet down the milled pavement and thoroughly sweep and/or blow the surface to remove any remaining aggregate or fines.
  4. Cold Milling: For cold milling of existing pavement refer to Section 32 01 16.71 – Cold Milling Asphalt Pavement.
  • 101-3.6. – PREPARATION OF ASPHALT PAVEMENT SURFACES. Existing asphalt pavements indicated to be treated with a surface treatment shall be prepared as follows:
  1. Patch asphalt pavement surfaces that have been softened by petroleum derivatives or have failed due to any other cause. Remove damaged pavement to the full depth of the damage and  replace  with new asphalt concrete similar to that of the existing pavement in accordance with paragraph 101-3.4.
  2. Repair joints and cracks in accordance with paragraph 101-3.2.
  3. Remove oil or grease that has not penetrated the asphalt pavement by scraping or by scrubbing with   a detergent, then wash thoroughly with clean water. After cleaning, treat these areas with an oil spot primer.
  4. Clean pavement surface immediately prior to placing the surface treatment by sweeping, flushing well

 

with water leaving no standing water, or a combination of both, so that it is free of dust, dirt, grease, vegetation, oil or any type of objectionable surface film.

  • 101-3.7 – MAINTENANCE. The contractor shall perform all maintenance work necessary to keep the pavement in a satisfactory condition until the full section is complete and accepted by the Engineer. The surface shall be kept clean and free from foreign material. The pavement shall be properly drained at all times. If cleaning is necessary or if the pavement becomes disturbed, any work repairs necessary shall be performed at the contractor’s expense.
  • 101-3.8 – PREPARATION OF JOINTS IN RIGID PAVEMENT.
  • 101-3.8.1 – Removal of Existing Joint Sealant. All existing joint sealants  will be removed by plowing or use  of hand tools. Any remaining sealant and or debris will be removed by use of wire brushes or other tools as necessary. Resaw joints removing no more than 1/16 inch (2 mm) from each joint face. Immediately after sawing, flush out joint with water and other tools as necessary to completely remove the slurry. Allow sufficient time to dry out joints prior to sealing.
  • 101-3.8.2 – Cleaning prior to sealing. Immediately before sealing, joints shall be cleaned by removing any remaining laitance and other foreign material. Clean joints by sandblasting, or other method approved by the Engineer, on each joint face with nozzle held at an angle and not more than three inches (75 mm) from face. Following sandblasting, clean joints with air free of oil and water. Joint surfaces will be surface-dry prior to installation of sealant.
  • 101-3.9      PREPARATION OF CRACKS IN FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT.
  • 101-3.9.1 Preparation of Crack. Widen crack with router or random crack saw by removing a minimum of 1/16 inch (2 mm) from each side of crack. Immediately before sealing, joints will be blown out with a hot air lance combined with oil and water-free compressed air.
  • 101-3.9.2 Removal of Existing Sealant. Existing sealants will be removed by routing or random crack saw. Following routing or sawing any remaining debris will be removed by use of a hot lance combined with oil and water-free compressed air

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

  • 101-4.1 – MEASUREMENT.

A.      General: The work covered by this section shall be considered as a subsidiary obligation of the contractor covered under the other contract items.

BASIS OF PAYMENT

  • 101-5.1 – Payment. There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with the Bid Items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 02 41 19

 

SECTION 02 41 26 – VINYL SEAWALL DEMOLITION

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. The Work under this Section shall consist of demolition and removal of existing vinyl seawall, including associated items of work, as shown on the Plans and as specified herein.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 01 Specification Sections in the contract, apply to this Section.
  2. Section 31 11 00 – Clearing and Grubbing FAA Item P-151.
  3. Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment FAA Item P-152.
  4. Section 31 23 19 – Dewatering.
  5. Section 31 40 00 – Shoring and Bracing.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. Not used

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. The contractor shall perform Work in accordance with all applicable codes, rules and regulations, and San Francisco International Airport guidelines and standards.

PART 2  – PRODUCTS

A.      Not used PART 3  – EXECUTION

3.1          DEMOLITION

  1. The Demolish and remove the existing vinyl seawall as shown on plans, completely as indicated on   the plans and as specified in these specifications. All excavated materials shall be removed  and dispose of off-Airport property. Vinyl seawall shall be salvaged or disposed of off-Airport property as indicated on the plans or as directed by the Contract Manager.
  2. Refer to Section 31 11 00 – Clearing and Grubbing FAA Item P-151 for removal and disposal of material to off-Airport property.

3.2          BACKFILL

  1. Backfill is not included in this section and shall be performed, as required by the plans, under respective items of work.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Not applicable

 

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. Demolition and removal of vinyl seawall as shown on the plans to be removed, and all Work associated therewith, shall be measured for payment by contract unit of Work, and accepted by the Contract Manager.
  2. Payment for demolition and removal of vinyl seawall completely, and all Work associated therewith, will be made at the contract unit price.
  3. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials, preparation, excavation, demolition, shoring, dewatering, reporting, and for all, labor, equipment, tools, hauling, removal of all materials from Airport property and disposal to off-site disposal area, except for salvaged seawall, and incidentals necessary to complete the item.
    1. Payment will be made under Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with the bid items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 02 41 26

 

SECTION 02 41 29 – JET BLAST DEFLECTOR DEMOLITION

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

A.      SUMMARY

1.2          The Work under this Section shall consist of demolition and removal of existing parabolic and vertical jet blast deflectors and foundations, including associated items of work as shown on the Plans and as specified herein.

  1. REFRENCES
    1. Provisions of the Contract, including General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 01 specification sections, apply to this Section.
    2. Section 31 11 00 – Clearing and Grubbing.
    3. Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment FAA Item P-152.
    4. Section 31 23 19 – Dewatering.
    5. Section 31 40 00 – Shoring and Bracing.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. Not used

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. The contractor shall perform Work in accordance with all applicable codes, rules and regulations, and San Francisco International Airport guidelines and standards.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

A.      Not used. PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          DEMOLITION

  1. Demolish and remove the existing parabolic and vertical jet blast deflector and  associated  foundations completely when indicated on the plans and as specified herein. This includes the  removal of the associated obstruction lighting and security infrastructure systems installed on the jet blast deflectors. All excavated and demolished materials shall be removed and disposed of off-Airport property.
  2. Vertical jet blast deflector panels and columns shall be salvaged and delivered on Airport property as directed by the Contract Manager.
  3. The demolition and removal of the vertical jet blast deflector shall include the removal of the associated foundation to a sufficient depth allow the installation of the proposed pavement section.
  4. The demolition and removal of the existing parabolic jet blast deflector does not require the removal of the existing foundation. Contractor shall remove all above grade structures and protrusions and

 

provide a flush surface free from hazards to traffic and to the satisfaction of the Contract Manager.

  1. The demolition of the blast fencing occurs within close proximity to active aircraft operations. Contractor work area shall be limited to boundaries shown on plans. Controlling debris and dust  during demolition is of paramount importance and shall be considered incidental to this work.
  2. Refer to Section 31 11 00 – Clearing and Grubbing, for removal and disposal of material to off-Airport property.

3.2          BACKFILL

  1. Backfill is not included in this section, and shall be performed as required by the plans under respective items of work.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. Demolition and removal of parabolic and vertical blast fencing and associated foundations as shown on the plans to be removed, and all Work associated therewith, shall be measured for payment by contract unit, and accepted by the Contract Manager.
  2. Payment for demolition and removal of parabolic and vertical blast fencing and associated  foundations to be removed, and all Work associated therewith, shall be measured for payment by the contract unit price of fence removed, and accepted by the Contract Manager. No additional compensation will be provided due to limited work areas or access due to the proximity of active aircraft operations. Payment shall include all access and phasing considerations.
  3. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials, preparation, excavation, demolition, shoring, dewatering, reporting, and for all labor, equipment, tools, hauling, removal of all materials from Airport property and disposal to off-site disposal areas except for salvaged vertical jet blast deflector panels and columns, and incidentals necessary to complete the item.
  4. Demolition and removal of parabolic and vertical blast fencing and associated foundations as shown on the plans to be removed, and all Work associated therewith, shall be measured for payment by contract of fence removed, and accepted by the Contract Manager.

END OF SECTION 02 41 29

 

SECTION 02 61 00 – DISPOSAL OF CONTAMINATED SOIL, SLUDGE, AND WATER

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. This Document specifies disposal of contaminated soil, sludge and water.
  2. Related Sections
    1. Division 01 specification section in the contract pertaining to Contaminated Soil, Sludge and Water Excavation Health and Safety
    2. Document 02 61 13 – Excavation and Removal of Contaminated Soil, Sludge and Water

1.2          DESCRIPTION OF WORK

  1. This Document sets forth the procedures to be followed in the handling, and disposal of contaminated soil, sludge, and water.
    1. Contractor shall provide storage containers, lifting, and hauling equipment for the handling and transportation of contaminated soils, sludge, and water encountered during the work activities.
    2. Contaminated groundwater shall be stored as described in Document 02 61 13 – Excavation and Removal of Contaminated Soil, Sludge, and Water.
    3. Contractor shall dispose of contaminated soil and sludge as described in Document 02 61 13 – Excavation and Removal of Contaminated Soil, Sludge, and Water.
    4. Airport may choose to allow its tenants to treat and dispose of contaminated soil, sludge, and water. The scope of contractor's services under this scenario shall be defined in Summary of Work.

1.3          CONTRACTOR'S RESPONSIBILITIES

  1. Contractor shall remove and dispose of all hazardous or contaminated materials/waste from the construction site. Contractor shall cooperate with the handling and disposal of contaminated  materials by others if Airport chooses to allow tenants to perform handling, treatment and disposal of contaminated materials.

1.4          CODES AND REGULATIONS

  1. General Requirements:
    1. All work under this contract and any other trade work in conjunction with the handling, transportation and disposal of the materials shall be done in strict accordance with all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, standards, and codes governing handling, transportation, and disposal of materials.
    2. The most recent edition of any relevant laws, regulations, standard, document or code shall be  in effect. Where there is a conflict among the requirements or with these Specifications, the most stringent requirements shall be used.
    3. Contractor shall have copes of all standards, laws, regulations, codes, and other applicable documents (including this document) available at the work site.
    4. Federal Requirements:
      1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
        1. Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Part 1910
        2. Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Section 1910.134, General Industry Standard for Respiratory Protection
        3. Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Part 1926, Construction Industry
        4. Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Section 1920.2, Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records
        5. Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Section 1910.1200, Hazard Communication
        6. Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Section 1910.120, Hazardous Wastes Operations and Emergency Response
        7. Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Section 1926.55, Gases, Fumes, Mists and Dusts
        8. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA):
          1. Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 268 - Land Disposal Restrictions.
          2. Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 261 - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste.
          3. Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations Section 172 - Department of Transportation Regulations for Use of Hazardous Materials Tables and for Communications.
          4. Department of Transportation (DOT)
            1. Title 49 Code of Federal Regulations Section 173.1090
            2. DOT 49 CFR 172
            3. DOT 40 CFR 173
            4. HM181 and HM126f
            5. State of California Requirements:
              1. California State Department of Health, Division of Toxic Substances Control,  California Regulation 672-10-01 – California Hazardous Waste Management Regulations
              2. California Health and Safety Code, Sections 25100 et seq. – Hazardous Waste
              3. California Labor Code, Sections 6382, Subdivision B – Hazardous Materials
              4. Title 22 California Code of Regulations, Division 45, Environmental Health Standards for the Management of Hazardous Waste.
              5. Title 23 California Code of Regulations, Division 3, State Water Resources Control Board.
                1. Title 26 California Code of Regulations, Toxic Substances Control.

 

 

1.5          WORKER PROTECTION:

  1. Contractor shall provide protective equipment to contractor's personnel who are handling, loading, and unloading containers. Protective equipment shall consist of disposable head, body, and foot protection and, at a minimum may include half/full face piece, air-purifying, dual cartridge respirators equipped with HEPA/organic vapor cartridges. If for any reason a contractor's employee at the  disposal site suspects that his or her clothing has become contaminated during the disposal process, he or she shall remove the contaminated clothing at the disposal site and don clean disposable clothing.

1.6          SUBMITTALS

  1. Notifications Prior to Commencement of Work: Contractor shall notify the appropriate disposal facility as selected and approved based on the type of material (characterized) to be disposed of prior to transportation of the material to the facility.
    1. Non-Airport Operated Disposal Facility Certification Submittal: Operator of the off-site disposal facility shall provide a signed certification to the Airport that contaminated materials received from the Airport will be tracked to allow identification of those materials at the disposal facility. Additionally, facility operator shall provide a signed certification that states that it, within 90 days of receiving the material for treatment, will provide the Airport a Certificate of Treatment for biologically treated or Certificate of Destruction for thermally treated soils.

1.7          DISPOSAL OR TREATMENT OPTIONS

  1. Contaminated Soil and Sludge: After characterization, contractor shall dispose of contaminated soil at an approved off-site landfill. Contractor shall make all arrangements for disposal and shall comply with all regulatory requirements for documentation. Airport may require contractor to deliver contaminated materials to a thermal treatment system at the Airport, if available. Contractor will be required to dispose of the thermally treated waste or reuse the treated waste for fill as directed by the Airport.
  2. Contaminated Water:
    1. Contractor shall dispose of contaminated water at an off-site facility, or by treating and disposing to the Airport's industrial waste treatment facility provided that the effluent from contractor's treatment facility meets Airport's discharge requirements and there is capacity in the system, and the contractor obtains a permit from the Airport.
    2. For large scale operations involving significant volumes of contaminated water, contractor may with the written approval of Airport design and operate an on-site pretreatment or treatment system under a state-approved, contractor obtained NPDES permit. If there is an Airport-wide NPDES permit for discharge to the Airport storm drain system in existence during contractor's operations, contractor may discharge under that permit.
    3. Contractor may use an on-site treatment system for contaminated groundwater provided the treatment system meets Airport and regulatory requirements. For on-site treatment systems, contractor shall document the quality of the effluent and verify the system's effectiveness and compliance with any issued permit.
    4. Airport will monitor the system's effectiveness by sampling at periodic intervals for site-specific constituents. Costs for monitoring and sample analysis performed by contractor shall be borne by the contractor. Contractor shall obtain Airport approval prior to discharging into any

 

collection system operated by the Airport. The capacity of the system may limit the availability  of the facility to contractor and may vary by season and the design flow rate of contractor's treatment facility.

  1. Free Phase Product: Contractor shall transport and dispose of all free phase  product removed from the tanks or from the various excavations in accordance with applicable laws and regulations at a permitted recycling or treatment facility as approved by the Airport.

1.8          HAULERS

  1. Only trucks meeting the minimum requirements below shall be loaded with material for  transportation to the disposal facility.
    1. For transporting wet contaminated materials, trucks shall have bed liners or sealed polyethylene sheeting to prevent possible leakage from soils.
    2. The trucks shall be completely covered during transport.
    3. Vacuum trucks and drum hauler's trucks shall be placarded with appropriate signs. PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          GENERAL

  1. Contractor shall not use damaged, deteriorating or previously used materials. Contractor shall remove these materials from the work site and dispose of them properly. Damaged or defective items, as determined by the Airport shall be replaced at no cost to the Airport.

2.2          MATERIALS

  1. Spill Control: Contractor shall provide a spill control/spill response kit including but not limited to "mini" booms, absorbent pads, and absorbent pillows. The kit shall contain sufficient quantities of the above materials to quickly contain any spill, based on container sizes used for storage of materials waiting characterization and/or disposal, which might occur during the work activities.
  2. Polyethylene: Contractor shall use high density polyethylene sheeting with a minimum thickness of 12-mil to stockpile contaminated soil on, or to line bulk removal trucks, and a 6-mil HDPE to cover soil stockpiles.
  3. Fire Extinguisher:
    1. Contractor shall supply fire extinguishers with a minimum rating of 20 B:C for each piece of equipment operating in the work area.
    2. Contractor shall be required to supply additional fire extinguishers and/or fire suppressant equipment for each work area based on the fire hazards present and work activities to be performed.
    3. Drums: Contractor shall use standard steel drums, either open head or closed head. Drum size shall be standard 55-gallon. Contractor shall label drums with standard DOT markings in accordance with CFR Title 49. Drums used during the current activities shall be destroyed upon completion of the project.

2.3          EQUIPMENT

  1. Contractor shall use, and have available at all times, equipment for the excavation and containment   of contaminated materials.

 

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          BULK SOLID SHIPMENT

  1. For contaminated materials being handled, transported, and disposed, contractor shall meet to the following minimum requirements.
    1. Prior to materials being transported to the disposal facility, the laboratory results from the disposal characterization samples shall be obtained from contractor.
    2. Contractor shall keep bulk solids at least 6 inches below the top of the container. The load shall be secured to prevent shifting or release and shall be covered with a tarp.
    3. Contractor shall place a placard on all vehicles used for the material being handled.
    4. Contractor shall prepare and provide drivers with a manifest and or shipping papers meeting federal and state requirements for the waste material.
    5. The manifests shall be signed by the Airport prior to the vehicles leaving the project work site.
    6. Airport may request that contractor weigh his/her vehicles to ensure that vehicle and road weight limits are not exceeded. Contractor to provide state scale tickets where applicable.
    7. Contractor shall decontaminate haul vehicle tires prior to leaving the project work site.
    8. Contractor shall monitor vehicles periodically to ensure they not release dust or vapor off site.
    9. To assure quick response to vehicle breakdowns and accidents, contractor shall have procedures in place prior to vehicles leaving the site.

3.2          MANIFESTS FOR NONHAZARDOUS WASTE

  1. Contractor shall provide completed (except for signatures and dates) manifest forms to the Airport. The manifest forms shall be sequentially numbered. The Generator listed on the manifests, unless otherwise directed by Airport, shall be:

San Francisco International Airport Environmental Code Branch

Facilities Operation and Maintenance

P.O. Box 8097

Building 676, McDonnell Road San Francisco, California 94128

 

Point of Contact will be established at the pre-work meeting.

  1. Waste Manifesting Requirements and Procedures:
    1. Contractor shall prepare standard waste manifest documents for the hauling of the hazardous and nonhazardous materials from the Airport property to the disposal facility. This manifest shall include, but is not limited to:
      1. Generator's U.S. EPA ID No., (hazardous wastes only)
      2. Manifest Document No.
      3. Generator's name, address, telephone number and point of contact, as noted above
      4. Transporter's name, telephone number
      5. Transporter's EPA ID No. (registered hazardous waste hauler)
      6. Disposal facility's name, address, telephone number
      7. Disposal facility's EPA ID No.
      8. The type, shipping class of material (non-regulated, if applicable)
      9. The number of containers, the total quantity of material and/or weight/volume
      10. The physical properties of the waste material/handling code
      11. Emergency contact person and telephone number in the event of a spill and/or release
      12. Contractor and/or the Airport may add additional descriptive comments such as project name, job location, contract numbers, etc. within the Special Handling Instructions block to allow for better tracking of material.
      13. The Airport shall sign and date the waste manifest prior to the removal of the excavated, stockpiled, drummed or containerized waste material from the Airport property through written permission on behalf of the Generator/Airport.
      14. Contractor (Transporter) shall sign and date the manifest, accepting the material for transportation to the disposal facility. By this signature, the Transporter certifies that he/she is in compliance with all federal, state, and local regulations, including placarding, and weight limits for the transportation of the loaded, covered, and secured waste material.
      15. Contractor (Transporter) shall provide one original and two copies of the two signature (Generator, Transporter) copies to the Airport prior to the waste leaving the Airport property.
      16. Contractor (Transporter) shall be responsible for the safe handling of the material in transit to the disposal facility.
      17. Contractor (Transporter), upon initial delivery of the material to the disposal facility, shall receive a weight ticket or similar item indicating that the material has been received by the facility. This receipt does not necessarily constitute acceptance of the material, only receipt of the material. Contractor (Transporter) shall provide an initialed and dated copy of this receipt (weight ticket) to the Airport within 5 working days of the delivery.
      18. The Contractor shall be responsible for any additional costs associated with additional characterization of the material for disposal performed by the disposal facility. Once this is complete, the disposal facility shall return a signed and dated copy of the three signature manifest (Generator, Transporter, Disposal Facility Operator) accepting the material for disposal. This shall be submitted to Airport within 15 days after delivery of the material by the Waste Transporter.
      19. Contractor shall, in the event that the material is rejected by the disposal facility, supply all labor materials and equipment to retrieve the material from the disposal facility. Costs for this retrieval, re-stockpile, re-characterization, and transportation and disposal shall be the responsibility of contractor. Contractor shall be responsible for proper manifesting of this waste using the process specified herein. Contractor shall be responsible for proper disposal of this material within 30 days of the rejection by the original disposal facility.
      20. Contractor shall advise the disposal facility that, upon treatment or destruction of the material, the facility shall submit to the Airport a letter certifying that the specific manifested waste has been treated in accordance with all federal, state, and local regulations. This shall be submitted to the Airport within 90 days of receipt of the material by the Disposal Facility Operator unless contractor obtains specific written permission from Airport to extend this deadline.

 

 

PART 4 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

4.1          PRICE AND PAYMENT PROCEDURES

  1. The contractor will be compensated for all work as described under this section, acceptably performed as determined by the Contract Manager, by respective contract bid price unit for each respective bid item.
    1. If no separate items are provided in the bid schedule for work required or described, such work shall be considered as incidental work, and compensation for such work is included in compensation for  the bid items provided under this contract.

END OF SECTION 02 61 00

 

SECTION      02    61     13    –    EXCAVATION      AND     REMOVAL      OF CONTAMINATED SOIL, SLUDGE, AND WATER

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. Contractor shall follow the specifications in this Document when excavating and removing contaminated soil, sludge, and water. Known areas and quantities of contaminated material have  been identified. When contractor encounters contaminated material which has not been previously identified, contractor shall suspend work in the contaminated area and redeploy forces as necessary  to minimize delay or disruption, until the testing has been completed and the soil, sludge, and water  to be removed has been identified. If contamination occurs in separate and distinct areas, contractor may continue the Work in other areas of the project site while characterization is carried in newly discovered contamination zones.
  2. If underground fuel lines are exposed, contractor shall arrange for Contract Manager to test the soil surrounding the pipe. Contaminated soil and water associated with the pipeline shall be remediated  as part of the pipeline abandonment. Fuel lines shall be removed or abandoned as defined in Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with Summary of Environmental Work.
  3. Airport may, at its option, use the Airport's "On-Call" contractor to remediate the hazardous materials/waste encountered at the site. Where utilized, the "On-Call" contractor shall mobilize within 48 hours of confirmation testing of the site. The remediation will be conducted in cooperation with contractor to avoid unnecessary interference with the Work. Contractor shall cooperate with the remediation effort and shall give access to the site to the "On-Call” remediation contractor.
  4. Related Sections
    1. Division 01 Specification Section in the contract pertaining to Contaminated Soil, Sludge and Water Removal Health and Safety
    2. Document 02 61 00 – Disposal of Contaminated Soil, Sludge and Water
    3. Related work specified elsewhere
      1. Dispose of the contaminated materials as specified in Document 02 61 00.

1.2          CODES AND REGULATIONS

  1. General Requirements
    1. Work under this contract and other trade work in conjunction with the handling, storage, treatment, transportation and disposal of the contaminated materials shall be done in accordance with recent versions of all applicable federal, state, and local laws, regulations, standards, and codes governing handling, storage, treatment, transportation, and disposal of contaminated materials.
    2. Contractor shall comply with the version in-force at the time of Work of any relevant law regulation, standard, document or code. When there is a conflict among the state, federal, and local requirements or with these Specifications, the most stringent requirements shall be used.
    3. Contractor shall have copies of all laws, standards, regulations, codes, and other applicable

 

documents (including this document) available at the work site.

  1. Federal Requirements
    1. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) a.       29 CFR, 1910
      1. 29 CFR, 1910.134, General Industry Standard for Respiratory Protection
      2. 29 CFR, 1926, Construction Industry
      3. 29 CFR, 1920.2, Access to Employee Exposure and Medical Records
      4. 29 CFR, 1910.1200, Hazard Communication
      5. 29 CFR, 1910.120, Hazardous Wastes Operations and Emergency Response
      6. 29 CFR, 1926.55, Gases, Fumes, Mists and Dusts
      7. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
        1. 40 CFR, 268 - Land Disposal Restrictions.
        2. 40 CFR, 261 - Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste.
        3. 40 CFR, 172 - Department of Transportation Regulations for Use of Hazardous Materials Tables and for Communications.
        4. 40 CFR, 262 - Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste.
        5. 40 CFR, 263 - Standards Applicable to Transportation of Hazardous Waste.
        6. 40 CFR, 266 - Standards for Management of Specific Hazardous Waste, and Types of Hazardous Waste Management Facilities.
        7. Department of Transportation (DOT) a.       CFR, 173.1090
          1. DOT 49 CFR 172
          2. DOT 40 CFR 173
          3. HM181 and HM126f
          4. State of California Requirements
            1. California State Department of Health, Division of Toxic Substances Control, California Regulation 672-10-01 – California Hazardous Waste Management Regulations
            2. California Health and Safety Code, Sections 25100 et seq. - Hazardous Waste
            3. California Labor Code, Sections 6382, Subdivision B - Hazardous Materials
            4. 22 CCR, Division 45, Environmental Health Standards for the Management of Hazardous Waste.
            5. 23 CCR, Division 3, State Water Resources Control Board.
            6. 26 CCR, Toxic Substances Control.

 

1.3          REFERENCES AND STANDARDS FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL/WATER REMOVAL

  1. Definitions: The following definitions relate to the removal and disposal of contaminated soil, sludge, and water.
    1. Aboveground Release: Release to the surface of the land or to surface water.
    2. Ancillary Equipment: Devices including, but not limited to, such devices as piping, fittings, flanges, valves, and pumps used to distribute, meter, or control the flow of regulated substances to and from fuel storage facilities.
    3. Below Ground Release: Release to the subsurface of the land and to water bodies (either ground water or surface water). This includes, but is not limited to, releases from the below ground portions of an underground storage and delivery system and below ground releases associated with overfills and transfer operations as regulated substance moves to or from a storage facility.
    4. Beneath the Surface of the Ground: Beneath the ground surface or otherwise covered with earthen materials.
    5. CERCLA: Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act, 42 U.S.C. § 9601 et seq.
    6. Connected Piping: Aboveground and underground piping, including valves, elbows, joints, flanges, and flexible connectors attached to a tank system through which regulated substances flow. For the purpose of determining how much piping is connected to any individual UST system, the piping that joins two UST systems should be allocated equally between them.
    7. Discarded material: Material defined in 40 CFR, 261, that is applied to or placed on the land in a manner that constitutes disposal.
    8. Disposal: The removal of any contaminated or hazardous materials/waste from the Airport property including temporary stockpiling and storage, treatment, loading, transportation, and depositing or transferring to an approved disposal site. On-site or off-site treatment, if approved, may constitute a means of disposal.
    9. Disposal Facility: A facility or part of a facility at which contaminated or hazardous materials/waste are intentionally placed into or onto any land or water, and at which the waste shall remain after closure.
    10. Flash Point: The minimum temperature at which a liquid or solid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable vapor-air mixture near the surface of the liquid or solid. An ignitable mixture is one that, when ignited, is capable of the initiation and propagation of flame away from the source of ignition. Propagation of flame means the spread of the flame from the vapor layer independent of the source of ignition.
    11. Free Product: A regulated substance that is present as a nonaqueous phase liquid (e.g., liquid not dissolved in water.)
    12. Fuel Delivery System: Underground piping, underground ancillary equipment, and containment system.
    13. Ground Water: Water, except capillary moisture, beneath the land surface in the zone of saturation or beneath the bed of any stream, lake, reservoir, or other body of surface water within the boundaries of this state, whatever may be the subsurface geologic structure in which such water stands, flows, percolates, or otherwise occurs.
      1. Halogenated Organic Compounds (HOCs): Those compounds having a carbon-halogen bond.
      2. Incompatible Waste: A waste that is unsuitable for:
        1. Placement in a particular device or facility because it may cause corrosion or decay of containment materials; or
          1. Commingling with another waste or material under controlled conditions because the commingling might produce heat, pressure, fire, explosion, violent reaction, toxic dusts, mists, fumes or gases, flammable fumes, or gases.
          2. Land Disposal: Placement in or on the land and includes, but is not limited to, placement in landfill, surface impoundment, waste pile, injection well, land treatment facility, salt dome formation, salt bed formation, underground mine or cave, or placement in a concrete vault or bunker intended for disposal purposes.
          3. Landfill: A disposal facility or part of a facility where contaminated soil and sludge waste is placed in or on land and that is not a pile, a land treatment facility, a surface impoundment, an underground injection well, a salt dome formation, a salt bed formation, an underground mine, or a cave.
          4. Manifest: The shipping document originated and signed by the generator that contains the information specified in 40 CFR, 262 and 22 CCR 66262 of those regulations.
          5. Manifest Document Number: The serial number assigned to the manifest or delivery document for record keeping and reporting purposes.
          6. Off Site: A site that does not meet the definition of on site as defined in this part.
          7. On Site: The same or geographically contiguous property, which may be divided by public or private right-of-way, provided the entrance and exit between the properties are at a cross-roads intersection, and access is by crossing as opposed to going along the right-of-way. Non- contiguous properties owned by the same person, but connected by a right-of way that he controls and to which the public does not have access, is also considered on-site property.
          8. Operator: The person responsible for the overall operation of a waste management facility.
          9. Permit: A control document issued by the State of California pursuant to applicable state regulations, or by the EPA Administrator pursuant to applicable federal regulations. The term "permit" includes any authorization, license, or permit by rule. It does not include interim status under RCRA, nor does it include draft permits.
          10. Pipe or Piping: A hollow cylinder or tubular conduit constructed of non-earthen and non-plastic materials.
          11. RCRA: The Federal Resource Conversation and Recovery Act of 1976 as amended, 42 U.S.C., § 6901 et seq.
          12. Regulated Substance: An element, compound, mixture, solution, or substance that, when released into the environment, may present substantial danger to the public health or welfare,  or the environment. The term "regulated substance" includes:
            1. Substances defined in § 101(14) of CERCLA, but not any substance regulated as a hazardous waste under subtitle C of RCRA; and
            2. Petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof, that is liquid at standard conditions of temperature and pressure (60 degrees Fahrenheit and 14.7 pound per square inch absolute). The term "regulated substance" includes, but is not limited to petroleum and petroleum-based substances comprised of a complex blend of hydrocarbons derived from crude oil through processes of separation, conversion, upgrading, and finishing, such as motor fuels, jet fuels, distillant fuel oils, residual fuel oils, lubricants, petroleum solvents, and used oils.
            3. Regulation: The control, direction and governing of hazardous waste activities by means of the adoption and enforcement of laws, ordinances, rules, and regulations.
            4. Release: Spilling, leaking, emitting, discharging, escaping, leaching, or disposing into ground water, surface water, or subsurface soils.
            5. Release Detection: Determining whether a release of a regulated substance has occurred from the UST system into the environment or into the interstitial space between the UST system and its secondary barrier or secondary containment around it.
            6. Solid waste: Any discarded material that is excluded from the listing of hazardous wastes 40 CFR, 261 and 261.2 and 22 CCR 66261, or that is not excluded by variance granted under the same section.
            7. Tank: A stationary device designed to contain an accumulation of regulated substances and constructed of non-earthen materials (e.g., concrete, steel, plastic) that provide structural support.
            8. Underground Area: An underground room, such as a basement, cellar, shaft or vault, providing enough space for physical inspection of the exterior of the tank situated on or above the surface of the floor.
              1. Underground Release: Any Below Ground Release.
              2. Underground Storage Tank (UST): Any one or combination of tanks  (including  underground pipes connected thereto) that is used to contain an accumulation of regulated substances, and the volume of which (including the volume of underground pipes connected thereto) is 10 percent or more beneath the surface of the ground. This term does not include any:
                1. Tank used for storing heating oil for consumption on the premises where stored, except for tanks having a capacity of more than 5,000 gallons and used for storing heating oil.
                2. Septic tank.
                3. Pipeline facility (including gathering lines) regulated under:

 

 

 

1)         The Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968 (49 U.S.C., § 1671, et seq.), or

2)         The Hazardous Liquid Pipeline Safety Act of 1979 (49 U.S.C., § 2001, et seq.), or

3)         That is an intrastate pipeline facility regulated under laws comparable to the provisions of the law referred to in c) 1) or c) 2) of this definition.

  1. Storm water or wastewater collection system.
  2. Liquid trap or associated gathering lines directly related to oil or gas production and gathering operations; or
  3. UST System or Tank System: An underground storage tank, connected underground piping, underground ancillary equipment, and containment system, if any.
  4. Standards
    1. General Applicability of Standards: Except to the extent that more explicit or more stringent requirements are specified in this Project Manual, applicable standards have the same force and effect (and are made a part of the Contract Documents by reference) as if copied directly into the

 

Contract Documents, or as if published copies are bound herewith.

  1. Standards which govern construction work or hauling and disposal of contaminated soil, sludge, and water include, but are not limited to the following:
    1. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Publications, relevant to handling of hazardous waste materials.
    2. ANSI Z41.1-1967 Safety Shoes
    3. ANSI Z87.1-1979 Protective Eyewear
    4. ANSI Z88.2-80 Practices for Respiratory Protection
    5. ANSI Z89.1-1981 Hard Hats
    6. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Publications, relevant to handling of hazardous waste materials
    7. Fire Protection Handbook, National Fire Protection Association, Sixteenth Edition, 1986

1.4          PROJECT CONDITIONS

  1. Protection of Existing Surfaces: Contractor shall perform contaminated or hazardous soil, and sludge excavation, and water extraction and removal work without contamination of adjacent areas. When such areas are contaminated, contractor shall restore areas to original condition or as specified without any additional costs to the Airport.
  2. Existing Utilities: Before excavating, contractor shall notify the Airport, coordinate protective work, and comply with the Airport's requirements. Contractor shall safeguard and protect from damage or movement existing services, utilities and utility structures uncovered or encountered which are to remain in service.
    1. Within the limits of excavation, remove existing piping, subsoil drainage systems, conduit, manholes, and related items, and abandon them in accordance with Airport requirements. Exiting fuel lines, which are cut and abandoned, shall be slurried in accordance with Airport requirements.
    2. Contractor shall immediately notify Airport upon the discovery of any unidentified or incorrectly identified piping or utilities encountered during excavation. Contractor shall cooperate with the utility owner to maintain their utilities in operation.
    3. Retaining Structures: Contractor shall provide bracing, shoring, sheeting, sheet piling, underpinning    or other retaining structures as necessary to prevent any movement or settlement of existing construction, utilities, paving, light standards, piping or conduit. Contractor shall be responsible for  the strength and adequacy of retaining structures, and for the safety and support of construction, utilities or paving, and for any movement, settlement or damage. Excavation support systems are incidental to construction and no extra payment will be made by Airport.
    4. Site Access:
      1. Airport reserves the right to require the contractor to establish a Regulated Area around the designated Work Area to prohibit unauthorized entry into an area where contaminated soil, sludge, and water are being removed and when respirator or other worker protection measures are required. Orange barricade (snow) fence satisfies this requirement.
      2. In the event that respirator or other worker protection measures are required, warning and danger signs shall be posted at a distance sufficiently far enough away from the Regulated Area to permit an employee to read the sign and take the necessary protective measures to avoid exposure. Additional signs may need to be posted following construction of workplace barriers.
      3. There shall be a logbook maintained, recording name, affiliation, entry, and exit times in the Regulated Area when respirator protection is required.
        1. No eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco is allowed in the Regulated Area.
        2. Workers shall comply with the required regulations outlined in this specification, including, but not limited to worker protection, entry procedures, or decontamination procedures.
        3. Access to Work by Others:
          1. Except for emergency and regulatory agency personnel (with jurisdiction over this Project), limit access to the Work Area to the designated representatives of Airport who have completed Worker Training equivalent to contractor's Program, and Authorized Visitors.
          2. Authorized Visitors are limited to and defined as anyone who has been authorized by contractor to enter the site.
          3. Contractor shall require all Authorized Visitors to comply with provisions specified in this Document. Contractor shall provide necessary clothing and protective equipment to Authorized Visitors.

 

1.5          WORKER PROTECTION

  1. Contractor shall ensure that workers in the designated environmental Work Area have received required training, medical monitoring, respiratory protection, and protective clothing as specified in Division 01 specification sections in the contract.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          GENERAL

  1. General Requirements: Contractor shall use generally accepted equipment and materials to perform the required excavation and removal activities in compliance with the specification requirements.

2.2          MATERIALS

  1. Polyethylene: Contractor shall use high-density polyethylene (HDPE) sheeting with a minimum thickness of 12 mil to stockpile contaminated soil on, or to line bulk removal trucks or to cover soil stockpiles and 6 mil HDPE for covering the stockpiled materials. Contractor shall use tape and/or glue capable of sealing joints of adjacent sheets of plastic capable of adhering under wet conditions:
    1. Duct Tape: provide tape in 3-inch widths with an adhesive formulated to adhere securely to sheet polyethylene.
    2. Spray Cement: provide spray adhesive in aerosol cans formulated to securely fuse sheet polyethylene together.
    3. Spill Control: Contractor shall provide a spill control or spill response kit, including, but not limited to, "mini" booms, sorbent pads, and sorbent pillows. The kit shall contain sufficient quantities of the above materials to quickly contain spills that might occur during the work activities.
      1. Fire Extinguisher: Contractor shall supply fire extinguishers with a minimum rating of 20 B: C for each piece of equipment operating in the designated Work Area.
      2. Water: The water used shall be potable water.
        1. Barricades: Contractor shall provide 4-foot high orange polyethylene barricade (snow) fence, as necessary, to restrict entry into regulated and designated environmental Work Area.

 

2.3          EQUIPMENT

  1. Contractor shall use generally accepted equipment in the excavation and disposal of contaminated soil, sludge, and water.

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          PREPARATION OF WORK AREA FOR CONTAMINATED SOIL, SLUDGE, AND WATER REMOVAL

  1. Contractor shall not begin work until specified notifications are performed and specified submittals  are acceptable to the Airport.
  2. Contractor shall remove loose equipment and objects from the site.
    1. Contractor shall erect barricades, post notices and warning signs, and cordon off access to the Regulated Area within designated Work Area as required by Airport.
    2. Contractor shall be responsible for the security of the area and equipment throughout the project. Contractor shall provide adequate security measures to ensure the safety of buildings, equipment,  and property as well as to prevent the exposure to possible contamination.

3.2          TEST PITS

  1. The purpose of test pits is twofold: One is to allow contractor to determine the "limits" of excavation required, and the other is to allow for the collection of the soil classification samples (composite disposal samples) should contractor elect to request direct hauling of the contaminated material to the disposal facility rather than to a stockpile area and then to the disposal facility.
  2. Prior to mobilizing equipment for the majority of the suspected contaminated soil removal work, contractor shall dig an adequate number of test pits using a backhoe or similar equipment as defined in the Division 01 Specification Section Summary of Work.
  3. The locations of the test pits will be coordinated with contractor under the direction of Airport. The locations will be based, in part, on existing site information and probable contaminated soil locations.
  4. Should contractor request that composite samples for the purposes of meeting the disposal facilities requirements be taken during the test pit work, Airport will take these samples and will analyze them for the requisite parameters.
  5. The test pit samples will be field checked by Airport for contaminants of concern.
  6. Should the test pits be required to a depth below the water table, contractor shall treat this water as contaminated and follow the requirements for handling and disposing the water as prescribed in  these specifications.

3.3          EXISTING UTILITIES

  1. Contractor shall exercise care in avoiding damage to utilities. Contractor shall be responsible for the

 

repair of utilities, if damaged during construction. There may be utilities or obstructions that are not shown, or whose indicated locations are not accurate. Utilities are piping, conduits, wire, cable, ducts, manholes, pull boxes and the like, located at the project site.

  1. Shutdowns: Contractor shall cooperate with the utility companies in minimizing shutdowns of utility systems. Planned utility service shutdowns shall be accomplished during periods of minimum use. In some cases, this may require night or weekend work. The schedule for such work will be defined in the Summary of Work. Such work shall be at no additional cost to Airport. Work shall be scheduled so that service will be restored in the minimum possible time.

3.4          SUPPORT OF EXCAVATIONS

  1. Contractor shall adequately support excavation for trenches and structures to meet applicable federal, state and local requirements for such work.
    1. Contractor shall protect excavations and adjacent improvements from running, caving, boiling, settling, or sliding soil resulting from the high groundwater table and the nature of the soil excavated. Attention is directed to Document 832 of the Civil Code of the State of California relating to lateral and subjacent supports, and wherever structures or improvements adjacent to the excavation may be damaged by such excavation, contractor shall comply with this law.
    2. The support for excavation shall remain in place until the removal or demolition of pipelines or structures has been completed. The shoring, sheeting, and bracing shall be carefully removed so that there shall be no voids created, no caving, and no lateral movement or flowing of the subsoils.

3.5          DISPOSAL OF EXCAVATED SOILS

  1. Should the material being excavated be significantly different from the materials encountered during the test pitting (contamination levels or physical properties), contractor may be required by Airport to stockpile the material pending additional laboratory analysis. Such determination will be made by Airport Construction Manager.
  2. Suspect contaminated soils shall be excavated and shall be segregated from clean soils. Contractor shall excavate suspect contaminated soils, where feasible, within the limits of planned excavation unless directed by Airport to extend the excavation. The contaminated soils shall be stockpiled pending characterization prior to disposal unless the material has been pre-characterized and contractor is prepared to direct haul the material to the approved disposal facility. Airport may, at its option, direct the contractor to use a specific option for disposal of contaminated material. Contractor shall include both of the following disposal options for disposing of contaminated material in its proposal:
    1. Stockpile the material on the site in accordance with applicable laws and regulations for disposal by others. The stockpile area shall be accessible for loading and hauling and the soil shall be stockpiled in accordance with specifications. Excavating, loading  and  stockpiling,  including  clean up after removal of the contaminated material, shall be contractor's cost.
    2. Load and haul for disposal at an off-site facility in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. All costs for excavating, loading and hauling shall be contractor's cost. Contractor may store material temporarily on site or on Airport property if a suitable area is available for storage.
    3. Contaminated soils shall be stockpiled on top of 12 mil HDPE, in plastic lined roll-off bins, or on top of an existing pavement. Stockpiled soils shall be covered daily by contractor with 6 mil HDPE. The HDPE cover shall be secured using stakes, hay bales, or other Airport-approved methods to prevent the

 

polyethylene from blowing away. Contractor shall inspect the stockpile daily and deficiencies shall be corrected immediately. Should the stockpile not be maintained as required, Airport may restrict the addition of more contaminated material to the pile until the initial problems are corrected. Standby time required to correct the deficiencies shall be at contractor's expense. Contaminated soils shall be characterized for disposal in accordance with the requirements specified in the Summary of Work. No approval by Airport for stockpiling of contaminated soil or sludge shall relieve contractor of responsibility for compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

  1. Contractor shall remove and transport the characterized soil stockpile to the disposal facility within 30 days of its placement unless otherwise stated in writing by Airport.

3.6          FREE PRODUCT REMOVAL

  1. In the event that free product is encountered in the excavation, the product shall be removed in a manner that minimizes the spread of contamination  into  previously uncontaminated zones by using  a recovery and storage system to remove the product. Free product shall be removed by pumping out of the excavation into holding tanks, truck trailer, vacuum truck or other suitable storage container prior to disposal. The method of removing, storing and disposing of free product shall be submitted   to Airport for prior approval before the system is implemented. Removed liquid material shall remain on site until a characterization analysis is performed. This material shall be transported to a disposal facility only after the analysis is complete and manifests are signed. No approval of analytical methods by Airport shall relieve contractor of responsibility for compliance with applicable laws and regulations.

3.7          CONTAMINATED WATER

  1. Contractor shall limit the migration of contaminated water, if encountered, to other areas of the excavation. Airport will sample the water for contaminant characterization. Contractor shall collect the waters using a vacuum tanker truck or other appropriate system and shall store the collected water away from the excavation prior to characterization and disposal (refer to Division 01 specification sections in the contract). This material shall remain on site until a characterization analysis is performed. Contaminated water may be collected by others for disposal. If the disposal of the contaminated water is contractor's responsibility, the contaminated water may be discharged to the Airport Industrial Waste System providing that the quality of the water conforms to the Airport discharge requirements and there is capacity in the Airport Industrial Waste Treatment System. If the contaminated water does not meet the Airport discharge requirements or there is no capacity in the industrial waste system for the contaminated water, contractor shall make other arrangements for disposal of water. Contractor may use an appropriate on-site treatment system for treating contaminated water.

3.8          UNDERGROUND FUEL LINES

  1. Contractor will encounter underground fuel lines. Handling and removal of active or abandoned fuel lines shall be coordinated with Contract Manager and SFO Fuel.

3.9          INCLEMENT WEATHER

  1. In the event of inclement weather, Contractor shall prevent the migration of runoff into contaminated soil excavation areas. These actions may include, but are not limited to, construction of a diversion trench and/or a soil berm around the topographically up gradient perimeter of the excavation as directed by Contract Manager. Water that migrates into contaminated soil excavation areas shall be deemed contaminated and handled as contaminated water in accordance with these specifications. The costs associated with the removal and disposal of this additional water shall be incidental to the cost of the contract and shall not be subject to separate or additional reimbursement.

 

3.10       BACKFILLING OF EXCAVATED AREA

  1. Contractor shall not backfill areas where contaminated soil has been removed for a minimum of 72 hours or as directed by Airport. This will allow for confirmatory sampling collection and verification by Airport.

3.11       MONITORING DURING EXCAVATION ACTIVITIES (INFORMATION ONLY)

Airport's representatives will be on site during excavation and removal activities to monitor for the presence of contaminated soil, sludge, and water. Monitoring will include screening soil, sludge, and water to determine whether contamination is present and collecting samples for laboratory analysis. Monitoring, sampling and analysis by Airport shall not relieve contractor of responsibility for characterization and management of contaminated materials in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.

 

  1. Equipment: Airport will utilize appropriate equipment, sampling and testing devices for the detection of volatile organic compounds during the course of the excavation.
  2. Field Procedures:
    1. On-site Observations: Airport's representative will observe the excavations for visual, olfactory (smell), and field instrument evidence of contamination. Airport's representatives will determine what soil, sludge, and water are to be segregated based on estimated contamination levels. For soils which are grossly contaminated, Airport's representatives may direct contractor to excavate additional soil, sludge, or water including extending the excavation beyond current contract scope, as necessary to complete the removal of contaminated material to comply with  regulatory and Airport requirements. Airport's representatives will collect samples of the excavated contaminated soil, sludge, and water for laboratory analysis to determine the type of contamination and for characterizing material for disposal. Airport's representatives will collect soil, sludge, and water samples from the perimeter and bottom of the excavation or from the manholes or vaults to verify that soils and water remaining in the excavation or manhole or vault are below regulatory action levels and do not require further excavation/removal/treatment.
    2. Sampling:
      1. Field Analytical Methods: Airport's representative will employ field analytical methods for the determination of contamination in soil samples recovered from the excavation or manholes to determine which soil, sludge, and water remain contaminated and require additional removal.
        1. Airport's representative will conduct In Situ Field Screening using an immunoassay test kit that has been calibrated for hydrocarbons most prevalent at Airport. The results of this field screening are considered qualitative data only and may not be used for confirmatory sampling.
        2. Confirmatory Soil and Ground-water Sampling:
          1. For areas where contaminated soil, sludge, and water are encountered and the soil, sludge, and water are excavated and removed, the walls and the bottom of the excavation and ground water (if applicable) will be sampled by the Airport's representative for confirmatory laboratory analysis. The excavation sides and bottom and the water will be sampled and submitted for analysis to verify the adequacy of excavations performed in removing contaminated soil, sludge, and/or water.
          2. If the excavated area is unsafe for entry by field personnel according to 29 CFR 1926, Subpart P for excavations, project specifications, or Health and Safety Plan requirements,

 

no samples will be collected until safe entry is possible. Equipment for collecting remote soil samples may be used, if feasible.

  1. Contractor shall assist Airport's representative in collecting samples by  providing  personnel and equipment. Contractor shall make a backhoe or other equipment available as required to obtain soil and sludge samples.
  2. Analytical Parameters:
    1. If no visual contamination is observed in the excavated materials or the excavation itself, Airport's representative will collect soil samples for characterization.
    2. If visual contamination is observed, Airport's representative will collect samples from the excavated and segregated contaminated soils, stockpiled soils, free product, and/or contaminated water removed from the excavation to characterize the material.
    3. Composite samples from the stockpile will be submitted for laboratory analysis to assist in the characterization of the material for disposal. Contractor shall be aware that the off-site treatment disposal facility for contaminated soil, sludge, and/or water may require additional analysis for acceptance of the material at the facility. Contractor shall be responsible for obtaining the additional analytical work at his own expense.
    4. Additional information on the type of contamination expected to be present at the site is included in the Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to the Summary of Environmental Work.
    5. Laboratory Sample Analysis Time Frames: Airport will provide contractor, through the Airport, laboratory results based on the following:
      1. For work scheduled at least 24 hours in advance, disposal characterization samples (test pits/stockpiles) laboratory results will be provided within 10 working days (excluding holidays) of sample collection for the parameters noted.
      2. For work scheduled at least 24 hours in advance, contamination verification (soil, sludge, and water) samples from known or suspected areas of contamination will be provided within 3 working days (excluding holidays) of sample collection.
      3. For identification of suspected contaminated soil/water that is encountered in areas not indicated in these contract documents, (unscheduled, unknown) analysis of samples will   be determined on a case by case basis but will be provided within 5 working days  (excluding holidays) of sample collection.

3.12       EQUIPMENT DECONTAMINATION

  1. When contaminated soil, sludge, and water is encountered or free product is observed, contractor shall decontaminate the affected pieces of equipment. The cleaning shall be accomplished by thoroughly washing with a detergent and rinsing with water. Airport may require, based on the amount and type of contamination encountered, that all water from the cleaning process be collected and treated as contaminated water. This may be accomplished by using a nylon-reinforced polyethylene lined beamed area and a vacuum truck to pump off liquid.

PART 4 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

4.1          PRICE AND PAYMENT PROCEDURES

 

  1. The contractor will be compensated for all work as described under this section, acceptably performed as determined by the Contract Manager, by respective contract bid price unit for each respective bid item.
  2. If no separate items are provided in the bid schedule for work required or described, such work shall be considered as incidental work, and compensation for such work is included in compensation for  the bid items provided under this contract.

END OF SECTION 02 61 13

 

SECTION 06 10 10 – ROUGH CARPENTRY

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

The Work under this Section consists of rough carpentry as shown on the Plans, as specified herein or as directed by the Engineer.

  1. This section includes the following:
    1. Framing with dimension lumber.
    2. Framing with timbers
    3. Wood furring, grounds, nailers, and blocking
    4. Runway trestle repairs and improvements.
    5. Definition
      1. Rough Carpentry: Carpentry work not specified in other sections.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with References.
  2. Section 31 62 19 – Timber Piles.
  3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
    1. ASTM 36 Carbon Structural Steel.
    2. ASTM 123 Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Products.
    3. ASTM 153 Zinc Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware.
    4. ASTM 307 Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs.
    5. ASTM 316L Stainless Steel.
    6. ASTM 563 Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts.
    7. ASTM 780 Repair of Damaged and Uncoated Areas of Hot-Dip Galvanized Coating.
    8. American Wood Preservers’ Association (AWPA).
      1. AWPA C2, Lumber, Timber, Bridge Ties and Mine Ties – Preservative Treatment by Pressure.
      2. Processes.
      3. AWPA C18. Standard for Pressure treated Material in Marine Construction.
      4. AWPA M4. Standard for the Care of Preservation Treated Wood Products.
      5. San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.
      6. San Francisco International Airport Rules and Regulations/Airport Building Regulations.
      7. Western Wood Products Association Grading Rules.
      8. West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau Standard 17 Grading Rules.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

 

  1. The contractor shall submit the following information according to Division 01 specification sections   in the contract associated with Submittals.
  2. Submit to the Engineer product Data for the following products:
    1. Engineered wood products.
    2. Metal framing anchors.
    3. Submit to the Engineer wood treatment data as follows, including chemical treatment manufacturer’s instructions for handling, storing, installing, and finishing treated materials:
      1. For each type of preservative-treated wood product, include certification by treating plant stating type of preservative solution and pressure process used, net amount of preservative retained, and compliance with applicable standards.
      2. For waterborne-treated products, include statement that moisture content of treated materials was reduced to levels indicated before shipment to Project site.
      3. Submit to the Engineer warranty of chemical treatment manufacturer for each type of treatment.
      4. Submit to the Engineer ICC Evaluation Service reports acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction  that evidence the following products’ compliance with building code in effect for Project.

1.4          DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

  1. Open-stack untreated timber and lumber material on suitable skids at least 12 inches above ground,  in a manner that will prevent warping and allow shedding of water.
  2. Close-stack treated timber and lumber material in a manner that will prevent long timbers from sagging or becoming crooked.
  3. Keep ground under and within 5 feet of all such piles free of weeds, rubbish, and combustible materials.
  4. Protect materials from weather using suitable coverings.
  5. Handle treated timber with ropes or chain slings without dropping, breaking outer fibers, bruising, or penetrating the surface with tools.
  6. Do not use cant dogs, peaveys, hooks, or pike poles.
  7. Protect timber and hardware from damage.

1.5          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. The contractor shall perform work in accordance with all applicable codes, rules and regulations, and the San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          LUMBER, GENERAL

  1. Beams and Stringers: Provide Douglas Fir Larch Select Structural, identified by the grade mark of the Western Wood Products Association.
  2. Joist: Provide Coastal Douglas Fir Larch Select Structural identified by the grade mark of the Western Wood Products Association.
  3. Plank Decking: Provide Douglas Fir Larch Select Structural identified by the grade mark of the Western Wood Products Association.
  4. Posts and Timber: Douglas Fir Larch Select Structural, identified by the grade mark of the Western Wood Products Association.
  5. General: No.1 Douglas Fir Larch or better, solid sawn (umber and timbers, identified by the grade mark of the Western Wood Products Association for support or attachment of other construction, including equipment curbs and support bases, rails and supports nailers, blocking, furring, and similar members.
  6. Fabricate lumber from dimension lumber of sizes indicated and into shapes shown.
    1. Moisture Content: 19 percent maximum for lumber items not specified to receive wood preservative treatment.
    2. Grade: As noted per WWPA or WCLIB

 

2.2          WOOD-PRESERVATIVE-TREATED MATERIALS

  1. Preservative Treatment: Fabricate lumber, timber and piles before preservative treatment. Preservative treat all lumber and timbers for marine exposure with ACZA per AWPA Standard C2 and C18, to a minimum net retention of 1.5lbs/cu.ft. Each piece shall be stamped or tagged with a quality mark indicating treatment type. Cuts, daps, and holes in lumber shall receive a field treatment consisting of 2 applications of the same preservative used in the pressure treatment. Each field application shall consist of thoroughly swabbing the cut, dap, or hole for a period of one (1) minute or by immersing the cut, dap, or hole for one (1) minute.

2.3          FASTENERS

  1. General: Provide fasteners of size and type indicated that comply with requirements specified here in for material and manufacture with a hot-dip zinc coating per ASTM A153 and A 123 or of Type 316 stainless steel as noted on drawings.
    1. Bolts with necessary nuts and washers, timber connectors, nails, screws, spikes, and other fastenings. Bolts, drift pins and lag screws shall conform to ASTM A 307. Nuts shall be compatible with threaded parts and be in accordance with ASTM A563. Fabricated plate washers shall conform to ASTM A36. Provide washers, cast-iron ogee, malleable iron, or plate or cut washers where indicated. Flat washers shall comply with the requirements of ANSI B 27.2. Provide bolts with washers under nut and head. Provide timber connectors and other metal fastenings of type and size shown.
    2. Fabricated Steel: All fabricated metal shall be ASTM A36 steel and hot-dipped galvanized after fabrication, or ASTM A 316L Stainless Steel as specified on the contract drawings.

2.4          METAL FRAMING ANCHORS

  1. General: Provide galvanized steel framing anchors of structural capacity, type, and size indicated and as follows:
    1. ICC Evaluation Reports: Provide products for which code research or evaluation reports exist that are acceptable to authorities having jurisdiction and that evidence compliance of metal framing anchors for application indicated with building code in effect for Project.
    2. Allowable Design Loads: Provide products with allowable design loads, as published by manufacturers that meet or exceed those indicated. Manufacturers published values shall be determined from empirical data or by rational engineering analysis, and demonstrated by comprehensive testing performed by a qualified independent testing agency.
    3. Galvanized Steel Sheet: Hot-dip, zinc-coated steel sheet complying with ASTM A 653, G60 coating designation; structural, commercial, or lock-forming quality, as standard with manufacturer for type  of anchor indicated.

 

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          INSTALLATION, GENERAL

  1. Discard units of material with defects that impair quality of rough carpentry and that are too small to use with minimum number of joints or optimum joint arrangement.
  2. Set rough carpentry to required levels and lines, with members plumb, true to line, cut, and fitted.
    1. Fit rough carpentry to other construction; scribe and cope as required for accurate fit. Correlate location of furring, nailers, blocking, grounds, and similar supports to allow attachment of other construction.
    2. Apply field treatment complying with AWPA M4 to cut surfaces of preservative-treated lumber.
      1. Securely attach rough carpentry work to substrate by anchoring and fastening as  indicated,  complying with the following:
        1. Published requirements of metal framing anchor manufacturer.
        2. "2304.9.1 Fastening Schedule" of the International Building Code.
      2. Use common wire nails, unless otherwise indicated. Make tight connections between members. Install fasteners without splitting wood.
      3. Use hot-dip galvanized or stainless-steel nails.

3.2          WOOD FRAMING, GENERAL

  1. Install framing members of size and at spacing indicated.
  2. Do not splice structural members between supports.

3.3          REMOVAL

  1. This work includes removal of Pier decking, ties and covers as shown on the drawings, as well as other framing which must be removed and re-installed to permit access to members designated for replacement. Assume all material has water-borne and/or other preservative treatment. All removed material shall be disposed of by the contractor in a legal manner, and placed in an appropriate landfill/dump site that accept specific hazardous materials. All temporarily removed material shall be protected from damage. All damaged timber shall be replaced with new timber as specified herein.
  2. Codes and Regulations: All demolition work shall comply with all pertinent codes and regulations.
    1. Protection: Use all means necessary to protect existing framing not designated for replacement. In the event of damage, immediately make all repairs and replacements necessary to the approval of the Owner at no additional cost to the Owner. All work is over the water and in areas of public use. Provide

 

measures to ensure that no material will fall into the water or provide unsafe conditions to the public during the work.

  1. Shoring and Bracing: Provide any temporary shoring or bracing that may be required during  demolition and construction.

3.4          CONSTRUCTION

  1. Workmanship shall be first class throughout and performed by workers skilled in the trade. All lumber and timber shall be accurately cut and framed to a close fit and shall have even bearing over the entire contact surfaces. Cut, bevel, notch and face lumber and timbers prior to plant preservative treatment. Provide personal protective equipment for all persons fabricating, field treating, or handling materials treated with water-borne salts.
  2. Boring: Bore holes for bolts with a bit 1/16-inch larger in diameter than bolt. Bore holes for wire spikes and dowels with a bit of the same diameter or smallest dimension to prevent splitting. Countersink wherever smooth faces are indicated or specified. Field treat holes in accordance with AWPA M-4.
  3. Fastening: All bolts 5/8 inch and less in diameter shall be fitted with cut washers and all bolts larger than 5/8 inch in diameter shall be fitted with cast or malleable iron washers. Burr threads of all bolts after nuts have been finally tightened. Vertical bolts shall have nuts on the lower end. Bolt members together when they are installed and retighten immediately prior to final acceptance of contract. Provide bolts having sufficient additional threading to provide at least 3/8-inch per foot thickness of timber for future retightening. Drift pin shall extend into new piling a minimum of 12 inches and a maximum of 24 inches.

3.5          FIELD TREATMENT

  1. Timberwork: Field treat all cuts, bevels, notches, refacing and abrasions made in the field in treated timbers in accordance with AWPA M4. Trim all cuts and abrasions before field treatment. Paint all depressions or openings around bolt holes, joints, or gaps including recesses formed by counter- boring, in accordance with AWPA M4.
  2. Galvanized Surfaces: Repair and recoat zinc coating which has been field or shop cut, burned by welding, abraded, or otherwise damaged to such an extent as to expose the base metal. Thoroughly clean the damaged area by wire brushing and remove all traces of welding flux and loose or cracked zinc coating prior to painting. Paint cleaned area with two coats of zinc rich paint conforming to ASTM A780.

3.6          REMOVAL OF DEBRIS

  1. Decking, Stringers, Pile Caps, Piles and Other Miscellaneous Material: Decking, railing, stringers, pile caps, piles and other miscellaneous material shall be disposed of by the contractor. Temporary storage or disposal shall not be permitted at the job site. The contractor shall make arrangements for disposal sites, and shall pay all costs involved and obtain all necessary permits that are required. Disposal certificates showing complete chain of custody, location and date of disposal shall be provided to the Owner. Material removed in the work will have been treated with preservative and shall be disposed of in accordance with all regulations.
  2. Disposal: When the contractor disposes of material at any location other than a public dump, they shall first obtain written permission from the property owner on whose property the disposal is to be made, and he shall file with the Owner said letter or a certified copy thereof together with a written release from the property owner absolving the Owner from any and all liability in connection with the disposal of material on said property. Permission and release from liability shall be furnished to and

 

approved by the Owner in writing prior to disposal of material at any site other than a public dump.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with Bid Items and Summary of Work, except as noted in Paragraph 5.B.
  2. All work associated with runway trestle repairs, extensions and improvements shall be included in Section 31 62 19 – Timber Piles.

END OF SECTION 06 10 10

 

SECTION 31 11 00 – CLEARING AND GRUBBING

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. The Work under this Section consist of clearing or stripping or clearing and grubbing, including the disposal of materials, for all areas within the limits designated on the plans or as required by the Engineer.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with References.
  2. California State Water Quality Control Board Requirements.
  3. FAA Specification Item P-151 – Clearing and Grubbing, and as modified herein.
  4. Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment FAA Item P-152.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. Not Used

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Not used PART 2 – PRODUCTS

A.      Not Used PART 3 – EXECUTION

A.  The contractor shall perform clearing and grubbing in accordance with FAA Specification Item P-151,   and as modified herein.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Item P-151, Clearing and Grubbing. PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

A. Unless otherwise indicated in FAA Specification Item P-151 and as modified herein, there will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to the respective contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items Summary of Work.

 

 

FAA ITEM P-151 CLEARING AND GRUBBING

DESCRIPTION

 

 

  • 151-1.1 –This item shall consist of clearing or clearing and grubbing, including the disposal of materials, for all areas within the limits designated on the plans or as required by the Engineer.
  1. Clearing shall consist of the cutting and removal of all trees, stumps, brush, logs, hedges, the removal of fences and other loose or projecting material from the designated areas. The grubbing of stumps and roots will not be required.
  2. Clearing and grubbing shall consist of clearing the surface of the ground of the designated areas of all trees, stumps, down timber, logs, snags, brush, undergrowth, hedges, heavy growth of grass or weeds, fences, structures, debris, and rubbish of any nature, natural obstructions or such material which in the opinion of the Engineer is unsuitable for the foundation of strips, pavements, or other required structures, including the grubbing of stumps, roots, matted roots, foundations, and the disposal from the project of all spoil materials resulting from clearing and grubbing.

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

  • 151-2.1 – GENERAL. The areas denoted on the plans to be cleared or cleared and grubbed shall be staked  on the ground by the Engineer. The clearing and grubbing shall be done at a satisfactory distance in  advance of the grading operations.
  1. All spoil materials removed by clearing or by clearing and grubbing shall be disposed of by removal to approved off-site disposal areas, except when otherwise directed by the Engineer.
  2. Burning of material is not permitted.
    1. All spoil materials removed by clearing or by clearing and grubbing shall be disposed of outside the Airport’s limits at the contractor’s responsibility, except when otherwise directed by the Engineer. As far as practicable, waste concrete and masonry shall be placed on slopes of embankments or channels. When embankments are constructed of such material, this material shall be placed in accordance with requirements for formation of embankments. Any broken concrete or masonry  that cannot be used  in construction and all other materials not considered suitable for use elsewhere, shall be disposed of by the contractor. In no case shall any discarded materials be left in windrows or piles adjacent to or within the airport limits. The manner and location of disposal of materials shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer and shall not create an unsightly or objectionable view. When the contractor is required to locate a disposal area outside the airport property limits, the contractor shall obtain and file with the Engineer permission in writing from the property owner for the use of private  property for this purpose.
    2. Blasting shall not be allowed.
      1. The removal of existing structure and utilities required to permit orderly progress of work shall be accomplished by local agencies, unless otherwise shown on the plans. Whenever a telephone or telegraph pole, pipeline, conduit, sewer, roadway, or other utility is encountered and must be removed or relocated, the contractor shall advise the Engineer who will notify the proper local authority or owner to secure prompt action.
  • 151-2.2 – CLEARING. The contractor shall clear the staked or indicated area of all objectionable materials.
  1. Trees unavoidably falling outside the specified clearing limits must be cut up, removed, and disposed of in a satisfactory manner. To minimize damage to trees that are to be left standing, trees shall be felled toward the center of the area being cleared. The contractor shall preserve and protect from injury all trees not to be removed. The trees, stumps, and brush shall be cut flush with the original ground surface. The grubbing of stumps and roots will not be required.
  2. Fences shall be removed and disposed of as directed by the Engineer. Fence wire shall be neatly rolled and the wire and posts stored on the airport if they are to be used again, or stored at a location designated by the Engineer if the fence is to remain the property of a local owner or authority.

 

  • 151-2.3 – CLEARING AND GRUBBING. In areas designated to be cleared and grubbed, all stumps, roots, buried logs, brush, grass, and other unsatisfactory materials shall be removed, except where embankments exceeding 3-1/2 feet (105 cm) in depth will be constructed outside of paved areas. For embankments constructed outside of paved areas, all unsatisfactory materials shall be removed, but sound trees, stumps, and brush can be cut off flush with the original ground and allowed to remain. Tap roots and other projections over 1-1/2 inches (38 mm) in diameter shall be grubbed out to a depth of at least 18 inches (0.5 m) below the finished subgrade or slope elevation.
  1. Any buildings and miscellaneous structures that are shown on the plans to be removed shall be demolished or removed, and all materials shall be disposed of by removal from the site. The cost of removal is incidental to this item. The remaining or existing foundations, wells, cesspools, and like structures shall be destroyed by breaking down the materials of which the foundations, wells, cesspools, etc., are built to a depth at least 2 feet (60 cm) below the existing surrounding ground. Any broken concrete, blocks, or other objectionable material that cannot be used in backfill shall be removed and disposed of at the contractor’s expense. The holes or openings shall be backfilled with acceptable material and properly compacted.
  2. All holes under embankment areas remaining after the grubbing operation shall have the sides of the holes flattened to facilitate filling with acceptable material and compacting as required in Item P-152. The same procedure shall be applied to all holes remaining after grubbing in areas where the depth    of holes exceeds the depth of the proposed excavation.

METHOD OF MEASUREMENT

  • 151-3.1 – There will be no separate measurement for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to the respective contract bid items as described in Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items and Summary of Work.

BASIS OF PAYMENT

  • 151-4.1 – There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to the respective contract bid items as described in Division 01 specification sections associated with bid items and Summary of Work.

 

END OF SECTION 31 11 00

 

SECTION 31 23 00 – EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. The Work under this Section consists of excavation, disposal, placement of embankments, and compaction of all materials within the limits of work required to construct airfield safety areas, runways, taxiways, aprons, and other areas for drainage, parking, or other purposes as shown on the Plans and as specified herein.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to References.
  2. Section 31 23 23 – Backfill and Geotextiles
  3. California State Water Quality Control Board Requirements.
  4. FAA Specification Item P-152, Excavation and Embankment, and as modified herein.
  5. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), standards and tests, as referenced in Item P-152.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

Prior to commencing the Work in this Section, the contractor shall submit the following Test information as according to Division 01 specification section in the contract pertaining to Submittals.

  1. Test Results: The contractor shall submit all copies of test results for In-Place Field Density and Test of laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil, as required by Item P-152, to the Engineer for review. These shall include retests for items that failed initial testing.
    1. Grade: The Contract shall provide ASCII files of grades at final excavation depth, and final embankment depth, on a 25’ x 25’ grid as described by 152-2.2 and 152-2.9. Subsequent work shall not be performed until the Engineer reviews and accepts these grades.

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. The contractor shall perform Quality Control testing to meet the requirement of FAA Specification Item P-152, and as modified herein.
    1. Airport shall confirm tolerances with a Licensed Surveyor to verify contractor’s work. PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          MATERIALS

  1. For backfill materials, refer to Section 31 23 23, Backfill and Geotextiles. PART 3 – EXECUTION
    1. The contractor shall perform excavation and embankment in accordance with FAA Specification Item P-152, and as modified herein.
    2. Contaminated Soil. Excavation, removal and disposal of the contaminated soil shall conform to the

 

requirements of Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to contaminated soils.

  1. Refer to Appendix A for sampling results at certain pot-hole locations identified in the report. The test data shall not be construed as the limits of contamination but should only be used as a guide. The contractor shall sample the soil and perform an independent analysis for volatile organic compounds, PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, CAM metals and other constituents according to the requisite hazardous material standards. The contractor shall dispose of any contaminated material in accordance with the rules and regulations appropriate for the class material.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Item P-152, Excavation and Embankment. PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

A. The work under this section shall be measured and paid for in accordance with FAA Specification Item P-152, and as modified herein.

 

 

FAA ITEM P– 152 EXCAVATION AND EMBANKMENT

DESCRIPTION

  • 152-1.1 – This item covers excavation, disposal, placement, and compaction of all materials within the limits of the work required to construct safety areas, runways, taxiways, aprons, and intermediate areas as well as other areas for drainage, building construction, parking, or other purposes in accordance with these specifications and in conformity to the dimensions and typical sections shown on the plans.
  • 152-1.2 – Classification. All material excavated shall be classified as defined below::
  1. Unclassified Excavation. Unclassified excavation shall consist of the excavation and disposal of all material, regardless of its nature which is not otherwise classified and paid for under one of the following items.
  2. Concrete Pavement Excavation. Concrete excavation shall consist of the removal and disposal of concrete pavements as shown on the contract drawings.
  • 152-1.3 – Unsuitable Excavation. Any material containing vegetable or organic matter, such as muck, peat, organic silt, or sod shall be considered unsuitable for use in embankment construction. Material, suitable  for topsoil may be used on the embankment slope when approved by the Engineer.

CONSTRUCTION METHODS

  • 152-2.1 – General. Before beginning excavation, grading, and embankment operations in any area, the area shall be completely cleared and grubbed in accordance with Item P-151.
  1. The suitability of material to be placed in embankments shall be subject to approval by the Engineer. All unsuitable material shall be disposed of in waste areas shown on the plans. All waste areas shall be graded to allow positive drainage of the area and of adjacent areas. The surface elevation of waste areas shall not extend above the surface elevation of adjacent usable areas of the airport, unless specified on the plans or approved by the Engineer.
  2. When the contractor’s excavating operations encounter artifacts of historical or archaeological significance, the operations shall be temporarily discontinued and the Engineer notified per

 

subsection 70-20. At the direction of the Engineer, the contractor shall excavate the site in such a manner as to preserve the artifacts encountered and allow for their removal. Such excavation will be paid for as extra work.

  1. Those areas outside of the limits of the pavement areas where the top layer of soil material has become compacted by hauling or other contractor activities shall be scarified and disked to a depth of 4 inches (100 mm), to loosen and pulverize the soil.
  2. If it is necessary to interrupt existing surface drainage, sewers or under-drainage, conduits, utilities, or similar underground structures, the contractor shall be responsible for and shall take all necessary precautions to preserve them or provide temporary services. When such facilities are encountered, the contractor shall notify the Engineer, who shall arrange for their removal if necessary. The contractor, at his or her expense, shall satisfactorily repair or pay the cost of all damage to such facilities or structures that may result from any of the contractor’s operations during the period of the contract.
  • 152-2.2 – Excavation. No excavation shall be started until the work has been staked out by the contractor and the Engineer has obtained from the contractor, the survey notes of the elevations and measurements  of the ground surface. All areas to be excavated shall be stripped of vegetation and topsoil. Topsoil shall be stockpiled for future use in areas designated on the plans or by the Engineer. All suitable excavated material shall be used in the formation of embankment, subgrade, or other purposes shown on the plans. All unsuitable material shall be disposed of as shown on the plans.
  1. When the volume of the excavation exceeds that required to construct the embankments to the grades indicated, the excess shall be used to grade the areas of ultimate development or disposed as directed by the Engineer. When the volume of excavation is not sufficient for constructing the embankments to the grades indicated, the deficiency shall be obtained from borrow areas.
  2. The grade shall be maintained so that the surface is well drained at all times. When necessary, temporary drains and drainage ditches shall be installed to intercept or divert surface water that may affect the work.
    1. Selective Grading. When selective grading is indicated on the plans, the more suitable material designated by the Engineer shall be used in constructing the embankment or in capping the pavement subgrade. If, at the time of excavation, it is not possible to place this material in its final location, it shall be stockpiled in approved areas so that it can be measured for payment as specified in paragraph 152-3.3.
    2. Undercutting (Over-excavation). Rock, shale, hardpan, loose rock, boulders, or other material unsatisfactory for safety areas, subgrades, roads, shoulders, or any areas intended for turf shall be excavated to a minimum depth of 12 inches (300 mm) below the subgrade or to the depth specified  by the Engineer. Muck, peat, matted roots, or other yielding material, unsatisfactory for subgrade foundation, shall be removed to the depth specified. Unsuitable materials shall be disposed off the airport. The cost is incidental to this item. This excavated material shall be paid for at the contract unit price per cubic yard (per cubic meter) for unclassified excavation. The excavated area shall be backfilled with suitable material obtained from the grading operations or borrow areas  and compacted to specified densities. The necessary backfill will constitute a part of the embankment. Where rock cuts are made, backfill with select material. Any pockets created in the rock surface shall be drained in accordance with the details shown on the plans
    3. Overbreak. Overbreak, including slides, is that portion of any material displaced or loosened beyond the finished work as planned or authorized by the Engineer. All overbreak shall be graded or removed by the contractor and disposed of as directed by the Engineer. The Engineer shall determine if the displacement of such material was unavoidable and his or her decision shall be final. Payment will not

 

be made for the removal and disposal of overbreak that the Engineer determines as avoidable. Unavoidable overbreak will be classified as “Unclassified Excavation.”

  1. Removal of Utilities. The removal of existing structures and utilities required to permit the orderly progress of work will be accomplished by someone other than the contractor; for example, the utility unless otherwise shown on the plans. All existing foundations shall be excavated at least 2 feet (60  cm) below the top of subgrade or as indicated on the plans, and the material disposed of as directed by the Engineer. All foundations thus excavated shall be backfilled with suitable material and compacted as specified.
    1. Compaction Requirements. The subgrade under areas to be paved shall be compacted to the depth and densities as shown on plans. When no density is shown, the subgrade under areas to be paved shall be compacted to a minimum depth of 6 inches and to a density of not less than 95 percent of the maximum density as determined by ASTM D 1557. The material to be compacted shall be within +/- 2% of optimum moisture content before being rolled to obtain the prescribed compaction (except for expansive soils).
    2. The in-place field density shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D 1556 or ASTM D 2167. Stones or rock fragments larger than 4 inches in their greatest dimension will not be permitted in the top 6 inches of the subgrade. The finished grading operations, conforming to the typical cross section, shall be completed and maintained at least 1,000 feet ahead of the paving operations or as directed  by the Engineer.
    3. All loose or protruding rocks on the back slopes of cuts shall be pried loose or otherwise removed to the slope finished grade line. All cut-and-fill slopes shall be uniformly dressed to the slope, cross section, and alignment shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer.
    4. Blasting will not be permitted.
    5. Proof rolling. After compaction is completed, the subgrade area shall be proof rolled with a heavy pneumatic-tired roller having four or more tires abreast, each tire loaded to a minimum of 30,000 pounds and inflated to a minimum of 125 psi in the presence of the Engineer. Apply a minimum of  two coverage, or as specified by the Engineer, to all paved areas. Coverage is defined as the application of one tire print over the designated area. Soft areas of subgrade that deflect more than 1 inch (25 mm) or show permanent deformation greater than 1 inch (25 mm) shall be removed and replaced  with suitable material or reworked to conform to the moisture content and compaction requirements in accordance with these specifications.
  • 152-2.3 – Preparation of Subgrade and Embankment Area (Fill). Where an embankment is to be constructed to a height of 4 feet (1.2 m) or less, all sod and vegetative matter shall be removed from the surface upon which the embankment is to be placed. The cleared surface shall be broken up by plowing or scarifying to    a minimum depth of 6 inches (150 mm) and shall then be compacted as indicated in paragraph 152-2.6. When the height of fill is greater than 4 feet (1.2 m), sod not required to be removed shall be thoroughly disked and recompacted to the density of the surrounding ground before construction of embankment.
  1. Sloped surfaces steeper than one (1) vertical to four (4) horizontal shall be plowed, stepped, benched, or broken up so that the fill material will bond with the existing material. When the subgrade is part  fill and part excavation or natural ground, the excavated or natural ground portion shall  be  scarified to a depth of 12 inches (300 mm) and compacted as specified for the adjacent fill.
  2. No direct payment shall be made for the work performed under this section. The necessary clearing and grubbing and the quantity of excavation removed will be paid for under the respective items of work.

 

  • 152-2.4 – Formation of Embankments. Embankments shall be formed in successive horizontal layers of not more than 8 inches (200 mm) in loose depth for the full width of the cross-section, unless otherwise approved by the Engineer.
  1. The layers shall be placed, to produce a soil structure as shown on the typical cross-section or as directed by the Engineer. Materials such as brush, hedge, roots, stumps, grass and other organic matter, shall not be incorporated or buried in the embankment.
  2. Earthwork operations shall be suspended at any time when satisfactory results cannot be obtained because of rain, freezing, or other unsatisfactory weather conditions in the field. Frozen material shall not be placed in the embankment nor shall embankment be placed upon frozen material. Material shall not be placed on surfaces that are muddy, frozen, or contain frost. The contractor shall drag, blade, or slope the embankment to provide surface drainage at all times.
  3. The material in each layer shall be within ±2% of optimum moisture content before rolling to obtain the prescribed compaction. To achieve a uniform moisture content throughout the layer, the material shall be moistened or aerated as necessary. Samples of all embankment materials for testing, both before and after placement and compaction, will be taken for each 1,000 square yards of material placed per layer. Based on these tests, the contractor shall make the necessary corrections and adjustments in methods, materials or moisture content to achieve the specified embankment density.
  4. Rolling operations shall be continued until the embankment is compacted to not less than 95% of maximum density for noncohesive soils, and 90% of maximum density for cohesive soils as  determined by ASTM D1557. Under all areas to be paved, the embankments shall be compacted to  the depths and densities as shown on plans. When no density is shown, the subgrade shall be compacted to a density of not less than 95% percent of the maximum density as determined by ASTM D1557.
  5. On all areas outside of the pavement areas, no compaction will be required on the top 4 inches (100 mm).
  6. The in-place field density shall be determined in accordance with ASTM D1556 or ASTM D2167. The Engineer shall perform all density tests.
  7. Compaction areas shall be kept separate, and no layer shall be covered by another layer until the proper density is obtained.
  8. During construction of the embankment, the contractor shall route all construction equipment evenly over the entire width of the embankment as each layer is placed. Layer placement shall begin in the deepest portion of the embankment fill. As placement progresses, the layers shall be constructed approximately parallel to the finished pavement grade line.
  9. When rock and other embankment material are excavated at approximately the same time, the rock shall be incorporated into the outer portion of the embankment and the other material shall be incorporated under the future paved areas. Stones or fragmentary rock larger than 4 inches (100 mm) in their greatest dimensions will not be allowed in the top 6 inches (150 mm) of the subgrade. Rockfill shall be brought up in layers as specified or as directed by the Engineer and the finer material shall be used to fill the voids with forming a dense, compact mass. Rock or boulders shall not be disposed of outside the excavation or embankment areas, except at places and in the manner designated on the plans or by the Engineer.
    1. When the excavated material consists predominantly of rock fragments of such size that the material cannot be placed in layers of the prescribed thickness without crushing, pulverizing or further  breaking down the pieces, such material may be placed in the embankment as directed in layers not

 

exceeding 2 feet (60 cm) in thickness. Each layer shall be leveled and smoothed with suitable equipment by distribution of spalls and finer fragments of rock. The layer shall not be constructed above an elevation 4 feet (1.2 m) below the finished subgrade.

  1. There will be no separate measurement of payment for compacted embankment. All costs incidental to placing  in layers,  compacting, discing, watering, mixing, sloping, and other operations necessary  for construction of embankments will be included in the contract price for excavation, borrow, or other items.
  • 152-2.5 Finishing and Protection of Subgrade. After the  subgrade  is  substantially  complete,  the  contractor shall remove any soft or other unstable material over the full width of the subgrade that will not compact properly. All low areas, holes or depressions in the subgrade shall be brought to grade with suitable select material. Scarifying, blading, rolling and other methods shall be performed to provide a thoroughly compacted subgrade shaped to the lines and grades shown on the plans.
  1. Grading of the subgrade shall be performed so that it will drain readily. The contractor shall protect the subgrade from damage and limit hauling over the finished subgrade to only traffic essential for construction purposes. All ruts or rough places that develop in the completed subgrade shall be  graded and recompacted.
  2. No subbase, base, or surface course shall be placed on the subgrade until the subgrade has been approved by the Engineer.
  • 152-2.6 – Haul. All hauling will be considered a necessary and incidental part of the work. The contractor shall include the cost in the contract unit price for the pay of items of work involved. No payment will be made separately or directly for hauling on any part of the work.
  • 152-2.7 – Tolerances. In those areas upon which a subbase or base course is to be placed, the top of the subgrade shall be of such smoothness that, when tested with a 12-foot (3.7-m) straightedge applied parallel and at right angles to the centerline, it shall not show any deviation in excess of 1/2 inch (12 mm), or shall not be more than 0.05 feet (15 mm) from true grade as established by grade hubs. Any deviation in excess of these amounts shall be corrected by loosening, adding, or removing materials; reshaping; and recompacting.

A.   On safety areas, intermediate and other designated areas, the surface shall be of such smoothness    that it will not vary more than 0.10 feet (3 mm) from true grade as established by grade hubs. Any deviation in excess of this amount shall be corrected by loosening, adding or removing materials, and reshaping.

  • 152-2.8 – Topsoil. Not used METHOD OF MEASUREMENT
    • 152-3.1 – The quantity of excavation to be paid for shall be the contract units measured in its original position. Measurement shall not include the quantity of materials excavated without authorization beyond normal slope lines, or the quantity of material used for purposes other than those directed.
    • 152-3.2 – For payment specified by contract unit price, measurement for all excavation embankment shall be computed by the average end area method. The end area is that bound by the original ground line established by field cross-sections and the final theoretical pay line established by excavation cross-sections shown on the plans, subject to verification by the Engineer. After completion of all excavation operations and prior to the placing of base or subbase material, the final excavation shall be verified by the Engineer   by means of field cross-sections taken randomly at intervals not exceeding 500 linear feet (150 m).
    • 152-3.3 – The quantity of “Concrete Pavement Demolition” to be paid for shall be the number of contract

 

units measured in its original position. Measurement shall not include the quantity of materials excavated without authorization beyond normal slope lines, or the quantity of material used for purposes other than those directed.

BASIS OF PAYMENT

  • 152-4.1 – “Unclassified Excavation” payment shall be made at the contract unit price. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials, labor, equipment, tools, removal of all materials from Airport property and disposal to off-site disposal area, and incidentals necessary to complete the item.
  • 152-4.2 – “Concrete Pavement Demolition” payment shall be made at the contract unit price of material identified. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials, labor, equipment, tools, removal of all materials from Airport property and disposal to off-site disposal area, and incidentals necessary to complete the item.

A.      Payment will be made in accordance with Division 00s and 01s specification sections in the contract pertaining to bid items and Summary of Work.

TESTING REQUIREMENTS

 

ASTM D698

Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Standard Effort (12,400 ft-lbf/ft3 (600 kN-m/m3))

ASTM D1556

Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by

the Sand-Cone Method

ASTM D1557

Standard Test Methods for Laboratory Compaction Characteristics of Soil Using Modified Effort (56,000 ft-lbf/ft3 (2700 kN-m/m3))

ASTM D2167

Standard Test Method for Density and Unit Weight of Soil in Place by

the Rubber Balloon Method

ASTM D6938

Standard Test Methods for In-Place Density and Water Content of Soil and Soil-Aggregate by Nuclear Methods (Shallow Depth)

 

END OF SECTION 31 23 00

 

SECTION 31 23 19 – DEWATERING

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. This section covers all work necessary to remove water from excavation areas, existing pipes and to control and monitor ground water and surface water during construction.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Related Documents:
    1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with Temporary Controls and Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Erosion and Sediment Control.
    2. Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment FAA Item P-152.

1.3          DEFINITIONS

  1. Deep Excavation: Deep excavation shall be defined as any excavation extending  below elevation (-  5.0) feet mean sea level (NGVD 29).
  2. Ground Water Levels and Initial Ground Water Levels: Ground water levels shall be defined as the levels of the ground water in a specific area as measured at any time during construction by the Engineer through observations and records made within monitoring wells at the site. Initial ground water levels shall be defined as the levels measured prior to the start of each construction phase.
  3. Hydrostatic Pressure and Initial Hydrostatic Pressure: Hydrostatic pressure shall be defined as the hydrostatic level measured at any time during construction by the Engineer through observations and records made in piezometers. Initial hydrostatic pressure shall be defined as the levels measured prior to the start of each construction phase.

1.4          PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS.

  1. Delegated Design: Contractor shall design, furnish, install, test, operate, monitor, and maintain dewatering systems of sufficient scope, size, and capacity to control hydrostatic pressures and to lower, control, remove, and dispose of ground water and permit excavation and construction to proceed given the specific site conditions.
  2. All dewatering equipment shall be in first class condition.
    1. Continuously monitor and maintain dewatering operations to ensure erosion control; stability of excavations and constructed slopes; that the excavation does not flood, and; that damage to subgrades and permanent structures is prevented.
    2. Prevent surface water from entering excavations and work areas by grading, dikes, or other means.
      1. Contractor is responsible for testing water from dewatering operation or groundwater or surface water that enters the excavation pit or comes into contact with refuse at no cost to the Airport Authority.
      2. Accomplish dewatering without damaging existing buildings, structures, and site improvements adjacent to excavation.
      3. Remove dewatering systems when no longer required for construction.

 

1.5          HANDLING OF GROUND WATER

  1. The contractor shall be responsible for the continuous control of ground water at all times during the course of construction, including Saturdays, Sundays, holidays and during periods of labor strikes.
  2. The contractor shall not discharge any ground water to the Bay, nor any sediment, debris, or pollutants into the Airport sewer and storm drainage systems, unless otherwise indicated. Ground water may be discharged into the storm drainage system after settlement in holding tank and if TPH is below level allowed by Water Quality Control Board per paragraph 1.07 Dewatering.
  3. Dewatering Discharge Handling During Site Excavation:
    1. Contractor's Dewatering Plan.
      1. Prior to commencing excavation or construction, the contractor shall submit and obtain Airport's approval of plans detailing the proposed method of handling and disposal of ground water, tide water, and storm water flow.
      2. The plan shall include detailed working drawings and pertinent descriptions of the proposed ground water control system including a schedule of installation and details of the system operation plan, contingency plans for interruption or failure of the proposed ground water control system, and disposal plan.
      3. The Dewatering Plan shall be designed and submitted to SFIA. By approving the plan, the Airport accepts no responsibility for the adequacy thereof  nor for any damages to  public or private property that may result. All such responsibility shall rest with the contractor.
      4. The contractor shall furnish, install and operate settling tanks during all excavation operations. Settling tanks shall be furnished in sufficient quantity to handle any foreseeable flow of dewatered ground water. This equipment shall include all pumps, hoses, fittings and other accessories necessary to contain and handle the dewatered ground water.
      5. The contractor shall perform all required remediation of dewatered ground water as necessary to meet the pre-treatment standards of this Section. If heavy metal, sludge, oil, grease, petroleum hydrocarbon residue, or other contaminants are found in the dewatered ground water, the contractor shall cease any disposal or discharge thereof and shall notify the Engineer to determine the proper course of subsequent action. Separation, collection and disposal of such contaminants shall comply with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations.
      6. Once the dewatered ground water has met the pre-treatment standards of this Section, such water may be disposed of into the Industrial Waste (IW) system as permitted by the Airport’s Mel Leong Treatment Plant.
        1. Temporary piping or other means of transporting the ground water to the IW system shall be at contractor's expense.
        2. Ground Water Pumped From the Excavation:
          1. Prior to discharging ground water from the settling tank to a reservoir, the contractor shall ensure that the ground water being disposed of is of quality equal to the pretreatment standards of San Mateo County.
          2. The ground water samples shall be collected and tested by the contractor.
          3. Should the existing ground water become contaminated due to the contractor's operations, all costs of satisfactory remediation and disposal shall be at the expense of the contractor. Such costs shall include, but not be limited to: all re-design, reconstruction, and pre-treatment costs necessary to satisfy the requirements of the regulations listed in Paragraph 1.05. D. 1.
          4. Should the existing ground water be found contaminated, or should it be uncontaminated but subsequently become contaminated due to conditions other than the  contractor's operations, all additional costs to pre-treat the contaminated water before routing the flow into the IW system (or other approved discharge point at the direction of the Engineer) will be paid for as Extra Work.
      7. The contractor shall remove all temporary lines and related connections upon completion of the work and shall restore all facilities to conditions prior to construction, to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

 

1.6          GROUND WATER LIMITATIONS

  1. The contractor shall perform operations to maintain the general ground water level at all times within 2 feet of the initial ground water level as hereinbefore defined. Contractor shall minimize water from seeping through excavation. Surface runoff shall be controlled to prevent entry of water into excavation.
  2. If the contractor chooses to use deep wells or well points, the wells and well points shall be designed, installed, and operated so as to prevent the removal of in-situ materials.
  3. If at any time the general ground water level measured in monitoring wells drops more than the maximum 2 feet as hereinbefore specified, the Engineer may require the contractor to stop the removal of ground water until the ground water levels rise to or above the specified levels. Correction of any damage which may result either to the contractor or City as a direct result of stopping the dewatering operations shall be provided by the contractor at his/her expense.

1.7          DEWATERING TESTING REQURIEMENTS

  1. When water is encountered, perform water testing for total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) and diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Provide test results by certified laboratory within one day, to the Contract Manager.
  2. If TPH is below level allowed by the Water Quality Control Board, the water then may be pumped to a holding area/tank before discharge to the existing drainage system.
  3. If TPH is higher than level allowed by the Water Quality Control Board, the water then shall be transported to and disposed at the Airport's industrial waste system.

1.8          EXISTING PIPE FLOW

  1. Contractor will be required to intercept existing, active storm drain pipes to complete the proposed construction. Contractor shall design a dewatering system to bypass or otherwise accommodate the existing flows so as to ensure storm and drainage water does not pond due to the temporary blockage of exiting drainage facilities. To this end, the contractor shall provide temporary methods of drainage control, such as sand bags, pumps, etc. to allow for the passage of storm and drainage water in a manner equivalent to the existing drainage system. Costs to provide temporary accommodation of flows shall be considered incidental to the drainage system work and no separate payment will be made
    1. Testing of existing pipe flows for as described in section 1.07 is not required unless evidence of hydrocarbons or other pollutants are evident.
    2. Settling tanks will not be required for handling of existing pipe flows. In the event that substantial debris and or sediment are found in the existing flows, contractor shall notify the engineer immediately.

 

1.9          SUBMITTALS

  1. The contractor shall make the following submittals:
    1. The contractor's Dewatering Plan described in Paragraph 1.05.C.1.
    2. When wells or well points are used, the contractor's submittals shall include location and spacing, total depth, size of casings and materials of fabrication, filter materials, screens, header sizes and types, types of pumps and the appropriate electrical connections, and water disposal points.
    3. Certified laboratory test results of ground water testing described in paragraph 1.07.A.

1.10       QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. The contractor shall perform work in accordance with all applicable codes, rules, and regulations, and the San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

  1. The contractor shall provide all materials and equipment, including but not limited to: pipe, fittings, valves, pumps, tools, fuel, and all other appurtenances in suitable and adequate quantities as required to perform the ground water control work.
    1. The contractor shall at all times have on the project site sufficient pumping equipment for immediate use, including standby pumps for use in case other pumps become inoperable.
    2. Contractor shall provide a sufficient number of pumps so as to hold the groundwater level at an elevation of not less than one foot below the lowest elevation of the concrete, pipe, duct or other material to be placed.
    3. Dewatering devices must be adequately filtered to prevent the removal of fines from the soil. PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          CONTROL OF WATER

  1. It should be presumed that the presence of groundwater will require dewatering operations.
    1. The dewatering operation shall be continuous, so that the excavated areas shall be kept free from water during construction, while concrete is setting and achieves full strength, and until backfill has been placed to a sufficient height to anchor the work against possible floatation.
    2. Continue dewatering during backfilling operations such that groundwater is at least one foot below the level of the compaction effort at all times. No compaction of saturated materials will be allowed.
    3. If pumping is required on a 24-hour basis and requires engine drives,  the engines shall  be equipped  in a manner to keep noise to a minimum. Refer to Division 01 Specification Section associated with Temporary Controls for additional noise control requirements.

 

3.2          HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE RELIEF

  1. Where deep excavations are made, the contractor shall maintain a safe hydrostatic pressure level directly below the excavated areas.
    1. The contractor shall also be responsible for preventing all hydrostatic pressure build-up under newly- placed slabs and walls until the concrete has attained its 28-day compressive strength.
    2. Reducing the hydrostatic pressure will no longer be necessary when backfilling of the excavated areas has been completed above ground water elevation and when the construction has been completed sufficiently that the contractor can demonstrate to the Engineer that the reactions from the completed portion of the structure can safely and adequately resist all potential uplift pressures. The contractor shall accept full responsibility for any damage which may result from not maintaining adequate hydrostatic relief as specified during construction.
    3. If at any time the hydrostatic pressure exceeds safe limits, the contractor shall take immediate steps  to reduce the hydrostatic pressure to safe limits. Any damage which may result either to the contractor or Airport as a direct result of excessive hydrostatic pressure shall be corrected by, and at the expense of, the contractor.

3.3          SAMPLING

  1. Samples to be submitted for ground water laboratory analyses shall be obtained with a clean Teflon, stainless steel, or disposable plastic bailer, or gas-actuated bladder pump. Alternative sampling techniques will be accepted only upon submittal of adequate documentation such as split sampling programs. The airlift form of sampling shall not be used for monitoring volatile compounds.
  2. Handling and Preservation: Water samples shall be handled and preserved according to RWQCB guidance or DHS guidelines or the latest EPA methods as described in the Federal  Register (Volume 44, No. 233, Monday, December 3, 1979, page 69544, Table II) or its amendments for the type of analysis to be performed. All sample containers shall be labeled with well number, site identification, date and time of sample collection and then transmitted to a state-certified laboratory under proper chain-of-custody protocol.

3.4          DISPOSAL OF GROUND WATER

  1. All ground water removed from the construction site shall be discharged through pipes. The  conveying of ground water in open ditches or trenches will not be allowed.
    1. Permission to use any storm sewers or drains for water disposal purposes shall be obtained from the authority having jurisdiction. Any requirements and costs  for such use shall be the responsibility of  the contractor. The contractor shall not cause flooding by overloading or blocking the flow in the drainage facilities; but shall leave the facilities unrestricted and as clean as originally found. Any damage to facilities shall be repaired or restored as directed by the Engineer or the authority having jurisdiction, at the sole expense of the contractor.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

A.    There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items and Summary of Work.

 

END OF SECTION 31 23 19

 

SECTION 31 23 23 – BACKFILL AND GEOTEXTILES

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. The Work under this Section consists of placement of filter fabric, soil and pavement stabilization fabric, backfill material and compaction of backfill materials as shown on the Plans, as specified herein or as directed by the Engineer.
  2. Unless otherwise specified in Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment (FAA Item P-152) or other sections of these specifications, the geotextile fabrics, backfill material and compaction as specified herein shall be used.
  3. This section includes the following:
    1. Site filling and backfilling.
    2. Fill under concrete slab.
    3. Fill under pavement.
    4. Fill in trench/around pipelines.
    5. Backfilling of abandoned utilities.
    6. Backfilling of abandoned utility structures.
    7. Fill in excavation.
    8. Fill for over-excavation.
    9. Fill to replace unsuitable, soft material.
    10. Consolidation and compaction as required.
    11. Placement of stabilization fabric over soft, unstable subsoil.
    12. Lining of filter fabric in trench, around pipe.
    13. Placement of filter fabric.

 

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to Temporary Controls.
  2. San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.
  3. ASTM C-29, Unit Weight and Voids in Aggregate.
  4. ASTM C-88, Soundness of Aggregate by Use of Sodium Sulfate or Magnesium Sulfate.
  5. ASTM C-117, Materials for Finer than No. 200 Sieve in Mineral Aggregates by Washing.
  6. ASTM C-131, Coarse Aggregate by Abrasion and Impact in the Los Angeles Machine.
  7. ASTM C-136, Method for Sieve Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregate.
  8. ASTM D-75, Sampling Aggregates.
    1. ASTM D-1557, Test Methods for Moisture - Density Relation of Soils and Soil-Aggregate Mixtures Using 10 lb. Rammer and 18-inch Drops.
    2. ASTM D-2419, Test Method for Sand Equivalent Value of Soils and Fine Aggregate.
      1. ASTM D-2434, Test Method for Permeability of Granular Soil (Constant Head).
      2. ASTM D-3017, Test Method for Water Content of Soil and Rock in place by Nuclear Method (Shallow Depth).
      3. Section 31 11 00 – Clearing and Grubbing (FAA Item P-151).
      4. Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment (FAA Item P-152).

 

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. The contractor shall submit the following information according to Division 01 specification sections   in the contract associated with Submittals:
    1. Manufacturer’s certificate of compliance on fabric material.
    2. Certified test results of the aggregate gradation and backfill material.

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Comply with San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards. Deliver, handle, and store materials in accordance with these specifications and manufacturer's instructions.
  2. The contractor shall perform quality control testing as required for each item of work.

1.5          PROJECT RECORD DOCUMENT

  1. The contractor shall accurately record the locations, areas, and depth of backfill construction, and shall provide such record to the Contract Manager before final payment will be processed.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          SELECTED DRY FILL MATERIAL

  1. Material shall be predominantly of a granular nature, consisting of soil or a combination of soil and aggregate, meeting the requirements set forth in these specifications.
  2. Soils which are made of clay or which contain large amounts of organic matter, or aggregate which disintegrates easily, or soils with properties of plastic soil, will not be accepted.
  3. Local material in the Airport may be used with the approval of the Engineer. Payment shall be in accordance with Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with the bid items and Summary of Work.
    1. Pre-qualifying Requirements:
      1. The material shall be well graded from coarse to fine with the maximum dimension of any single piece not to exceed three (3) inches. All interstices between large pieces shall be completely filled with smaller pieces and fine particles. Oversized material will not be permitted. Loads containing oversized material may be rejected by the Contract Manager and/or Airport Inspector and required to be hauled off the Airport property at the contractor's expense.
      2. Gradation:

 

Sieve Sizes

Percentage Passing by Weight

3 inch

100

2 ½ inch

90-100

No. 4

50-100

No. 200

0-30

 

  1. The sand equivalent of the material shall not be less than 21.
  2. Material shall have a liquid limit of less than 40 and a plasticity index of less than 12.

2.2          SAND FOR UNDERGROUND BEDDING

  1. Material shall conform the Section 2.01 in addition the criteria below:
    1. Bedding for Rigid Material, e.g. Concrete – Material shall be sand or select sandy soil with 100% passing a 3/8 inch (9 mm) sieve and not more than 10% passing a No. 200 (0.075 mm) sieve.
    2. Bedding for PVC material – Material shall consist of coarse sands and gravels with a maximum particle size of 3/4 inches (19mm). For pipes installed under paved areas, no more than 12% of the material shall pass the No. 200 (0.075mm) sieve.

2.3          STRUCTURAL BACKFILL

  1. Material shall conform the Section 2.01 in addition the criteria below:
  2. The structural backfill shall be per Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment (FAA Item P-152).
    1. Structural backfills are those defined as providing support to pavements, slabs, and foundations. Structural backfill should be predominantly granular, less than 3 inches in any dimension, free of organic and inorganic debris, and contains less than 20 percent of mostly non-plastic  fines passing   the No. 200 sieve.
    2. Native material may be used as structural fill providing it meets the above requirement and with the approval of the Engineer along with the following:
      1. Environmental testing shall be performed, and the report shall be reviewed for chemical characteristics and contaminant levels and must be approved by the Airport
      2. Maximum organic content shall not exceed 4% as tested per ASTM D2974

2.4          SLURRY BACKFILL

  1. Refer to Section 32 23 23.33 P-153 – Controlled Low Strength Material

2.5          DRAIN ROCK BACKFILL

  1. Material shall consist of clean, hard, durable, granular aggregate.
  2. Material shall be free from organic material, clay balls, or other deleterious material.
  3. Pre-qualifying Requirements:
    1. Samples of material and mill certificates from the quarry certifying that such samples are representative of the material are to be placed in this contract.
      1. Gradation tested per ASTM C136 shall conform to the following:

 

 

Sieve Sizes

Percentage Passing By Weight

1 inch

100

3/4 inch

90 - 100

3/8 inch

10 - 50

No. 4

0 - 10

No. 100

0 - 5

 

2.6          FILTER FABRIC

  1. The filter fabric shall be a pervious sheet of non-woven polypropylene monofilament yarns. The yarn shall consist by weight of at least 85% polypropylene and shall contain stabilizers and inhibitors added to the base plastic to make the filaments resistant to deterioration by ultraviolet light and/or heat exposure.
  2. Filter fabric shall be manufactured in widths of 6 feet or greater, and furnished in rolls not less than 300 linear feet.
  3. All edges of the fabric shall be selvaged or serged, and the fabric sections shall overlap a minimum of 18 inches.
  4. Specific gravity shall be 0.95.
  5. The fabric shall be free of defects or flaws which significantly affect its physical and/or filtering properties.
    1. The filter fabric shall meet all the requirements of the specifications, and have a service record of not less than ten (10) years in projects of a generally similar nature.
    2. A competent laboratory must be maintained by the producer of the fabric at the point of manufacture to ensure quality control.
    3. During shipment and storage, the fabric shall be wrapped in burlap.
    4. Pre-qualifying Requirements.
      1. Samples of the filter fabric shall be furnished to the Engineer for approval at least ten (10) working days prior to installation.
      2. Mill certificates from the manufacturer shall accompany these samples, citing trade name and the producer of the fabric, and certifying that the samples are representative of the material which will be installed on the project, and that the fabric meets all of the requirements of these specifications, and that a competent laboratory is maintained at the point of manufacture.
      3. A certified copy of permeability and filtration tests from a qualified laboratory showing the performance of the filter with various grain size soils and water giving both particle  retention and permeability shall be submitted.
      4. Filter fabric material shall be tested in conformance with the following procedures and results:

 

FABRIC PROPERTY

TEST METHOD

REQUIREMENTS

Grab Tensile Strength

ASTM D 4632

157 lbs min

Grab Tensile Elongation

ASTM D 4632

50% min

Trapezoid Tear Strength

ASTM D 4533

56 lbs min

Puncture Strength

ASTM D 6241

310 lbs min

Apparent Opening Size

ASTM D 4751

70 U.S. Sieve max

Permittivity

ASTM D 4491

0.80/sec min

UV Resistance

ASTM D 4355

(500 hrs exposure)

70% strength retained min

 

2.7          SOIL STABILIZATION FABRIC

  1. The soil stabilization fabric shall be a pervious woven sheet of polypropylene monofilament yarn. The yarn shall weigh at least 10 oz. per square yard. The yarn shall consist by weight of at least 85% polypropylene and shall contain stabilizers and inhibitors added to the base plastic to make the filaments resistant to deterioration by ultraviolet light and/or heat exposure.
  2. After weaving, the fabric shall be calendared and palmered so that the filaments retain their relative positions with respect to each other.
  3. Stabilization fabric shall be manufactured in widths of 6 feet or greater and furnished in rolls not less than 300 linear feet.
  4. All edges of the fabric shall be selvaged or serged and the fabric sections shall overlap a minimum of 18 inches.
  5. Specific gravity shall be 0.95.
  6. The fabric shall be free of defects or flaws which significantly affect its physical and/or stabilization properties.
  7. A competent laboratory must be maintained by the producer of the fabric at the point of manufacturer to ensure quality control.
  8. During shipment and storage, the fabric shall be wrapped in burlap.
  9. Pre-qualifying Requirements:
    1. Samples of the stabilization fabric shall be furnished to the Engineer for approval at least ten (10) working days prior to installation.
    2. Mill certificates from the producer shall accompany these samples, citing trade name and the producer of the fabric, and certifying that the samples are representative of the material which will be installed on the project, that the fabric meets all of the requirements of this specification, and that a competent laboratory is maintained at the point of manufacturer.
    3. Stabilization fabric material shall be tested in conformance with the following procedures and results:

 

TEST

METHOD

REQUIREMENTS

Grab Tensile Strength

ASTM D 4632

315 lbs min

Grab Tensile Elongation

ASTM D 4632

50% min

Wide Width Tensile Strength (at 5% strain)

ASTM D 4595

2,000 lb/ft

Wide Width Tensile Strength (at ultimate strength)

ASTM D 4595

4,800 lb/ft

Puncture Strength

ASTM D 6241

620 lbs min

Permittivity

ASTM D 4491

0.20/sec min

Apparent Opening Size

ASTM D 4751

30 U.S. Sieve max

UV Resistance

ASTM D 4355 (500 hrs

exposure)

70% strength retained min

 

2.8          PAVEMENT STABILIZATION FABRIC

  1. The pavement stabilization fabric shall be needle-punched, non-woven, thermally bonded on one  side, 100% polypropylene staple fiber fabric.
    1. The fabric shall be free of defects or flaws which significantly affect its physical and/or stabilization properties.
    2. A competent laboratory must be maintained by the producer of the fabric at the point of manufacturer to ensure quality control.
    3. During shipment and storage, the fabric shall be wrapped in burlap.
    4. Pre-Qualifying Requirements:
      1. Samples of the pavement stabilization fabric shall be furnished to the Engineer for approval at least 10 working days prior to installation.
      2. Mill certificates from the producer shall accompany these samples, citing trade name and the producer of the fabric, and certifying that the samples are representative of the material which will be installed on the project, that the fabric meets all of the requirements of this specification, and that a competent laboratory is maintained at the point of manufacturer.
      3. Stabilization fabric material shall be tested in conformance with the following procedures and results:

 

Mass per Unit Area

ASTM D 5261

4.1 oz/sq. yd. min

Grab Tensile Strength

ASTM D 4632

100 lb min

Grab Tensile Elongation

ASTM D 4632

50% min

Hydraulic Bursting Strength

ASTM D 3786

200 psi min

Melting Point

ASTM D 276

325 degrees F min

Asphalt Retention

ASTM D 6140

0.2 gal/sq. yd. min

 

  1. The fabric shall have a demonstrated field performance of compatibility with recycling methods

 

and construction survivability.

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          EXAMINATION

  1. Verify site conditions, soil characteristics and properties.
  2. Verify underground utilities, facilities, and  groundwater.

3.2          SURVEY

  1. Contractor shall perform Quality Control (QC) survey and Airport surveyors will perform Quality Assurance (QA) survey to check contractor's work.

3.3          PREPARATION

  1. Identify required lines, levels, contours, datum and water table.
  2. Stake and flag locations of utilities.
  3. Protect utilities to remain from damage.
  4. Notify utility companies to remove or relocate utilities as appropriate.
  5. Protect other properties, including landscaping to remain, from damage.
  6. Provide measures to protect passenger, vehicle, and aircraft traffic in the vicinity of work site.
  7. Be familiar with the Airport's procedures for construction safety, emergencies, and utility shutdowns.
  8. Notify the Contract Manager at least 3 working days before any utility shutdown.
  9. Prepare subgrade in accordance with Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment.
  10. Notify the Contract Manager at least 3 working days in advance for the arrangement of required testing services.

3.4          STRIPPING

  1. Section not used.

3.5          BENCHING AND STEPPING

  1. Per Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment (FAA Item P-152)
  2. Excavate from the existing ground to form a key to receive new fill.

3.6          STOCKPILING

  1. Per Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment (FAA Item P-152).

3.7          INSTALLATION OF SOIL STABILIZATION FABRIC

  1. When Bay Mud or unsuitable material is encountered, install stabilization fabric over the soft subgrade to improve bearing capacity of subgrades before installation of fill material.
    1. Trenches – Overexcavate to a depth of 12” below the bottom of fill material or as directed by the Engineer or unless otherwise indicated in the Contract Plans, line the bottom of the trench with soil stabilization fabric that extends the full width of the trench, backfill with 3/4" drain rock material to a depth of 12", then wrap the drain rock with the fabric with a 12" minimum overlap before installation of fill material.
    2. Large Expanse of Area – Overexcavate to a depth of 12” below the bottom of fill material or as directed by the Engineer or unless otherwise indicated in the Contract Plans, line the area with stabilization fabric, backfill with 3/4" drain rock material to a depth of 12", then line the top of the drain rock with a second layer of stabilization fabric before installation of fill material.

 

3.8          INSTALLATION OF FILTER FABRIC

  1. Install filter fabric in underdrain trenches, or around drainpipes, or other locations to prevent undesirable movement or wash-off of fine soil.

3.9          INSTALLATION OF PAVEMENT STABILIZATION FABRIC

  1. Prior to placing the fabric, the existing pavement to receive the fabric shall be cleaned to the satisfaction of the Engineer of all materials such as, but not limited to, vegetation, sand, dirt, gravel, and water.
  2. Fabric shall not be placed under overlays of less than 1-1/2 inches of compacted thickness in the 1st lift.
    1. Cracks between ¼ inch and ½ inch shall be filled with crack filler as specified by the Engineer. Wider cracks are to be repaired with fine hot mix asphalt.
    2. Remove any existing asphalt that deflects under load. Repair by placing a suitable geotextile between the native soil and the new aggregate base prior to paving with the appropriate hot mix asphalt. Optimum pavement fabric installation includes exposing the new asphalt (leveling course or repairs)  to traffic prior to the installation of the fabric interlayer. *NOTE: The Fabric Interlayer System should not be placed on new asphalt sections until the asphaltic concrete has either been exposed to traffic  or sealed to prevent absorption of Interlayer tack coat.
    3. Placement of the fabric shall be made only under the following conditions:
      1. The ambient air temperature is above 50°F and rising.
      2. The pavement is dry and pavement temperature is 40°F and rising.
      3. The fabric shall be placed into the asphaltic binder with a minimum of wrinkles that lap. Large wrinkles (1 inch and larger) shall be slit and lapped in the direction of paving. Burning or torching of wrinkles will not be allowed. All fabric shall be broomed in order to maximize pavement contact and remove air bubbles. The width of liquid asphalt application will be the fabric width, plus four inches. The fabric shall overlap two to six inches at the longitudinal joints and no more than two inches at the transverse joints. No joints shall be lapped with more than two layers of fabric. Transverse joints shall be shingled in the direction of the paving.
      4. Embedment of the fabric in the asphaltic binder is not recommended until the in-place binder has cooled to 180°F or below as determined by non-contact thermometer. This assists in reducing premature saturation (bleeding). Reducing embedment pressure of the fabric in to the tack reduces premature saturation (bleeding). The equipment for placing the fabric shall be mechanized and capable of handling full rolls of fabric. The equipment used to place the fabric is subject to approval   by the Engineer.
      5. Fabric placed over milled surfaces shall be applied as recommended in the procedure as for other overlays with special attention to large cracks and spalled areas. Such areas should be repaired prior  to the placement of paving fabric. Pavement fabric shall not be placed in milled areas where the compacted thickness of the overlying asphalt will be less than 1-½ inch of compacted thickness in the 1st lift. Application rate of tack coat shall be increased in milled areas (tapers or full width) by 10-15%. Placement of fabric is recommended from edge of pavement to edge of pavement when proper tack rate and minimum asphalt overlay thickness will be accomplished.
      6. To enhance the bond of the fabric with the existing pavement the contractor may be required to pneumatically roll the fabric after it is placed. The Engineer will make the determination if this is necessary. (This is recommended if an open-graded friction course or chip seal is to be placed over the fabric.)
      7. Turning of the paving machine or of other vehicles on the fabric should be gradual and  shall be kept  to a minimum to avoid damage to the fabric. Should equipment tires stick to the fabric during pavement operations, small quantities of paving asphalt concrete shall be broadcast on the fabric to prevent pick-up. DO NOT decrease tack rate in order to minimize pick-up on tires.
      8. Asphalt Tack Coat (Binder)
        1. The surface area to receive the fabric shall be sprayed with paving asphalt to be used as a binder. The original asphalt shall have a minimum absolute viscosity of 3,000 Poise at 140°F unless otherwise ordered by the Engineer. Higher original poise binder is recommended as ambient temperature increases. Binder shall be applied at approximately 33.6 oz/SY ± 4 oz/SY.  Application rate shall be increased in milled areas (tapers or full width) by 10-15%: 10% for smooth ground areas, 15% for large grooved areas. The Engineer shall determine the exact rate. Rate to be verified AIA test method, scale tags and/or core samples. The contractor’s attention is directed to Section 92.104, “Applying Asphalt,” of the State of California Standard Specifications. Good practice dictates that the asphalt binder be spread in the range of 290°F to 325°F.
          1. Asphalt tack coat spreading truck shall be equipped with a calibrated measuring rod and  external truck mounted gauge, which indicates gallons present in tank. Spot application rate checks will be performed as per the *Fabric Interlayer Guide*. Tack rate in gallons is calculated using asphalt cement weight of 238 gallons per ton.

 

3.10       BACKFILL CONSTRUCTION

  1. The contractor shall place and compact backfill materials as shown on the Plans, as specified herein or as directed by the Engineer.
  2. The location of haul roads constructed by the contractor within the Airport property shall be as indicated on the drawings or as directed by The Engineer. The material used for these roads on Airport will be considered as pay quantity. If required and directed by the Engineer, these roads shall be removed to conform to the grades of the surrounding terrain after the construction is completed. No separate payment will be made for removing the roads.
  3. No mixing of unsuitable materials with acceptable materials will be permitted.
    1. Material containing over 2% more moisture than optimum moisture content will not be permitted to be used unless approved by the Contract Manager. Contractor may be required to haul such rejected material off Airport property in a timely manner, at his own expense. Any necessary operations required for drying out the material to the optimum moisture shall be at the sole expense of the contractor. Should material containing more moisture than optimum moisture be used, the weight of the water in the fill material in excess of 2% above the optimum moisture content will be deducted

 

from the pay quantities.

  1. Remove water from subgrade or surface to receive fill and keep it reasonably dry so that work can progress.
  2. Employ an installation method that will not disturb or damage other work.
  3. Unless otherwise indicated on the plans or these specifications, place and compact fill material in layers not exceeding 8 inches uncompacted thickness.
    1. The contractor shall take all necessary precautions during construction activities in operations on or adjacent to the Lightweight Backfill material to ensure that the material is not over-compacted.
    2. Construction equipment, other than for compaction, shall not operate on the exposed Lightweight Backfill.
    3. Placement of Flowable backfill (Geofill LD or equal) shall not exceed depths as recommended by the manufacturer.
    4. Construction shall be suspended at any time when satisfactory results cannot be obtained on account of weather or other unsatisfactory conditions arising in the field.
    5. Throughout the construction, the contractor shall blade, or slope the fill, to provide proper surface drainage so no water is collected and no ponding is formed.
    6. Provide a "competent person" as required by CAL/OSHA as appropriate.

3.11       COMPACTION

  1. Compaction Density: Unless otherwise shown on the plans or these specifications, compact each layer of backfill material to not less than 90 percent of maximum density as determined by ASTM D 1557. Required compaction within 6 inches of subgrade beneath asphalt pavement shall be not less than 95 percent of maximum density as determined by ASTM D 1557. Backfill material shall be spread in loose lifts not exceeding 8 inches deep prior to compaction. Compact each lift prior to placement of succeeding lifts.
  2. Each layer of fill construction will be tested, and successive layers will not be allowed to be placed unless permission is granted by the Contract Manager.

3.12       PROTECTION OF NEW CONSTRUCTION

  1. Protect the new fill construction and the new fabric from any damage.
  2. Prohibit vehicle traffic on new material.
    1. If damage or rutting is found, contractor shall replace damaged material and reconstruct with new material at contractor's expense.
    2. Storage or stockpiling of materials on top of new construction shall not be permitted.

3.13       SURPLUS MATERIAL

  1. Unless otherwise shown on the plans, the contractor shall remove surplus material from Airport property at the contractor’s expense.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

 

Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. If there is no quantity shown in the bidding schedule, the work covered by this section shall be considered subsidiary obligation of the contractor covered under other contract items.
  2. Unless otherwise provided in the bid schedule, no measurement and payment shall be made for geotextiles under this Section. Geotextiles shall be considered incidental to the  respective  contract bid items.
  3. There shall be no payment for dry fill material, backfill material and filter fabric material used for standard SWPPP practices, underground structures, structural foundations and utility installations including storm drain system. The dry fill material, backfill material and filter fabric material used for SWPPP practices, structures and utilities including storm drain system shall be considered incidental  to the respective contract bid items.
  4. Where unsuitable subgrade materials are encountered which will not allow for standard compaction methods and will hinder the progress of work contractor shall delineate the impacted area in the field and notify the Engineer. Engineer shall review and confirm area to receive subbase stabilization. Subbase stabilization shall include the over-excavation of 12” of material, placement of soil stabilization fabric on the exposed subgrade, placement of drain rock per Section 3.07 to return the area to proposed subgrade, and the installation of soil stabilization fabric on top of the drain rock. Compaction of the drain rock will not be measured, but shall be sufficient to provide a stable platform for the construction of the proposed design section above. Payment shall be made at the contract unit price per square yard of 12” base rock and soil stabilization. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials, preparation, excavation, removal of unsuitable material, installing drain rock, grading, installing soil stabilization fabric, temporary stockpiling, and for all, labor, equipment, tools, hauling, removal of all materials from Airport property and disposal to off-site disposal area, and incidentals necessary to complete the item.
  5. Payment will be made under Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 31 23 23

 

SECTION 31 25 00 – EROSION AND SEDIMENTATION CONTROL

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. This Section describes the requirements for providing and installing temporary erosion control measures, including but not limited to the following, as specified herein and required to eliminate potential erosion and sedimentation during construction works:
    1. Installation of siltation fences
    2. Protection of outlet structures and drainage inlets
    3. Installation of geotextile fabrics
    4. Regulatory requirements
      1. California Storm-water Quality Association (CASQA) “Storm-water Best Management Practice Handbook Portal,” latest edition
      2. Caltrans Standard Plans and Specifications, latest edition
      3. San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards
      4. San Francisco International Airport Rules and Regulations/Airport Building Regulations
      5. National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) General Permit for Storm Water Discharges associated with Construction and Land disturbance activities, Order No. 2009-0009- DWQ
      6. State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) standards
      7. Geotechnical Report

1.2          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. All Work shall be done to the satisfaction of the designated representative of the Airport Inspector.
  2. Inspection Service: The contractor shall provide a Qualified Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) Practitioner (QSP) to perform necessary inspections and ensure compliance with this Specification and the SWRCB approved SWPPP, in addition to the applicable governing agency performing site inspections.
    1. Perform the work of this Section in compliance with applicable requirements of all governmental agencies having jurisdiction.
    2. Perform the work of this Section in compliance with applicable requirements of all governmental agencies having jurisdiction, and the requirements and recommendations of the Soils Report.
    3. Use adequate numbers of skilled workmen who are thoroughly trained and experienced in the necessary crafts and completely familiar with the specified requirements and the methods needed for proper performance of the specified work.
    4. Use equipment in adequate size, capacity and numbers to accomplish the specified work in a timely

 

manner.

1.3          SITE CONDITIONS

  1. Do not commence earthwork operations until temporary erosion and sedimentation controls, and  tree protection measures are in place.
  2. In the event there are any unforeseen above grounds or subsurface conditions encountered that  affect design or function of project, investigate fully and submit an accurate, detailed, written report to the Architect or Owner. While waiting for a response, reschedule operations if necessary to avoid delay of overall project.
  3. Contractor shall provide dust alleviation and control measures satisfactory to all applicable regulatory agencies at all times during the course of the work at no additional expense to the Owner.
  4. Contractor shall be solely responsible for the maintenance of graded areas until final acceptance thereof, and shall take such actions of whatever nature as may be necessary or required to protect the graded surface from erosion during installation and until final acceptance thereof by the Owner.
    1. The contractor shall be solely responsible for any and all fines, penalties, or damages which result from failure to comply with the requirements of this Section.
    2. The contractor shall be solely responsible for complying with the soil erosion and sedimentation control requirements of this Section and of the final approved SWPPP from the SWRCB and for otherwise preventing contamination of storm water from the general construction activities.

1.4          INSPECTIONS

  1. The contractor shall perform site inspections before and after any rainstorms to ensure all Best Management Practices are in good working order and in accordance with the SWRCB approved SWPPP.
    1. The Best Management practices implemented shall be inspected weekly, in accordance with the Construction General Permit, to ensure all erosion and sedimentation control practices are in good working order.
    2. The governing authority having jurisdiction will perform periodic inspections to ensure compliance with the Construction General Permit.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          GEOTEXTILES

  1. Subsurface Geotextile: Nonwoven needle-punched geotextile, manufactured for subsurface drainage applications, made from polyolefins or polyesters; with elongation greater than 50 percent; complying with AASHTO M 288 and the following, measured per test methods referenced.
    1. Survivability: Class 2; AASHTO M 288
    2. Grab Tensile Strength: 100 lbf; ASTM D 4632
    3. Tear Strength: 45 lbf; ASTM D 4533
    4. Puncture Strength: 55 lbf; ASTM D 4833
    5. Apparent Opening Size: No. 70 (0.212-mm) sieve, maximum; ASTM D 4751
    6. Permittivity: 135 gal/min/ft2, minimum; ASTM D 4491
    7. UV Stability: 50% after 500 hours’ exposure; ASTM D 4355

 

2.2          SILT FENCE

  1. Filter fabric shall be in accordance with ASTM D4632 and be a pervious sheet of a synthetic polymer and shall contain stabilizers and/or inhibitors to resist deterioration by heat, water and ultraviolet light. The fabric shall conform to the following criteria:
    1. Equivalent Opening Size: No. 70 (0.212-mm) sieve, minimum
    2. Grab Tensile Strength: 120lbf; ASTM D 1682G
    3. Permittivity: 0.1 sec-1 – 0.15 sec-1; ASTM D4491
    4. Height: 42 inches maximum
    5. Wood stakes shall be commercial quality lumber of the size and shape shown on the plans. Each stake shall be free from decay, splits or cracks longer than the thickness of the stake or other defects that would weaken the stakes and cause the stake to be structurally unsuitable.
    6. Staples used to fasten the fence fabric to the stakes shall conform to the following criteria:
      1. Length: 1.75 inches, minimum
      2. Strength: 15 Gauge or heavier wire, galvanized
      3. Wire used to fasten the tops of the stakes together when joining two sections of fence shall be 9 Gauge galvanized or heavier wire.

2.3          GRAVEL BAGS

  1. Gravel bags shall be woven polypropylene, polyethylene or polyamide fabric or burlap and shall conform to the following criteria:
    1. Weight: 4 ounces/yd2, minimum
    2. Mullen Burst Strength: 300 lb/in2, minimum; ASTM D 3786
    3. Ultraviolet Stability: 70% minimum; ASTM D4355
    4. Size: 18 inches long, 12 inches wide, and 3 inches thick, or approved equal
    5. Mass: 33lbs. approximately
    6. Fill Material:
      1. Gravel Bags: Fill material shall be ½-inch to 1-inch Class 2 Aggregate Base, clean and free from clay and organic material and other deleterious material, or other suitable open- graded, non-cohesive, porous gravel.

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          GENERAL

  1. Erosion and sediment control measures will be inspected and repaired at the end of each working day and, in addition, before and after each storm.
  2. The contractor shall exercise every reasonable precaution, including temporary and permanent measures throughout the duration of the project to control erosion and prevent or minimize pollution of rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, and other receiving waters.
  3. Protect and maintain erosion and sedimentation controls during earth moving operations.
    1. Temporary measures shall be coordinated with contract work to the extent practicable to ensure economical effectiveness, and continuous erosion and siltation control and pollution prevention. Permanent pollution control measures and facilities shall be installed as the work progresses.
    2. Seeded areas shall be repaired, reseeded and mulched as soon as possible after any damage.

 

3.2          INSPECTION

  1. The contractor shall perform weekly inspections to ensure all BMP measures are properly maintained.
    1. The contractor shall inspect erosion and siltation control devices and measures for deficiencies immediately before  and after each qualifying rain event, and at least daily during prolonged rainfall.   A qualifying rain event is any rain event that has an accumulative amount of rain being equal to or greater than 0.50 inches.
    2. Deficiencies shall be corrected immediately. Failure on the part of the contractor to maintain erosion and sediment control devices in a functioning condition may result in notification by the inspecting agency or Owner of specific deficiencies. If contractor fails to correct or take appropriate actions to remedy the specified deficiencies within 24 hours after receipt of such notification may result in stop of work until such deficiencies are corrected.

3.3          SILT FENCE

  1. Silt fence shall be installed at the locations and to the limits shown on the approved SWPPP and as otherwise directed by the governing authority.
    1. The contractor shall maintain the alignment and condition of the silt fence, as necessary, throughout its use on the project. Upon completion and/or as directed by the governing authority the contractor shall remove the silt fence from the project.
    2. If required by construction operations the silt fence shall be temporarily relocated as necessary.

3.4          DUST CONTROL

  1. Contractor shall employ construction methods and means that will keep airborne dust to a minimum.
  2. Contractor shall provide for prompt and proper removal from existing aprons and roadways of all dirt and other materials that are generated by the on-site construction operations.

3.5          CONSTRUCTION ENTRANCE

  1. Contractor shall construct a stabilized construction entrance and wash-down area as shown per the plans and at all entrances or exits from the project. The stabilized entrance shall be constructed prior to any excavation or earthmoving operations.
  2. The stabilized construction entrance shall be periodically cleaned to ensure drainage from the entrance does not clog.

3.6          FIBER ROLLS (STRAW WATTLE)

  1. Fiber rolls shall be prefabricated rolls or rolled tubes of erosion control blanket and shall have a minimum diameter of 8 inches.
  2. All rolls shall be bound at each end and every 4 feet along the length of the roll with jute-type twine.
    1. When rolls are used on slopes turn the ends of the rolls up the slope to prevent runoff from going around the roll.
    2. Fiber rolls shall be placed in a two (2) to four (4) inch deep trench with a width equal to the diameter of the fiber roll as shown on the plans. Stakes shall be driven at the end of each fiber roll and spaced  at four (4) feet maximum on center.

 

3.7          GRAVEL BAGS

  1. Gravel bags shall be installed per plan and shall not be used for drainage areas greater than 5 acres.
  2. Gravel bags shall be placed with the ends placed together tightly. On multiple rows, or multiple layer construction, overlap butt joints of adjacent row and row beneath.
  3. All bags shall be stacked using a pyramid approach.
  4. When stacking gravel or sandbags follow the following height criteria:
    1. Non-Traffic Areas:
      1. Height: 18 inches, maximum
      2. Top Width: 12 inches for one or two-layer construction and 24 inches for three or more layers
      3. Side Slope: 2:1 or flatter
      4. Traffic Areas:
        1. Height: 12 inches, maximum
        2. Top Width: 12 inches for one or two-layer construction and 24 inches for three or more layers
        3. Side Slope: 2:1 or flatter

3.8          STORAGE OF MATERIALS

  1. Materials shall be stored on pallets or wood blocking to prevent materials from becoming wet or be stored within surface water. Cover to prevent windblown dust.
    1. Store materials away from edge of excavations. Do not store within drip line of remaining trees. END OF SECTION 31 25 00

 

 

SECTION 31 32 16.16 – SOIL STABILIZATION AND DUST CONTROL

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. The Work under this Section consists of constructing soil stabilized roads and dust control of unpaved areas, using mixture of soil stabilizer and soil, complete as shown on the Plans, as specified herein       or  as  directed  by  the  Engineer.  Soil  stabilizer  material  and  dust   control   agent   shall   be   Soiltac® as manufactured by Soilworks® LLC, Chandler, Arizona or approved equal.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated References.
  2. FAA AC No. 150/5320-6E, Airport Pavement Design and Evaluation.
  3. Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment FAA Item P-152.
  4. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards and tests.
  5. American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHTO) standards and tests.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. The contractor shall submit the following information according to Division 01 specification sections   in the contract associated with Submittals:
    1. Catalogs / Brochures / Standard Literature.
    2. Complete Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) data indicating manufacturer’s chemical analysis of the soil stabilizer present in concentrations greater than 0.1% of each product.
    3. Compliance data indicating conformance with the Material Description.
    4. Contractor shall, prior to start of work and as requested by Contract Manager, furnish for review and approval, a brief and thorough narrative describing work procedure and testing of material as required for compliance with the project requirements.
    5. The contractor shall be required to perform a test section, in a location as directed by the Contract Manager, to show that they are capable of performing the work to the satisfaction of the Contract Manager and in accordance with these contract specifications

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Comply with all applicable codes, rules and regulations, the San Francisco International Airport Guidance and Standards, and the San Francisco International Airport Rules and Regulations/ Airport Building Regulations.
    1. The soil stabilizer shall be delivered to the jobsite in sealed containers. Product delivered to the jobsite without the seal intact will be rejected. Each load of soil stabilizer delivered to the jobsite shall be accompanied by a certificate of compliance provided by the material supplier that has the following

 

minimum information included:

  1. Certificate Date
  2. Brand Name of the Product
  3. Numbers of Containers of Product
  4. Gallons of Product per Container
  5. Materials Supplier
  6. Consignee
  7. Destination
  8. The certificate of compliance should include signed verification by the manufacturer assuring the product complies with the manufacturer’s published specification.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          MATERIALS

  1. Soil stabilizer shall conform to the following criteria:

 

Ingredients

Vinyl Acetate Copolymer

Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cohesive

Soil (AASHTO T-208)

600PSI Minimum

Permeability (ASTM D 5084)

1.0 x 10-9 cm/sec Minimum

HMIS Hazard Rating

(HMIS is a registered trademark of the National

Paint and Coatings Association)

1 or less

Environmental

Biodegradable Non-Carcinogenic Non-Combustible Non-Corrosive Non-Dissipating Non-Flammable Non-Hazardous Non-Leaching Non-Toxic

Non-Volatile

PM10 & PM2.5 Compliant UV Resistant

Vegetation Safe

Physical Form

Liquid

pH

4.0 to 6.0

Active Solids Content

50% Minimum

Brookfield Viscosity (at 25°C)

1,200 cps Maximum

Color

Milky white (prior to curing)

Transparent (once cured)

Solubility Soluble

Soluble (prior to curing)

Insoluble (once cured)

 

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          TIME OF APPLICATION

 

  1. No work shall be done during wet or unsuitable weather. The mixing and placing of the soil stabilizer treated surface will not be permitted when the surface is frozen or the ambient temperature is less than 40°F When conditions indicate that rain may be expected or the ambient temperature may be expected to fall below 32°F within 72 hours no work shall be accomplished.
  2. Notify the Engineer to be present during application, at least 24 hours prior to application of the soil stabilizer. Apply soil stabilizer during normal working hours in order to be subject to observation. Do not treat soil until all trenching, and backfill, for building, structures and underground utilities and pre- wetting has been completed. Do not treat soil that cannot be mixed, placed and compacted in the same day.

3.2          CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS

  1. Copolymer emulsion treated surface shall be constructed by scarifying the existing surface to a depth of 4 inches, spreading the designated amount of copolymer emulsion on the scarified surface, and mixing until thoroughly and uniformly processed. Mixing, compaction, and finishing shall be  performed immediately following the placement of the copolymer emulsion.

3.3          SOIL STABILIZATION APPLICATION - ARFF ROAD

  1. Perform construction of soil stabilization for Airfield Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF) road In accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations, and as follows:
    1. Provide a potable water source for the water for pre-wetting and diluting the soil stabilizer.
    2. The subgrade areas to be treated shall be test rolled prior to the addition of the copolymer emulsion with a grader having a minimum weight of 15 tons. Areas lacking sufficient stability in the opinion of the Engineer shall be sub-excavated to a depth not to exceed 3 feet and replaced with suitable material obtained from the designated borrow area per Section 31 23 00, FAA Item P-152.
    3. Construct subgrade to finish grades and elevations indicated on the plans and specification Section 31 23 00, FAA Item P-152.
    4. Scarify (pre-wetting if necessary) existing sub-grade soils to the depth of stabilization indicated on the plans.
    5. The amount of water required to achieve optimum moisture of the area to be treated will be field determined by comparing the in place moisture content to the optimum moisture content (determined by proctor test). The in place moisture content will be determined by the average  of four in place readings with a nuclear density gauge. The total area to be treated shall be divided into four equal sub-areas and one test will be conducted in each sub-area for the in place moisture determination test. The four in place readings will be performed immediately prior to beginning the surface treatment process.
    6. Apply the soil stabilizer at a net application rate determined by the Engineer and based on laboratory tests with the native soils. The application rate shall be in gallons of undiluted product per square yard per inch of depth of stabilization as indicated on the plans. The soil stabilizer shall be spread by an approved spreading device capable of spreading the soil stabilizer  uniformly to within 5% of the specified quantity.
    7. Initial mixing shall take place immediately after the application of the soil stabilizer. The soil stabilizer, soil, and water, shall be thoroughly mixed and blended by means of self-propelled rotary-type mixing machine, as approved by the Engineer, until a uniform mixture throughout the required depth and width is obtained. All clods and lumps shall be reduced to a maximum

 

of 2” diameter size. There shall be a 6” minimum overlap between passes. The mixing machine shall make as many passes as required to uniformly mix the soil stabilizer, water, and soil to the full depth on the plans. Streaks and pockets of soil stabilizer shall be considered as evidence of inadequate mixing.

  1. Compact the full width of the road to the finish grade indicated on the plans using pneumatic rollers initially and a minimum 10-ton steel wheel finish roller to achieve a uniform soil structure having a minimum 95% of maximum density when tested in accordance with AASHTO T-99, Method A, and T-191 or ASTM D-2922 and D-3017. Compaction shall begin immediately after mixing has been completed. Roll from the sides to the center, parallel to the centerline of the road. Along curbs, headers, walls, and all places not accessible to the roller, compact the material with approved tampers or compactors.
    1. The top surface of the treated surface shall not vary more than 0.1 ft. above or below established grade and 0.05 ft. above or below the typical cross section measured on the finished surface at right angles to the centerline. All deviations from these tolerances shall be corrected. The completed section shall be finished by rolling with a pneumatic or other suitable roller sufficiently light to prevent hairline cracking.
    2. Upon completion of the compaction, the soil stabilized roadbed shall be cured for a period no less than 24 hours, unless otherwise directed by the Engineer. No equipment or traffic will be permitted on the stabilized roadbed until stabilized roadbed has cured enough to support vehicles without damage. Damage to the treated surface due to the contractor’s operations shall be repaired at the contractor’s expense.
    3. Application of soil stabilizer topical seal coat shall be applied at a rate of 100 square feet per gallon (concentrate) diluted with 6 parts water. The diluted emulsion shall be applied to the area in two (2) coats. Each successive coat of the diluted emulsion should be applied in a timely manner to ensure that the surface always stays wet with the diluted emulsion. Do not allow the diluted emulsion to dry between coats, failure to do so will result in an underperforming “skin” layer rather than a penetrating layer. The surfaces to receive the seal coat shall be completely dry and free from water. The seal coat shall not be placed within 24 hours of the completion of the soil stabilizer treated surface. The polymer based emulsion shall be spread by an approved spreading device capable of spreading the polymer based emulsion mixture uniformly to within 5% of the specified quantity.
    4. The finished surface shall be allowed to dry and cure prior to allowing vehicle traffic. No equipment or traffic will be permitted on the finished surface until it is cured enough to support vehicles without damage. Damage to the sealed surface due to the contractor’s operations shall be repaired at the contractor’s expense.

3.4          SOIL STABILIZATION APPLICATION – DUST CONTROL

  1. Perform dust control of the unpaved areas in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations, and as follows:
    1. Application of soil stabilizer topical seal coat shall be applied at a rate of 100 square feet per gallon (concentrate) diluted with 6 parts water. The diluted emulsion shall be applied to the area in two (2) coats. Each successive coat of the diluted emulsion should be applied in a timely manner to ensure that the surface always stays wet with the diluted emulsion. Do not allow the diluted emulsion to dry between coats, failure to do so will result in an underperforming “skin” layer rather than a penetrating layer. The surfaces to receive the seal coat shall be completely dry and free from water. The seal coat shall not be placed within 24 hours of the completion of the soil stabilizer treated surface. The polymer based emulsion shall be spread by an approved

 

spreading device capable of spreading the polymer based emulsion mixture uniformly to within 5% of the specified quantity.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. Measurement for dust control shall be made by contract  unit.
    1. Payment for dust control shall be made at the contract unit price for the completed application of topical seal coat in place. The price shall be full compensation for furnishing all material, and for all preparation, delivering, processing, placing and mixing these materials, and all  labor,  equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete this item.
    2. Payment for constructing ARFF road shall be made at the contract unit price, as a single complete unit of Work, including application of soil stabilizer and topical seal coat in place. The price shall be full compensation for furnishing all material, and for all preparation, delivering, processing, placing and mixing these materials, and all labor, equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete this  item.
      1. Payment will be under Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items and Summary of Work Bid Items.

END OF SECTION 31 32 16.16

 

 

SECTION 31 40 00 – SHORING AND BRACING

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

The Work under this Section consists of shoring and bracing as shown on the Plans, as specified herein, or  as directed by the Engineer.

  1. This section includes the following:
    1. Shore and brace sidewalls in deep excavations with steel sheets, soldier piles or with timber lagging as required to protect existing buildings, utilities, roadways, and improvements from cave-ins, loss of ground, or damage to people and property.
    2. Maintain shoring and bracing during construction activities, and remove shoring and bracing if practical when construction and filling is complete.
    3. Shoring and bracing shall be designed by a licensed professional engineer and design to permit construction given the specific site conditions. All design and permitting costs shall be the responsibility of the contractor.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Uniform Building Code
  2. Division of Industrial Safety
  3. CAL-OSHA

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. The contractor shall submit the following information according to Division 01 specification sections   in the contract pertaining to Submittals.
    1. Shop drawings designed by a licensed professional engineer and information on the proposed methods of shoring and bracing for use.

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Comply with Uniform Building Code, Division of Industrial Safety, CAL-OSHA, and all other governing codes and regulations. Provide competent person as required by Cal-OSHA. Deliver, handle, and store materials in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

1.5          DESIGN CRITERIA

  1. Design the excavation support system and all components to support the earth pressures, unrelieved hydrostatic pressures, utility loads, equipment, traffic, and construction loads, including impact and other surcharge loads in such a manner as will allow the safe and expeditious construction of the permanent structures to minimize ground movement or settlement, and to prevent damage to or movement of adjacent structures, roadways, or utilities.
  2. Design support members to resist the maximum loads expected to occur during the excavation and support removal stages.

 

1.6          PROJECT CONDITIONS

  1. Notify Engineer and exercise caution when exposing existing utility facilities. Use hand or other methods approved by Engineer.
  2. If existing utility facilities interfere with the proposed method of support, the method shall be modified in a manner that will protect the facility and accommodate the proposed work. Shop Drawings shall be revised and resubmitted along with design calculations required to account for the modified support method and to show the actual location of the existing utilities.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          MATERIALS

  1. Sheet steel: Heavy-gauge steel sheet suitable for service.
    1. Soldier piles: Steel H-beams in serviceable condition.
    2. Timber lagging: Heavy timber pressure treated with wood preservative. PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          INSTALLATION

  1. Water control measures shall be provided in accordance with the requirements specified in Section   31 23 19 – Dewatering.
  2. Install in proper relation with adjacent construction. Coordinate with work of other sections.
  3. Locate shoring and bracing to avoid permanent construction. Anchor and brace as required to prevent movement, settling, and collapse.
    1. All bracing support members shall be installed and maintained in tight contact with each other and with the surface being supported.
    2. A sufficient quantity of material shall be on hand for sheeting, shoring, bracing, and other operations for protection of work and for use in case of accident or emergency.

3.2          REMOVAL OF SUPPORT SYSTEMS

  1. All elements of support systems shall be removed to a depth of 5 feet below final ground surface, except that, where concrete is placed against sheeting, sheeting shall be removed at the top of the concrete.
  2. Removal shall be performed in a manner that will not disturb or damage adjacent new or existing construction or utilities. Fill all voids immediately with lean concrete or other approved means.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

 

A.    There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 31 40 00

 

SECTION 31 41 16.15 – VINYL SHEET PILING

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

The Work under this Section consists of construction of seawall sheet pile using interlocking vinyl sheet as shown on the Plans, as specified herein or as directed by the Engineer.

  1. This section includes the following:
    1. Construction of seawall sheet pile at (description)
    2. Shoring and bracing shall be designed.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. Uniform Building Code
  2. Division of Industrial Safety
  3. CAL-OSHA

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. The contractor shall submit the following information according to Division 01 specification sections   in the contract associated with Submittals.
    1. Vinyl sheet piling materials.
    2. Approval of shop drawings and information on the proposed methods of sheet piling installation.
    3. Method of obstruction removal encountered during the driving sheet piling.
    4. List of piling equipment for engineer’s approval.

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Comply with recent versions  of Uniform Building Code, Division of Industrial  Safety, CAL-OSHA, and  all other governing codes and regulations. Provide competent person as required by Cal-OSHA.  Deliver, handle, and store materials in accordance with manufacturer's instructions.

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          MATERIALS

  1. Vinyl Sheet Piling: C-LOC 9900 Gray or approved equal.
  2. Cap: Aluminum.
    1. Bolts and nuts: Stainless steel bolt and nut with non-metal washer. PART 3 – EXECUTION

 

3.1          INSTALLATION

  1. The new seawall structure will consist of interlocking vinyl sheet piles and shall be driven into the ground with a vibratory hammer.
  2. Pile driving activities shall be limited to periods of low tide when the site is dewatered.
  3. All sheet pile driving activities shall be accomplished from the existing or new vehicle service road and no construction equipment shall enter the tidal marsh.
  4. Install cap splice as shown on the plans and approved shop drawings.
  5. Contractor shall repair any damage to the existing facilities caused during pile installation.
    1. Any obstruction, rock, concrete and or riprap encountered when driving sheet piling shall be removed or extracted.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

Not applicable.

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

  1. Seawall sheet pile shall be measured for payment by contract unit, completed and accepted by the Contract Manager.
    1. Payment will be made at the contract unit price of seawall sheet pile installed at the depth shown on the plans or as required to complete the work.
    2. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials, and for all preparation as required to complete sheet piling item as shown on the plans, pile driving, and placing of the material and for all labor, equipment, tools, and incidentals necessary to complete the work.
    3. Payment will be made under Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 31 41 16.15

 

SECTION 31 50 00 – EXCAVATION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR PITS

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. The work of this section includes support of starting and receiving pit excavations by means of sheet pilings, soldier piles and lagging, structural steel wales and struts, liner plates, and timber. The contractor shall be responsible for the design and selection of methods in conformance with the design criteria included in the Contract Drawings and as specified herein, or as directed by the Engineer.

1.2          RELATED SECTIONS

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with Submittals.
  2. Section 03 33 00 – Structural Portland Cement Concrete (FAA Item P-610).
  3. Section 31 23 19 – Dewatering.

1.3          REFERENCES

  1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM):
    1. ASTM A 36 Structural Steel.
    2. ASTM A 328 Steel Sheet Piling.
    3. American Welding Society (AWS):
      1. AWS D1.1 Structural Welding Code – Steel.
      2. State of California, Department of Transportation (Caltrans), Office of Structure Construction:
        1. Caltrans Trenching and Shoring Manual.
        2. California Code of Regulations, Title 24:
          1. Part 2 California Building Code (CBC), Chapter 23, Wood.
          2. West Coast Lumber Inspection Bureau (WCLIB): Grading Rules.
          3. Western Wood Products Association (WWPA): Grading Rules.

1.4          SUBMITTALS

  1. The contractor shall submit the following information according to Division 01 specification sections   in the contract associated with Submittals:
    1. The proposed excavation support system for each construction component where excavation support systems will be used.
    2. Arrangement and details for each excavation support system, supporting design  calculations, and construction methods to be used for the installation of each system.
    3. Support system installation methods, connection details, bracing preloading, and jacking procedures.
    4. Depths below the main excavation bottom elevation to which the support system will be installed.
      1. Elevations of ground surface, struts, and shores, as applicable.
      2. Permissible depth to which excavation may be carried before supports must be installed and preloaded.
        1. Full excavation depth load to be carried by various support system members.
        2. Bracing loads for various stages of excavation, bracing removal, and concrete/backfill placement.
        3. Proposed sequence of strut and shore removal as applicable and as related to concrete placement and backfilling operations.
        4. Design calculations to support shop drawings. Include maximum theoretical deflections of support members.
        5. The proposed method of installing sheet piling, including sequence of installation, template, and equipment description.
          1. Proposed instrumentation.

 

1.5          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Support of excavation shall be designed and Shop Drawings and calculations signed, by a Professional Engineer registered in the State of California and experienced in the design of excavation support systems.

1.6          DESIGN CRITERIA

  1. Design the excavation support system and all components to support the earth pressures, unrelieved hydrostatic pressures, utility loads, equipment, traffic, and construction loads, including impact and other surcharge loads in such a manner as will allow the safe and expeditious construction of the permanent structures to minimize ground movement or settlement, and to prevent damage to or movement of adjacent structures, roadways, or utilities.
  2. Design support members to resist the maximum loads expected to occur during the excavation and support removal stages.
  3. If used, provide positive means for securing timber lagging to the soldier piles to avoid shifting or falling off of the lagging, and positive means for containing all soil behind lagging.
  4. No portion of the excavation support system’s vertical face will be permitted to penetrate the design lines as indicated on the drawings for pipelines or thrust blocks to be constructed within the excavation.
  5. Comply with lateral load criteria provided on the Contract Drawings.
    1. Timber support Systems and Members: Basis for determination of minimum allowable working stress: CBC Chapter 23.

1.7          PROJECT CONDITIONS

  1. Notify Engineer and exercise caution when exposing existing utility facilities. Use hand or other methods approved by Engineer.
  2. If existing utility facilities interfere with the proposed method of support, the method shall be modified in a manner that will protect the facility and accommodate the proposed work. Shop Drawings shall be revised and resubmitted along with design calculations required to account for the modified support method and to show the actual location of the existing utilities.

 

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          MATERIALS

  1. Steel sheet piling shall be continuous interlocking type ASTM A 328 of appropriate shape.
  2. Fabricated connections and accessories, steel H-piles, WF shapes, and other structural steel shall conform to the requirements of ASTM A 36, unless otherwise approved.
    1. Concrete shall be as specified in Section 03 30 00 – Structural Portland Cement Concrete (FAA Item P- 610).
      1. For encasement of steel H-Piles in predrilled holes below the final level of excavation, lean concrete shall be used, unless tiebacks are to be installed. In the case that tiebacks are to be installed, 2,500 psi 28 day strength concrete shall be used.
      2. For encasement of steel H-piles above the final level of excavation, concrete mix with one sack  of cement per cubic yard of concrete may be used.
      3. Wood lagging shall be dimension lumber with minimum allowable bending stress of 1,100 psi.
        1. The stress grade of the lagging shall be in conformance with the allowable unit stresses of the CBC, Chapter 23.
        2. Lumber shall be grade marked by WWPA or WCLIB with species and grade conforming to those shown on submitted Shop Drawings.

PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          GENERAL

  1. Water control measures shall be provided in accordance with the requirements specified in Section   31 23 19 – Dewatering.

3.2          SOLDIER PILES

  1. Soldier piles shall be installed by driving or by pre-boring or other approved method to tip elevation shown on submitted Shop Drawings.
  2. Pre-bored hole shall be filled with concrete to final structure excavation bottom and the pile shall be installed plumb therein.
  3. Remaining pile length shall be filled with concrete, completely encasing the pile.
    1. Concrete shall be placed from the bottom of the hole upwards by means of a flexible pipe connected to a hopper.

3.3          SHEETING AND LAGGING

  1. Sheeting and lagging shall be installed without gaps unless specifically approved. As installation progresses, the voids between the excavation face and the lagging or sheeting shall be backfilled with

 

sand or soil compacted into place.

  1. If unstable material is encountered, suitable measures shall be taken to retain it in place or to otherwise prevent soil displacement.
    1. Depth of exposed excavated face below the last placed lagging board shall not exceed 15 inches. Lagging shall be extended down to sub-grade.
    2. A sufficient quantity of material shall be on hand for sheeting, shoring, bracing, and other operations for protection of work and for use in case of accident or emergency.

3.4          STEEL SHEET PILING

  1. Steel sheet piling may be used only where existing subsurface conditions are suitable for installation  of sheet piling to the full depth of penetration required, and to proper alignment and plumbness, without damage to the sheet piling or rupture of the interlocks.
  2. Steel sheet piling shall be installed in plumb position with each pile interlocked with  adjoining piles  for its entire length so as to form a continuous diaphragm throughout the length of each run of wall, bearing tightly against original ground.

3.5          INTERNAL BRACING SUPPORT SYSTEM

  1. All bracing support members shall be installed and maintained in tight contact with each other and with the surface being supported.
  2. Bracing members shall be preloaded by jacking struts and shores in accordance with loads, methods, procedures, and sequence, as described on the submitted Shop Drawings. Use procedures so as to produce uniform bracing member loading without appreciable eccentricities, overstressing, or  support member distortion.
    1. All connections between bracing elements and to the walls shall be bolted or welded. Connections that rely on friction between the elements shall not be used.

3.6          REMOVAL OF SUPPORT SYSTEMS

  1. Where removal is required wholly or in part, such removal shall be performed in a manner that will not disturb or damage adjacent new or existing construction or utilities. Fill all voids immediately with  lean concrete or other approved means.
  2. All elements of support systems shall be removed to a depth of 5 feet below final ground surface, except that, where concrete is placed against sheeting, sheeting shall be removed at the top of the concrete.

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

5.1 There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract associated with bid items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 31 50 00

 

SECTION 31 62 19 – TIMBER PILES

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

 

1.1          SUMMARY

 

The Work under this Section consists of furnishing and installing timber piles as shown on the Plans, as specified herein or as directed by the Engineer.

  1. This section includes the following:
    1. Furnish timber piles.
    2. Installation of timber piles.
    3. Runway trestle repairs and improvements.
    4. Design Criteria

 

  1. Piles shall be driven to minimum penetration of 40 feet. All pile installation activities shall occur between June 15 and November 30. All pile installation activities shall be conducted (if possible)  during low tides, when water level is at its lowest. Prior to construction, silt curtains extending from the water surface to substrate will be installed around the in-water work area. Contractor shall be fully responsible for costs incurred as a result of pile driving environmental mitigation measures.

1.2          REFERENCES

 

  1. Division 01 specification sections in the contract associated with References.

 

  1. Section 06 10 10 – Rough Carpentry.

 

  1. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
    1. ASTM D25 Specification for Round Timber Piles

 

  1. American Wood Preservers’ Association (AWPA).
    1. AWPA C2, Lumber, Timber, Bridge Ties and Mine Ties – Preservative Treatment by Pressure.
    2. AWPA C3. Piles – Preservation Treatment by Pressure Processes.
    3. AWPA C14. Wood for Highway Construction – Preservative Treatment by Pressure Processes.
    4. AWPA C18. Standard for Pressure treated Material in Marine Construction.
    5. AWPA M4. Standard for the Care of Preservation Treated Wood Products.

 

  1. San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.

 

1.3          SUBMITTALS

 

  1. The contractor shall submit the following information according to Division 01 specification sections associated with Submittals:
  2. Shop Drawings: Submit shop drawing of pile types as follows:
    1. Show any structural connections such as for uplift loads.

 

 

  1. Pile Driving Sequential Layout:

 

  1. Submit layout drawings showing the proposed sequence of driving the piles.

 

  1. On the sequential layout, show each pile’s identification as indicated on the Contract Drawings, its driving sequence number, type, size, and pile tip elevation planned.
  2. Pile Driving Record: Maintain a pile driving record during pile driving and submit to the Project Engineer upon completion of pile driving. On the record indicate, for each pile driven, the information specified in C above, and the following: type and rating of driving equipment, overall blow count per foot, number of blows per inch penetration for the last 12 inches, and any unusual conditions encountered during driving.
  3. Equipment Review and Drawings:

 

  1. Submit complete list of equipment proposed for use, including a description of the  characteristics of each piece of driving equipment.
    1. Pile-Driving Equipment: Include type, make, maximum rated energy, and rated energy per blow of hammer; weight of striking part of hammer; weight of drive cap; details, type, and structural properties of hammer cushion; and details of follower and jetting equipment.
    2. The Engineer will review the proposed driving equipment, accessories, and methods of adequacy for the conditions expected to be encountered. However, the adequacy of the equipment and accessories shall remain the responsibility of the contractor. Should the equipment used by the contractor prove inadequate to drive the scheduled types of piles  in the locations indicated, or should the use rate of accessories show damage to the piles, or should the Progress Schedule not be maintained, the contractor shall replace, or use different types of equipment.
    3. Submit shop drawing of driving accessories showing compatibility with the size configuration, handling, and driving requirements of the piles indicated on the Contract Drawings.
      1. Submit shop drawings showing the methods and equipment proposed for loading

 

  1. Submit data on round timber pile treatment data, including certification by treating plant stating type of preservative solution and pressure process used, net amount of preservative retained, and compliance with applicable standards.

1.4          DELIVERY, STORAGE, AND HANDLING

 

  1. Handling, storage and field fabrication, including treating of cut ends, shall be in accordance with AWPA M4.

1.5          QUALITY ASSURANCE

 

  1. The contractor shall perform work in accordance with all applicable codes, rules and regulations, and the San Francisco International Airport Guidelines and Standards.

 

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

 

2.1          TIMBER PILES

 

  1. Round Timber Piles: Piles shall be Coastal Douglas Fir and shall conform to ASTM D25, unused, clean peeled, uniformly tapered, one piece from butt to tip, with diameter and length as shown on the drawing.
  2. Species: Coastal Douglas Fir, pressure treated with ACZA per AWPA P-5-95 to a minimum net retention of 2.5lbs per cubic foot by assay.
  3. Pressure treatment shall be in accordance with the following Use Category Standards:
    1. Marine Piles. AWPA C3 and C18.
    2. Field treatment of cut ends and holes. AWPA M4.

 

  1. Fabrication
    1. Field-Applied Wood Preservative: Treat field cuts, holes, and other penetrations in accordance with AWPA M4.

2.2          WRAPS

 

  1. Polyvinyl Chloride sheets shall be .060 thick and as specified herein.

 

  1. PILE-GARD wraps shall be manufactured from a specially formulated polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheeting with a 10-year warranty against material failure. It must have high tensile strength (over 2,000 psi), the ability to withstand impacts and tearing, the impermeability to water and oxygen. Inertness to most chemicals, ability to prevent the entrance of marine borers, and flexibility in cold water.
  2. Polyurethane foam seals are required at the top and bottom of intertidal barrier units to prevent water circulation due to pumping during tide changes. Foam pieces shall be produced from 3/4” x 3” polyurethane foam of sufficient length to complete encircle the pile.
  3. Bands. Aluminum bands are used to tightly compress the polyurethane foam seals on intertidal barriers. Bands are .030-.032 inches by one inch aluminum alloy. They are of sufficient length to complete encircle the pile over the seal area with sufficient additional length form the strapping operation.
    1. Nails. Aluminum alloy nails are used to securely fasten the barrier and aluminum bands to the piles. The nails are of two sizes. Type 1, which is 1-1/2 inches long and Type II, which is 4 inches long.

2.3          INSPECTION

 

  1. Piles shall be subject to the inspection of the Engineer both before and after treatment. Each shipment of piles shall be inspected before treatment, at the mill or at the dealer's yards by an Inspector approved by the Engineer, and each shipment shall be accompanied by an inspection certificate showing the kind, character, amount, grade of material, name of the mill supplying the material, name and address of the Inspector, date of inspection, and any other pertinent data. The Inspector shall stamp each pile with a stamp which has been copyrighted and of which an impression has been filed

 

with the Engineer. Such stamp shall make a clear legible mark and shall designate the Inspector and grade.

  1. Treated piles shall be inspected after treatment by an Inspector approved by the Engineer. Each pile shall be stamped by the Inspector on the ends with a copyrighted stamp differing from the stamp  used before treatment. Treated piles which do not bear legible stamps of the Inspector for impression made both before and after treatment shall not be used on the work. The cost of this inspection, and that of the inspection at the mill or yard, required in this and the preceding paragraph, shall be borne by the contractor.
  2. Treated piles shall be free from heat checks, water bursts, excessive checking, results of chafing, or from damage or defects which would impair their usefulness or durability for the purposes intended. The use of “S” irons for repairing or preventing checks, splits or other defects will not be permitted.
  3. Treated piles shall be subject to inspection by the Engineer after arrival at the site and after being placed in the completed structures, and no previous inspection at the plant shall bar rejection of them in the completed structure.

PART 3 – EXECUTION

 

3.1          PILE TYPES

 

  1. Piles shall be friction type. Drive friction piles to the required penetration, as indicated.

 

  1. Pile-Length Markings: Mark each pile length with horizontal line at 12-inch intervals, and the distance from pile tip at 60-inch intervals.

3.2          DRIVING EQUIPMENT

 

  1. The contractor shall use on impact, drop or vibratory hammer as necessary to achieve the penetration shown on the Drawings and not damage the integrity of the piles.
  2. Contractor assumes responsibility for furnishing piles of sufficient length to obtain the penetration  and bearing value indicated.

3.3          INSTALLATION OF PILES

 

  1. General: Provide piles of the type indicated and of the length and configuration necessary to:
    1. Achieve the required penetration determined by the Engineer;
    2. Extend into the walkway structure to the location as shown on the drawings.

 

  1. Piles shall be driven with an approved single acting steam or air hammer having a ram weighting  about 5,000 pounds and having a stroke of about 3 feet. Piles shall be driven tip down. During driving, the pile heads shall be protected and held in position by the use of a steel driving block or anvil, and   in addition, if necessary, by means of heavy steel rings.
  2. Piles shall be driven to the positions and lines shown on the drawings. Piles materially out of line or piles damaged in driving; shall be pulled and replaced without direct payment. A pile shall be considered as materially out of line if it is so driven that it cannot be effectively incorporated into the

 

structure as shown on the drawings as directed by Engineer. Piles shall be carefully handled so as to avoid damaging the pile wrap. Damaged pile wrap shall be replaced by the contractor at his expense.

  1. Piles shall be driven to refusal or to the proper elevation for minimum length of cut-off, whichever occurs first. A pile shall be considered as being driven to refusal when the average penetration of the pile is not greater than one-quarter inch per blow for the last 12" of driving. The head of the pile shall be sound and not broomed when driving for measurement of penetration per blow is being done.  Care shall be exercised to avoid over-driving or damaging piles during driving. When driving of a pile has been started, driving shall be continued without interruption until the pile has reached the required driving resistance or depth. If driving is interrupted for any reason, the contractor may be required to pull and re-drive the pile at his own expense. Piles shall be accurately cut off by sawing at the cut-off elevations shown on the drawings. All broomed portions of the pile butt, and portions of the butt that may have been shaped for the driving anvil, shall be removed by sawing off at the cutoff elevations shown on the drawings.
  2. The contractor shall exercise care to prevent pile cut-off pieces, or any other material not incorporated into the work, from remaining in the waters of the bay. All such material shall be disposed of by the contractor at his expense and to the satisfaction of the Engineer.
  3. When the area of the head of a timber pile is greater than that of the face of the hammer, use a suitable cap to distribute the blows throughout the cross section of the pile.
    1. Cut off butts of driven piles square with pile axis and at elevations indicated. After timber piles are cut off, treat cut surfaces in accordance with AWPA M4. Remove cutoff section of piles from Airport property.
    2. Pile Splices: Splices will not be permitted

 

  1. Driving Tolerances: Drive piles without pile heads exceeding the following tolerances: Review tolerances below and revise to suit Project or office standards.
    1. Location: 4 inches from location indicated after initial driving, and 6 inches after pile driving is completed.
    2. Plumb: Maintain 1 inch in 10 feet from vertical, or a maximum of 4 inches, measured when pile  is above ground in leads.
    3. Batter Angle: Maximum 1 inch in 10 feet from required angle, measured when pile is above ground in leads.
    4. Rejected piles may be abandoned and cut off as directed by Engineer.

 

3.4          PILE WRAPS

 

  1. Pile wraps shall be installed in a single piece from the mudline a min. of 24 inches below the mud line to min. 12 inches above the high tide line to match adjacent piles.
  2. The side seam shall be lapped a minimum of 4 inches with nails every 2 inches along the seams.

 

3.5          DRIVING RECORD

 

  1. Maintain accurate driving records for each pile, compiled and attested to by a qualified professional engineer. Include the following data:
    1. Project name and number.
    2. Name of contractor.
    3. Pile species.
    4. Pile location in pile group and designation of pile group.
    5. Sequence of driving in pile group.
    6. Pile dimensions.
    7. Ground elevation.
    8. Elevation of tip after driving.
    9. Final tip and cutoff elevations of pile after driving pile group.
    10. Records of redriving.
    11. Elevation of splices.
    12. Type, make, model, and rated energy of hammer.
    13. Weight and stroke of hammer.
    14. Type of pile-driving cap used.
    15. Cushion material and thickness.
    16. Actual stroke and blow rate of hammer.
    17. Pile-driving start and finish time; and total driving time.
    18. Time, pile-tip elevation, and reason for interruptions.
    19. Record of number of blows for each 12 inches of penetration, and number of blows per 1 inch  for the last 6 inches of driving.
    20. Pile deviations from location and plumb.
    21. Record pre-boring, jetting, or special procedures used.
    22. Record of unusual occurrences during pile driving.

 

PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

 

Not applicable

 

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

 

  1. Trestle repairs, trestle extensions, trestle improvements and all Work associated therewith as shown on the drawings shall be measured for payment by contract unit of Work, and accepted by the Contract Manager.
  2. This price shall be full compensation for furnishing all materials; for all work as required under Section 06 10 10 – Rough Carpentry; preparation, hauling and disposal of material from Airport property; placing of the material and for all labor, equipment, tools; and incidentals necessary to complete this item.
  3. Payment will be made under Division 00 and 01 specification sections pertaining to bid items and Summary of Work.

 

END OF SECTION 31 62 19

 

 

SECTION 31 63 29 – DRILLED CONCRETE PIERS AND SHAFTS

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

1.1          SUMMARY

  1. This Section provides requirements for drilled concrete piers and shafts used on a portion of perimeter blast deflector fence. Refer to the Drawings for the limits of use.
  2. This Section provides the requirement for drilled piers includes structural steel, anchor bolts and  grout.

1.2          REFERENCES

  1. General and Supplementary Conditions and Division 01 specification sections in the contract  pertaining to use of drilled concrete piers and shafts.
  2. Section 03 30 00 – Structural Portland Cement Concrete FAA Item P-610.
  3. Section 31 23 00 – Excavation and Embankment FAA Item P-152.
  4. Section 31 23 23 – Backfill and Geotextiles.
  5. Section 32 31 13 – Chain-Link Fence FAA Item F-162
  6. Section 34 73 16 – Airfield Grounding

G.      FAA AC 150/5220-23

H.      FAA AC-150/5300-13A

I.        American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), standards and tests, as referenced on the drawings and these specifications.

1.3          SUBMITTALS

  1. Product Data: For each type of product indicated.
  2. Design Mixtures: For each concrete mixture.
  3. Shop Drawings: For concrete  reinforcement.
  4. Welding certificates.
  5. Material test reports.

1.4          QUALITY ASSURANCE

  1. Welding Qualifications: Qualify procedures and personnel according to the following:
    1. AWS D1.4, "Structural Welding Code - Reinforcing Steel."
    2. Drilled-Pier Standard: Comply with ACI 336.1 unless modified in this Section.
    3. Pre-installation Conference: Conduct conference at Project site.

 

1.5          PROJECT CONDITIONS

  1. Project-Site Information: A geotechnical report has been prepared for this Project and is available for information only. The opinions expressed in this report are those of geotechnical engineer and represent interpretations of subsoil conditions, tests, and results of analyses conducted by geotechnical engineer. City will not be responsible for interpretations or conclusions drawn from this data.
    1. The geotechnical report is included elsewhere in the Project Manual.
    2. Survey Work: Engage a qualified land surveyor to perform surveys, layouts, and measurements for drilled piers. Before excavating, lay out each drilled pier to lines and levels required. Record actual measurements of each drilled pier's location, shaft diameter, bottom and top elevations, deviations from specified tolerances, and other specified data.
      1. Record and maintain information pertinent to each drilled pier and cooperate with testing and inspecting agency to provide data for required reports.
      2. Contractor shall pot-hole pier locations to avoid subsurface utilities and obstructions.
        1. Record information obtained and submit findings in a written report to the City.
        2. Survey all pot-hole locations.
        3. Make adjustments to the pier locations as specified in the Drawings at no additional cost to the City

PART 2 – PRODUCTS

2.1          STEEL REINFORCEMENT

  1. Reinforcing Bars: ASTM A615, Grade 60 deformed.

2.2          CONCRETE MATERIALS

  1. Refer to section 03 30 00 P-610 PART 3 – EXECUTION

3.1          EXCAVATION

  1. Excavate shafts for drilled piers to indicated elevations. Remove loose material from bottom of excavation.
  2. Notify and allow testing and inspecting agency to test and inspect bottom of excavation. If unsuitable bearing stratum is encountered, make adjustments to drilled piers as determined by Engineer.
  3. Do not excavate shafts deeper than elevations indicated unless approved by Engineer.
  4. Payment for additional authorized excavation will be according to Contract provisions for changes in the Work.
  5. Drilled piers shall not be left open for more than 4 hours after drilling. If contractor is unable to pour concrete within 4 hours, use temporary steel casings of sufficient length and thickness to prevent water seepage into shaft; to withstand compressive, displacement, and withdrawal stresses; and to maintain stability of shaft walls.
    1. Remove temporary casings, maintained in plumb position, during concrete placement and  before initial set of concrete. Steel casing may be left in place at contractor’s option.
    2. Tolerances:
      1. Maximum variation of the center of any drilled pier from the required location: 3 inches measured at the ground surface.
        1. Bottom diameter: minus zero, plus 3 inches, measured in any direction
        2. Maximum variation in plumb: 1:40
        3. Maximum bottom level tolerance: plus or minus 2 inches.
        4. Reinforcing steel placement: plus or minus 3/8 inch.

 

3.2          INSTALLATION

  1. Comply with recommendations in CRSI's "Manual of Standard Practice" for fabricating, placing, and supporting reinforcement.
  2. Place concrete in continuous operation and without segregation immediately after inspection and approval of shaft by independent testing and inspecting agency.
    1. Place concrete to fall vertically down the center of drilled pier without striking sides of shaft or steel reinforcement. Vibrate top 60 inches of concrete.
    2. Coordinate withdrawal of temporary casings with concrete placement to maintain at least a 24 head of concrete above bottom of casing. Vibrate top 60 inches of concrete after withdrawal of temporary casing.

3.3          FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

  1. Testing Agency: Contractor will engage a qualified testing agency to perform tests and inspections.
    1. Drilled-Pier Tests and Inspections: For each drilled pier, before concrete placement.
      1. Drilled piers.
      2. Excavation.
      3. Concrete.
      4. Steel reinforcement placement
      5. Concrete Tests and Inspections: ACI 301. PART 4 – INCLUDED FAA SPECIFICATIONS

A.      Not applicable

PART 5 – MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

A.    There will be no separate payment for work under this section. All work shall be considered incidental to contract bid items as described in Division 00 and 01 specification sections in the contract pertaining to bid items and Summary of Work.

END OF SECTION 31 63 29

 

 

SECTION 33 05 23.13 – HORIZONTAL DIRECTIONAL DRILLING

 

PART 1 – GENERAL

 

1.1          SCOPE OF WORK

 

  1. The work specified in this section consists of furnishing and installing a constant slope  gravity  drainage pipe using the directional boring (horizontal directional drilling, HDD) method of installation. This work shall include all services, equipment, materials, and labor for the complete installation, testing, and site restoration. For the supply of domestic water during construction, the contractor shall use an Airport meter & backflow device and pay for all water consumed.

1.2          SUBMITTALS

 

  1. Prior to beginning of work, contractor must submit a detailed work plan to the Airport outlining the procedure and schedule to be used to execute the project. The work plan should include a description of all equipment to be used, down-hole tools, a list of personnel and their qualifications and experience (including back-up personnel in the event that an individual is unavailable), list of sub- contractor(s), schedule of work activity, a safety plan (including MSDS of any potentially hazardous substances to be used, traffic control plan (if applicable), an environmental protection plan and contingency plans for possible problems including a frac-out and surface spill contingency plan.
  2. Submit for approval a pre-construction bore-log depicting the plan and profile (horizontal and vertical alignment) of the proposed bore path. The bore-log shall show all utility crossings and existing structures.
  3. Record Drawings: Submit for Airport approval the as-built records within five days after completing  the pull back. The as-built records shall include a plan, profile (data every 25 linear feet of main, at a minimum), and all information recorded during the progress of the work, including all subsurface anomalies identified by Ground Penetrating Radar and vacuum excavation. The HDD contractor shall certify the accuracy of all as-built record drawings.

1.3          QUALITY ASSURANCE

 

  1. The requirements set forth in this specification specify a wide range of procedural precautions necessary to insure that the very basic, essential aspects of a directional bore installation are adequately controlled. Strict adherence shall be required under specifically covered conditions outlined in this specification. Adherence to the specifications contained herein, or the Airport’s approval of any aspect of any directional bore operation covered by this specification, shall in no way relieve the contractor of their ultimate responsibility for the satisfactory completion of the work authorized under this contract.

1.4          PERSONNEL QUALIFICATIONS CERTIFICATION

 

  1. Directional Boring
    1. All personnel shall be fully trained in their respective duties as part of the directional drilling crew and in safety. (Each person must have been fully trained for over 1,000 hours on all facets of directional drilling, including, but not limited to machine operations, mud mixing, locating, and material fusion.) A responsible representative who is thoroughly familiar with the equipment  and type of work to be performed, must be in direct charge and control of the operation at all times. In all cases the contractor’s supervisor must be continually present at the job site during the actual directional bore operation. The contractor shall have a sufficient number  of competent works on the job at all times to insure the directional bore is made in a timely and satisfactorily manner.
    2. Pipe Joining (Heat Fusion)

 

 

  1. Joints between plain end pipes shall be made by butt fusion welding. The fusion technician shall be qualified by the pipe supplier to install fusible PVC pipe of the type/size being specified. Qualifications shall be current as of the actual date of fusion performance on the project.

1.5          ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION

 

  1. Contractor shall place silt fence between all boring operations and any drainage, wetland, waterway  or other area designated for such protection by contract documents, state, federal and local regulations. Additional environmental protection necessary to contain any hydraulic or boring fluid spills shall be put in place, including berms, liners, turbidity curtains and other measures. Contractor shall adhere to all applicable environmental regulations. Fuel or oil may not be stored in bulk containers within 200’ of any water-body or wetland.

1.6          SAFETY

 

  1. Contractor shall adhere to all applicable state, federal and local safety regulations and all operations shall be conducted in a safe manner.

1.7          WARRANTY

 

  1. The contractor shall supply the Airport a two (2) year unconditional warranty. The warranty shall include materials and installation and shall constitute complete replacement and delivery to the site  of materials and installation of same to replace defective materials or defective workmanship with new materials/workmanship conforming to the specifications.

PART 2 – MATERIALS

 

2.1          FUSED POLYVINYL CHLORIDE PIPE (FPVC)

 

  1. Pipe: ANSI/AWWA C905 Class 200 DR21. Pipe shall be suitable for gravity drainage applications by Underground Solutions or approved equal.
  2. Pipe Properties:

 

  1. All pipe shall be made from PVC compound conforming to cell classification 12454 per ASTM D1784.
  2. The pipe shall be extruded with plain ends. Ends shall be square to the pipe and free of any bevel

 

or chamfer. There shall be no bell or gasket of any kind incorporated into the pipe.

 

  1. Pipe shall be manufactured in standard lengths.

 

  1. Pipe shall be homogeneous throughout and free of visible cracks, holes, foreign material,  blisters, or other visible deleterious faults.
  2. The bending radius shall not exceed 50% of the manufacturer’s recommendation and the pulling force shall not exceed 80% of the manufacturer’s recommendation.
  3. Joints: Unless otherwise specified, FPVC shall be assembled in the field with butt-fused joints. The fusion technician shall follow the pipe supplier’s guidelines for this procedure. All fusion joints shall   be completed as described in this specification.
  4. Pipe Markings: Nominal pipe size, PVC, Dimension Ratio, AWWA pressure class, AWWA standard designation number, extrusion production-record code, Trademark, Cell Classification 12454 and/or PVC material code 1120.
  5. Warranty: The pipe and fusion shall be warranted for 2 years.

 

PART 3 – EQUIPMENT

 

3.1          GENERAL

 

  1. The directional boring equipment shall consist of a directional boring rig of sufficient capacity to perform the bore and pullback the pipe, a drilling fluid mixing, delivery and recovery system of sufficient capacity to complete the drill, a drilling fluid recycling system to remove solids from the drilling fluid so that the fluid can be re-used, a guidance system to accurately guide boring operations, a vacuum truck of sufficient capacity to handle the drilling fluid volume, trained and competent personnel to operate the system. All equipment shall be in good, safety operating condition with sufficient supplies, materials and spare parts on hand to maintain the system in good working order  for the duration of the project.

3.2          DRILLING SYSTEM

 

  1. Drilling Rig: The directional boring machine shall consist of a power system to rotate, push and pull hollow pipe into the ground at a variable angle while delivering a pressurized fluid mixture to a guidable drill (bore) head. The machine shall be anchored to the ground to withstand the pulling, pushing and rotating pressure required to complete the  crossing. The  hydraulic power  system shall be self-contained with sufficient pressure and volume to power boring operations. Hydraulic system shall be free of leaks. Rig shall have a system to monitor and record maximum pull-back pressure during pull-back operations. The rig shall be grounded during boring and pull-back operations. Sufficient spares shall be kept on hand for any break-downs which can be reasonably anticipated.
  2. Bore head shall be steerable by changing its rotation and shall provide the necessary cutting surfaces and boring fluid jets.
  3. Mud Motors (if required) shall be of adequate power to turn the required  boring tools.

 

  1. Drill pipe shall be constructed of high quality 4130 seamless tubing, grade D or better.

 

3.3          GUIDANCE SYSTEM

 

  1. A Magnetic Guidance System (MGS) or proven gyroscopic system shall be used to provide a  continuous and accurate determination of the location of the drill head during the drilling operation. The guidance shall be capable of tracking at all the depths up to eighty feet and in any soil condition, including hard rock. It shall enable the driller to guide the drill head by providing immediate information on the tool face, azimuth (horizontal direction), and inclination (vertical direction). The guidance system shall be accurate to +/- 2% of the vertical depth of the borehole at sensing position  at depths up to one hundred feet and accurate within 5’ horizontally.
  2. The guidance system shall be of a proven type and shall be setup and operated by personnel trained and experienced with the system. The operator shall be aware of any magnetic anomalies and shall consider such influences in the operation of the guidance system if using a magnetic system.
  3. Bore Tracking/Monitoring: At all times during the pilot bore the contractor shall provide and maintain a bore tracking system that is capable of accurately locating the position of the drill head in the x, y, and z axis. The contractor shall record these data at least once per drill pipe length of every twenty- five feet, whichever is more frequent.
    1. Surface Grid Tracking System: Contractor shall monitor and record x, y, and z coordinates relative to an established surface survey bench mark. The data shall be continuously monitored and recorded at least once per drill pipe length or every twenty-five feet, whichever is more frequent.
    2. Drilling Fluid Pressure/Flow Rates: Drilling fluid pressures and flow rates shall be continuously monitored and recorded by the contractor. The pressures shall be monitored at the pump. These measurements shall be made during pilot bore drilling, reaming, and pullback operations.

3.4          DRILLING FLUID SYSTEM

 

  1. Mixing System: A self-contained, closed, boring fluid mixing system shall be of sufficient size to mix and deliver boring fluid composed of bentonite clay, potable water and appropriate additives. Mixing system shall continually agitate the boring fluid during boring operations.
  2. Drilling Fluids: Drilling fluids shall be composed of clean water and an appropriate additive. Water  shall be from a clean source with a pH of 6.0. Water of a lower pH or with excessive calcium shall be treated with the appropriate amount of sodium carbonate or equal. The water and additives shall be mixed thoroughly and be absent of any clumps or clods. No hazardous additives may be used.
  3. Delivery System: The delivery system shall have filters in-line to prevent solids from being pumped  into the drill pipe. Connections between the pump and drill pipe shall be relatively leak-free. Used boring fluid and boring fluid spilled during boring operations shall be contained  and  properly  disposed of. A berm, minimum of 12” high, shall be maintained around boring equipment, boring fluid mixing system, entry and exit pits and boring fluid recycling system (if used) to prevent spills into the surrounded environment. Pumps and/or vacuum truck(s) of sufficient size shall be in place to convey excess boring fluid from containment areas to storage facilities.
  4. Drilling Fluid Recovery System: The drilling fluid recycling system shall separate sand, dirt, and other solids from the drilling fluid to render the drilling fluid re-usable. Spoils separate from drilling fluid will

 

be stockpiled for later use or disposal.

 

  1. Control of Drilling Fluids: The contractor shall follow all requirements of the frac-out and surface spill contingency plan as submitted and approved and shall control operational pressures, drilling mud weights, drilling speeds, and any other operational factors required to avoid hydro-fracture fluid losses to formations, and control drilling fluid spillage. This includes any spillages or returns at entry and exit locations or any intermediate point. All inadvertent returns or spills shall be promptly contained and cleaned up. The contractor shall maintain on-site mobile spoil removal equipment during all drilling, pre-reaming, reaming and pullback operations and shall be capable of quickly removing spoils.

3.5          OTHER EQUIPMENT

 

  1. Pipe Rollers, if required, shall be of sufficient size to fully support the weight of the pipe while being hydro tested during the pull-back operations. Sufficient number of rollers shall be used to prevent excess sagging of pipe.
  2. Hydraulic or pneumatic pipe rammers may only be used if necessary and with Airport approval.

 

  1. Other devices or utility placement systems for providing horizontal thrust other than those previously defined in the preceding sections shall not be used unless approved by the Airport prior to commencement of the work. Consideration for approval will be made on an individual basis for each specified location. The proposed device or system will be evaluated prior to approval or rejection on  its potential ability to complete the utility placement satisfactorily without undue stoppage and to maintain line and grade within the tolerances prescribed by the particular conditions of the project.

PART 4 – EXECUTION

 

4.1          DRILLING PROCEDURE

 

  1. Bore Path Survey

 

  1. Entire drill path shall be accurately surveyed with entry and exit stakes placed in the appropriate locations within areas indicating on drawings. If contractor is using a magnetic guidance system, drill path will be surveyed for any surface geo-magnetic variations or anomalies.
  2. Guidance System

 

  1. Contractor shall provide and maintain instrumentation necessary to accurately locate the pilot hole (both horizontal and vertical displacements), measure pilot string torsional and axial and measure drilling fluid discharge rate and pressure. The Airport shall have access to these metrics at all times during operation.
  2. Pilot Hole

 

  1. The pilot hole shall be drilled along the path shown on the plans and profile drawings or as directed by the Airport in the field. Unless approved otherwise, the pilot hole tolerances shall be as shown on the plans.
  2. Pull Back
    1. After successful reaming bore hole to the required diameter, contractor will pull the pipe  through the bore hole. In front of the pipe will be a swivel. Once pull-back operations have commenced, operations must continue without interruption until pipe is completely pulled into bore hole. During pull-back operations contractor will not apply more than the maximum safe pipe pull (tensile) strength at any time.
    2. Torsional stress shall be minimized by using a swivel to connect a pull section to the reaming assembly.
    3. The pullback section of the pipeline shall be supported during pullback operations so that it moves freely and the pipe is not damaged.
    4. External pressure shall be minimized during installation of the pullback section in the reamed hole. Damaged pipe resulting from external pressure shall be replaced at no cost to the Airport.
    5. Buoyancy modification shall be at the discretion of the contractor and shall be approved the Airport. The contractor shall be responsible for any damage to the pull section resulting from such modifications.
    6. In the event the pipe becomes stuck, contractor will cease pulling operations to allow any potential hydro-lock to subside and will commence pulling operations. If pipe remains stuck, contractor will notify the Airport and discuss options to proceed.

 

4.2          PIPE ASSEMBLY

 

  1. Pipe shall be fused together in one length, if space permits. Pipe may be placed on pipe rollers before pulling into bore hole to minimize damage to the pipe.
  2. Cuts or gouges that reduce the wall thickness by more than 10% is not acceptable and must be discarded.

4.3          TESTING

 

  1. Following successful pull-back of pipe, contractor will hydro-test pipe using potable water for a period of 2 hours at a pressure of 100 psi. A calibrated pressure recorder will be used to record pressure during the test period. This shall be witnessed by Airport Representative.

END OF SECTION 33 05 23.1

 

APPENDIX A – MASTER LIST OF MANUFACTURERS

This section provides the Master List of Manufacturers for Airfield Civil – Earthwork approved by SFO organized by section and subsection. Contractors are responsible for any extra cost incurred when evaluating products by manufacturers that are not listed are approved equals.

31 23 23 – BACKFILL AND GEOTEXTILES

 

  1. LOW DENSITY CELLULAR CONCRETE
  2. Geofill LD
  3. Or approved equal

 

31 41 16.15 – VINYL SHEET PILING

 

  1. Gray
  2. Or approved equal

 

31 32 16.16 – SOIL STABILIZATION AND DUST SUPPRESSION

 

  1. LIQUID SOIL STABILIZER - SOILTAC
  2. Soilworks LLC
  3. Or approved equal
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