SMUD Station E Substation Final Air Quality Monitoring Plan

TRC Solutions; Inc; Entek Consulting Group; Inc
2018-04-13
Sacramento Municipal Utility District

AIR QUALITY MONITORING PLAN

PHASE 1B WASTE EXCAVATION AND ROUGH GRADING

SMUD STATION E SUBSTATION

 

FINAL AIR QUALITY MONITORING PLAN

PHASE 1B WASTE EXCAVATION AND ROUGH GRADING

 

SMUD Station E Substation

North B Street and 20th Street Sacramento, California

 

Prepared for:

Sacramento Municipal Utility District

6301 S Street

Sacramento, California 95817

 

 

Prepared by:

TRC Solutions, Inc.          Entek Consulting Group, Inc.

10680 White Rock Road                         4200 Rocklin Road, Suite 7

Rancho Cordova, CA 95670                    Rocklin, CA 95677

 

April 13, 2018

continue reading...

 

Final Air Quality Monitoring Plan SMUD Station E Substation

Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Background Information ...................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1 Site Location and Surrounding Land Use ........................................................................ 1
1.1.2 Fugitive Emission Sources and Control Measures ...................................................... 2
1.1.3 Contaminants of Concern ....................................................................................................... 3
1.1.4 Permits and Regulatory Requirements ............................................................................. 4
1.1.5 Project Team Roles and Responsibilities ......................................................................... 5
1.2 Monitoring Objectives ........................................................................................................................... 5
1.3
Document Organization ....................................................................................................................... 6

2.
MONITORING PARAMETERS, LOCATIONS AND EQUIPMENT .................................................... 7


2.1 Monitoring Parameters and Action Levels ................................................................................... 7
2.1.1 Dust as PM10 .................................................................................................................................. 7
2.1.2 COCs ................................................................................................................................................. 9
2.1.3 Methane ........................................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Monitoring Locations .......................................................................................................................... 10
2.3
Monitoring Equipment ........................................................................................................................ 10

2.3.1 Continuous Dust Monitor ...................................................................................................... 10
2.3.2 Portable Dust Meter.................................................................................................................. 12
2.3.3 COC Sampling Equipment .................................................................................................... 12
2.3.4 Landfill Gas Meter ..................................................................................................................... 13
2.3.5 Weather Station.......................................................................................................................... 13

3.
QUALITY ASSURANCE ................................................................................................................................ 14


3.1 Standard Operating Procedures ..................................................................................................... 14
3.2 Equipment Calibration ........................................................................................................................ 14
3.3 Equipment Maintenance .................................................................................................................... 14
3.4 Analytical Methods ............................................................................................................................... 15
3.5
Quality Control Samples .................................................................................................................... 15

4.
DATA ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT AND VERIFICATION ......................................................... 16


4.1 Data Acquisition .................................................................................................................................... 16
4.2 Dust Data .................................................................................................................................................. 16
4.3 COC Analytical Data ............................................................................................................................ 16
4.4 Meteorological Data ............................................................................................................................. 17
4.5
Data Management and Verification ............................................................................................... 17

5.
SCHEDULE AND REPORTING .................................................................................................................. 18

6.
REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................. 20

 


List of Figures
Figure 1 Site Location Figure 2 Perimeter Monitoring Locations Figure 3 Haul Road Monitoring Locations

List of Appendices
Appendix A Evaluation of Potential Off-Site Exposures Appendix B ADR-1500 Continuous Dust Monitor Specifications Appendix C ADR-1500 Continuous Dust Monitor Operations Manual Appendix D pDR-1000 Portable Dust Meter Specifications Appendix E pDR-1000 Portable Dust Meter Operations Manual Appendix F NIOSH and USEPA Methods Appendix G Vantage Pro2 Weather Station Operations Manual

 

1. Introduction
The Phase 1B Waste Excavation and Rough Grading Project (the Project) involves the excavation and management of burn waste and soil to prepare the subsurface for the new Station E Substation located at North B Street and 20th Street in Sacramento, California (the Site). This Air Quality Monitoring Plan (AQMP) has been developed for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) as a supplement to the Construction Soil Management Plan and Postclosure Land Use Plan (CSMP/PCLUP) (Brown and Caldwell, 2017). This AQMP presents the monitoring methods and activities that will be conducted to determine if ambient air quality at the Site perimeter reaches a level where corrective action, such as increasing fugitive dust control measures, should be taken by the construction contractor. The following introductory sections provide background information, monitoring objectives, and document organization.
1.1 Background Information
This section provides information on Site location, surrounding land use, potential on-and off-site sources of fugitive emissions, planned fugitive dust control measures, contaminants of concern (COCs), and Project team roles and responsibilities.
1.1.1 Site Location and Surrounding Land Use
The Site is a 15-acre property located at North B Street and 20th Street in Sacramento. As shown on Figure 1, the Site is bounded by Union Pacific Railroad (UPRR) tracks to the south and west, SMUD North City Substation to the northwest, Blue Diamond Almond Growers (Blue Diamond) property to the north, and the Dellar Trust closed landfill to the east. Features relevant to air quality and land use surrounding the Site are summarized below.

UPRR Tracks: The railroad tracks are used for commercial and passenger rail. The tracks to the south of the Site are elevated on a berm relative to the Site.


Blue Diamond Property and Processing Plant: Blue Diamond processes almonds at a plant west of the Site adjacent to the UPRR tracks. The plant property is primarily covered with buildings and pavement. Blue Diamond also owns property adjacent to the north Site boundary. The property is currently open land that is sparsely vegetated.


SMUD North City Substation and Landfill: SMUD operates the aging North City Substation that will be replaced by the new Station E Substation. The North City property is adjacent to the northwest Site boundary and is covered with electrical structures/equipment and gravel. Further to the north, the North City property includes a former landfill that has not yet been formally closed.


Bell Marine Industrial Aggregate Processing: Bell Marine Company, Inc. is located northeast of the Site adjacent to the American River, the Dellar Trust landfill, and the 28th Street Landfill. Bell Marine receives demolition materials (asphalt and concrete), processes the materials through a crushing and screening plant, and stockpiles the finished products for sale. Industrial aggregate products include: Class II recycled aggregate base (AB), 3/4-inch crushed rock, washed sand, 3-inch minus fill (i.e. soil), and unscreened fill and sand. Stockpiled soil on the Bell Marine property has been identified for Site use as backfill for the Project. 


American River: The American River is located north of the Site and bounded by a levee adjacent to the Blue Diamond property. The American River Flood Control District granted a Temporary Use Permit (2018) to use the levee road as part of the haul route to transport fill dirt on the Bell Marine property to the Site. The levee road is also open to recreationalists using the American River Bike Trail.


Dellar Trust Landfill: The Dellar Trust property is adjacent to the eastern boundary of the Site. The closed landfill has been capped with a vegetative cover.


Residential/Commercial Neighborhood: The New Era Park neighborhood is located south of the Site adjacent to the UPPR tracks. Land uses in the neighborhood include residences, Grant Park (featuring a baseball field), day care, art studios, and commercial businesses.

 

1.1.2 Fugitive Emission Sources and Control Measures
During the Project, there are potential sources of fugitive dust and particulate matter (PM) emissions from both within the Site perimeter and beyond (i.e., nearby properties).
• Potential On-Site Emission Sources -Heavy-duty off-road equipment (e.g., trucks, excavators, loaders and graders) -Surface soil disturbing construction activities (e.g., shoring installation/removal,
grubbing, scraping, and grading) -Sub-surface soil disturbing construction activities (e.g., excavating, backfilling
and compacting) -Processing activities (e.g., stockpiling and screening) -Loading and hauling (i.e., the unpaved haul route road to the Bell Marine
property for soil import and the graveled haul route to 28th Street for off-site disposal) -Stockpiled soil
• Potential Off-Site Emission Sources -Commercial and passenger trains -Off-site unpaved and sparsely vegetated surfaces surrounding the property -Aggregate crushing and screening activities at the Bell Marine property -Stockpiled soil and sand at the Bell Marine property -Small stockpiles of rubbish and construction/demolition debris near the UPRR
tracks at the terminus of 20th Street
The construction contractor, CAPE Environmental Management, Inc. (CAPE), will implement a variety of best management practices (BMPs) each working day to control fugitive dust emissions from excavation areas, stockpiles, haul roads, and disturbed areas. Primary dust control measures on the Site include: 


Using two water trucks and a water wagon to control dust within the Site and on haul roads;


Using a street sweeper to clean roads of any track out when visible track out is present;


Limiting on-site traffic speed to 15 mph;


Covering inactive stockpiles;


Replacing ground cover in disturbed areas as soon as construction is complete; and


Covering trucks hauling export material.

Each working day, CAPE will use water trucks, fire hoses with variable spray nozzles, and/or high pressure, low-volume atomized water misters for:


Pre-soaking the work and/or heavy traffic areas;


Pre-soaking the staging and processing areas;


Spraying and/or misting the active remediation activities/materials;


Spraying and/or misting open working areas and load-out zones; and


Watering haul routes.

Secondary dust control techniques include:


Proper housekeeping and clean-up (e.g., using vacuum street sweeper, brooms, or shovels);


Using tackifiers (e.g., Soil-Sement® and Gorilla-Snot®);


Using paper mulch or hydro-mulch (e.g., FINN Waste Cover) for stabilizing soil stockpiles;


Further reduction of equipment speed and/or travel distances;


Reduction or temporary cessation of particular tasks or Site activities, as required, especially during high wind-event days; and


Suspend excavation and grading activities when wind speeds exceed 20 mph.


As described in Section 1.1.4, CAPE will conduct visible emissions surveys as required by SMAQMD to verify that dust control measures are effective.

1.1.3 Contaminants of Concern
As described in the CSMP/PCLUP, historical Site activities pre-dating SMUD property ownership have resulted in the placement of 5 to 18 feet of fill and some burn waste in the upper portion of the Site subsurface. Through extensive analytical testing, the primary COC in burn waste was determined to be lead. Secondary COCs were arsenic, petroleum (diesel and motor oil ranges), benzo(a)pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls (specifically PCB-1260), and dioxins/furans. During Phase 1A of the Project, a total of 58 stockpiles of burn waste were generated and the analytical results indicated that the mean and maximum concentrations of lead were 539 and 4,900 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), respectively (Brown and Caldwell, 2016). Note that lead concentrations in Site soil are typically an order of magnitude lower than those found in burn waste. The Project construction activities described previously have the potential to create fugitive dust emissions that may contain Site COCs. Since the Project is located near known landfills, methane is also considered a COC.

1.1.4 Permits and Regulatory Requirements
The Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD) determined that the Project construction activities are exempt from the permitting requirements of SMAQMD Rule 201, Section 122; however, dust control methods are required in order to properly manage fugitive dust emissions (SMAQMD, 2018a). In addition, CAPE must comply with the following SMAQMD rules (paraphrased).

Rule 401 Ringelmann Chart: This rule limits the discharge of air contaminants into the atmosphere through visible emissions observations and opacity testing.


Rule 402 Nuisance: The purpose of this rule is to protect the public’s health and welfare from the emissions of air contaminants which constitute a nuisance.


Rule 403 Fugitive Dust: This rule requires that CAPE control dust emissions generated from earth moving activities or any other construction activity to prevent fugitive dust from leaving the property boundary.

Finally, CAPE must comply with the following SMAQMD requirements (paraphrased):


Do not mix or till stockpiles;


Cover stockpiles with a continuous 6-mil plastic sheet, securely anchored, and with minimal headspace under the sheet; and


Screening plants must only screen non-hazardous soil and be registered under the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Portable Equipment Registration Program.

SMAQMD approved CAPE’s Construction Mitigation Plan (SMAQMD, 2018b) that listed heavy-duty off-road equipment that meets the 20% nitrous oxides (NOx) and 45% PM reduction in accordance with mitigation measure AIR-1 described in the Final Initial Study and Mitigated Negative Declaration (SMUD, 2014). CAPE is required to implement the following mitigation measures:


Submit monthly updated equipment lists to SMAQMD;


Ensure visible emissions do not exceed 40% opacity for more than 3 minutes in any 1-hour period (per Rule 401);


Conduct weekly surveys of visible emissions and submit monthly summaries to SMAQMD;


Use heavy-duty haul trucks that are equipped with model year 2010 or newer engines (or equivalent);


Pay a mitigation fee to SMAQMD if daily emissions exceed 85 pounds/day NOx;


Limit idling time to 5 minutes; and


Notifying SMAQMD if asbestos containing materials (ACM) are encountered.

 

There is no regulatory requirement for perimeter air monitoring; however, SMUD has elected to conduct perimeter air monitoring during the Project to ensure the BMPs are effective.

1.1.5 Project Team Roles and Responsibilities
The Project team roles and responsibilities as they relate to air monitoring are summarized in the following table.

Role Firm/Personnel Responsibilities
Health and Safety Officer Bruce Zike SMUD . Oversight of implementation of Air Quality Monitoring Plan . Entek and TRC contract manager
Health and Safety Specialist Alexander Neuhaus SMUD . Conduct field inspections
Environmental Representative Sarah Cheney SMUD . Environmental coordinator that interfaces with SMUD project team and regulatory agency representatives . Brown and Caldwell contract manager
Construction Manager Ken Groves SMUD . Interfaces with construction contractor
Construction Contractor Chris Houck CAPE . Implements dust control measures at the Site . Conducts OSHA-required personal air monitoring for construction personnel
Air Quality Specialist Guy Graening TRC . Implements continuous dust monitoring at perimeter . Prepares air monitoring results reports . Experienced air quality consultant independent of SMUD and CAPE
Air Quality Specialist Andy Roed Entek Consulting . Implements periodic COC sampling and analysis at perimeter . Experienced air quality consultant independent of SMUD and CAPE
CQA Officer Kristine Tidwell & Amanda Morrow Brown and Caldwell . Oversight of implementation of the Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Plan . Experienced CQA consultant independent of SMUD and CAPE
CQA Monitor Fernando Idiarte Brown and Caldwell . Implements CQA Plan . Experienced CQA consultant independent of SMUD and CAPE

This AQMP does not encompass personal air monitoring required by federal and state Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA and Cal/OSHA) to protect workers – that is the responsibility of each firm with workers on the Site.


1.2 Monitoring Objectives
The objectives of the air monitoring are to:

Monitor airborne COCs and meteorological parameters (specifically wind direction and speed) at the Site perimeter during construction activities;


Compare any detections of COCs against the action levels provided in this AQMP;


Provide prompt notification of action level thresholds to the construction contractor so that corrective action (e.g., increasing dust control measures) can be implemented; and

 

• Meet data quality objectives.

1.3 Document Organization
Section 2 presents air monitoring parameters, locations and equipment. Section 3 describes quality assurance procedures. Section 4 presents data acquisition, management, and verification. Section 5 describes the program schedule and reporting procedures. Finally, Section 6 lists references used in this AQMP.

 

 

2. Monitoring Parameters, Locations andEquipment
This section describes the air monitoring parameters and associated Contractor Action Levels, and monitoring locations and equipment.
2.1 Monitoring Parameters and Action Levels
The parameters to be monitored are based on the Site COCs described previously and consist of dust, arsenic, lead, PCBs, dioxins/furans, and methane. In addition, meteorological conditions will be monitored during the Project to help evaluate air quality measurements. Note that the Contractor Dust Action Level is set well below the regulatory concentration limits and risk-based screening levels; that is, it is proactive and very protective of human health. Exceedance of a Contractor Dust Action Level means that the construction contractor needs to increase dust controls or limit an activity that may be causing fugitive dust emissions.
2.1.1 Dust as PM10
To protect human health, dust will be measured during the Project as PM10, which refers to particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 microns (µm) – see the illustration at right from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). PM10 is a subset of total suspended dust particles that are small enough to pass through the throat and nose and enter the lungs where they may cause health effects (World Health Organization, 1997). PM10 is a common particle size fraction measured in perimeter air monitoring.
There are several regulatory concentration limits and risk-based screening levels for dust and PM as summarized below.
• Federal and State Permissible Exposure Limits: Under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, OSHA established PELs, which are the maximum permitted concentration of an airborne contaminant that a worker may be exposed to during an 8-hour work shift. The federal PEL for total respirable dust (comparable to PM10) is 5,000 micrograms of dust per cubic meter of air (µg/m3). States can adopt the federal PELs or promulgate their own as long as they are equal to or more stringent.

 

Cal/OSHA has adopted a state PEL for respirable dust that is equal to the federal PEL. To put the PEL concentration in perspective, airborne dust may become visible at concentrations of approximately 1,000 µg/m3 (Gillette et al, 1992; Merkus, 2009).
• National Ambient Air Quality Standard: Under the Clean Air Act and Amendments of 1990, the USEPA has established concentration limits for criteria air pollutants (including PM10) in regional air quality. The National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for PM10 is 150 µg/m3 based on a 24-hour average. States such as California can adopt the federal NAAQS or promulgate their own standard as long as it is equal to or more stringent.
The Contractor Dust Action Level (as PM10) during the Project has been set at 150 µg/m3 based on a 24-hour average (equivalent to the NAAQS). To minimize the possibility of exceeding the 24-hour average Contractor Dust Action Level, PM10 will be measured continuously during the project every 15 minutes. Note that the 15-minute duration is very protective of human health since it is 1/32 of the PEL measurement duration of 8 hours and 1/96 of the NAAQS/CAAQS measurement duration of 24 hours. Furthermore, the 150 µg/m3 Contractor Dust Action Level is equivalent to approximately 3% of the PEL for respirable dust of 5,000 µg/m3.
The continuous dust monitoring equipment will be programmed to alert the Project team (specified in Section 1.1.5) via email when PM10 is measured above 150 µg/m3 for a 15­minute duration. Upon receiving an alert, the following procedure will be implemented to manage/monitor dust emissions and minimize the possibility of exceeding the 24­hour average Contactor Dust Action Level.
1) The Air Quality Specialist will determine which monitoring location(s) recorded the alert and monitor the location(s) to determine if the subsequent 15-minute measurement is also above 150 µg/m3.
2) If two subsequent measurements are above 150 µg/m3, then the Air Quality Specialist will review the meteorological data to determine the current predominant wind direction at the Site. This information can then be used to determine the current relative position(s) of the monitoring location(s) with respect to the wind direction (i.e., upwind, crosswind or downwind).
3) The Air Quality Specialist will observe current on-site and off-site activity in the area of the monitoring location(s) initiating the alert in an attempt to identify the source(s) of dust emissions.
4) If the Air Quality Specialist, or on-site designee, determines that the source of dust emissions was caused by on-site activity, then SMUD personnel will be notified to review dust control measures with CAPE.
5) CAPE will modify construction activity and/or increase dust control measures as necessary to prevent further alerts.

In response to a request by a household in a neighborhood in the project vicinity, SMUD established a threshold PM10 concentration which if met would trigger notification to interested parties. The threshold level was set at 5,000 µg/m3 to match the federal and Cal/OSHA PEL for respirable dust for a worker over a 40-hour work week. If the concentration of PM10 is measured above 5,000 µg/m3 for four consecutive 15-minute readings (i.e., a 1-hour duration), a representative on-site will evaluate whether the unexpected increase in PM10 appears to be due to contributions from off-site, and if not will promptly trigger a procedure for notifying interested members of the public so they can review the exceedance data.
SMUD and its environmental consulting contractor do not anticipate dust (as PM10) emissions from the Site will reach this concentration threshold since the Site will be proactively and continually monitored and managed at a PM10 concentration of 150 µg/m3. It should be noted that the 1-hour concentration of 5,000 µg/m3 is very conservative and protective considering the PEL was established to protect the health of workers who could potentially be exposed at that level for 40 hours a week over a 40­year work life (i.e., approximately 80,000 hours of cumulative lifetime workplace exposure). In addition, any contribution to the air surrounding the Site would be mixed with the surrounding air from other sources, and the prevailing winds could direct the wind away from potential receptors.

2.1.2 COCs
Potential inhalation exposures to airborne COCs are expected to be low. An evaluation of potential off-site exposure was conducted and the results are documented in Appendix A. The evaluation conservatively estimated future COC concentrations in Site dust based on previous investigation results. These conservatively-estimated dust concentrations were then compared to health-based breathing air concentrations established by the USEPA that are protective of residents including sensitive groups such as children and the elderly. The evaluation determined that enforcing the Dust Contractor Action Level of 150 µg/m3 during the Project results in no unacceptable risks to human health according to the USEPA.

2.1.3 Methane
As discussed in Section 1.1.1, there are several landfills near the Site. Landfills can generate gas comprises primarily methane and carbon dioxide. Although methane is non-toxic, it is monitored at landfills because it can act as an asphyxiant and can present an explosive hazard if it accumulates at percent-level concentrations. Explosive gases such as methane have a range of concentrations where they present an explosive hazard. The lower threshold, referred to as the lower explosive limit (LEL), is the concentration in air below which the explosive gas mixture is too lean to explode. The upper threshold, referred to as the upper explosive limit (UEL), is the concentration in air above which the explosive gas mixture is too rich to explode. Methane has a LEL of 5% by volume in air and a UEL of 10%. CAPE will monitor excavations with a hand­held landfill gas meter capable of measuring methane concentration in air expressed as percent of the LEL (%LEL). A meter reading of 25% LEL is equal to 1.25% methane by volume in air and a meter reading of 50% LEL is equal to 2.5% methane by volume in air. The Contractor Methane Action Level during the Project has been set at 25% LEL based on an instantaneous reading.


2.2 Monitoring Locations
The parameters specified in Section 2.1 will be monitored at Site locations that take into consideration of the following factors:

Areas on the Site where construction activity will occur;


Location of off-site sensitive receptors (e.g., residences south of the Site adjacent to the UPPR tracks);


Avoiding obstructions to airflow (e.g., buildings, fences, dense vegetation, and berms); and


Predominant wind direction.


The air monitoring locations are shown on Figure 2 and Figure 3 and summarized in the following table.

Location Equipment Description
AM-1 Continuous Dust Monitor Weather Station COC Samplers • Fixed perimeter station near Site entrance • Near residences south and west of the Site adjacent to UPPR tracks
AM-2 Continuous Dust Monitor COC Samplers • Fixed perimeter station near southeast corner of property • Near residences south of the Site adjacent to UPPR tracks
AM-3 Continuous Dust Monitor COC Samplers • Fixed perimeter station at mid-point of northern property boundary
AM-4 Continuous Dust Monitor COC Samplers • Fixed perimeter station at mid-point of eastern property boundary
P1 – P8 Portable Dust Meter • Portable perimeter stations along western/southern property boundary
P9 – P12 Portable Dust Meter • Portable perimeter stations along eastern property boundary
P13 – P16 Portable Dust Meter • Portable perimeter stations along northern property boundary
Excavations Landfill Gas Meter Portable Dust Meter • Downwind edge of excavations
Off-Site Haul Route HR1 – HR9 Portable Dust Meter • Along the haul route for off-site disposal from the Site through Sutter’s Landing to 28th Street


2.3 Monitoring Equipment
Air monitoring equipment consists of continuous dust monitors, a portable dust meter, COC sampling equipment, a landfill gas meter, and a weather station.
2.3.1 Continuous Dust Monitor
Dust (as PM10) will be monitored continuously at all four fixed perimeter stations using a Thermo Scientific ADR-1500 Area Dust Monitor (ADR-1500) to be supplied by Pine Environmental. The ADR-1500 is designed for continuous unattended monitoring with data logging every 15 minutes and wireless data transmission to a central location. The ADR-1500 has been approved by Federal agencies for real-time continuous ambient PM monitoring at Superfund sites including the following: 


Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund Site in Portsmouth, Virginia;


Onondaga Lake Superfund Site in Onondaga County, New York; and


Welsbach and General Gas Mantle Superfund Site in Camden and Gloucester, New Jersey.

Specifications for the ADR-1500 are provided in Appendix B and the operation manual is provided in Appendix C. The following sections describe the ADR-1500 installation, security, configuration and settings.


Installation and Security: At each monitoring station, the ADR-1500 dust monitor assembly will be mounted on a steel pole embedded in concrete. Its weatherproof enclosure ensures safe and effective operation under a wide range of ambient environmental conditions. Power is supplied to the ADR-1500 with a solar panel that recharges an internal battery for use in remote locations. An external, deep-cycle marine battery provides power during periods of low ambient solar radiation (e.g., night or cloudy skies). To represent breathing level, the assembly will be placed such that the height of the omni-directional inlet is approximately 5 feet above ground level. The assembly will be secured by enclosing the immediate area with a chain link fence and locking gate.


Configuration/Settings: The ADR-1500 samples the air through an omni-directional inlet, which ensures representative sampling of PM, even under windy conditions. This inlet rises about 30 centimeters over the upper surface of the ADR-1500 enclosure. The sampled air stream then enters a cyclone located downstream of the inlet, wherein particles larger than the cut-off diameter of the cyclone are retained, and those smaller than the cut-off diameter continue into the optical sensing stage of the monitor. The particle cut-off size is dependent on the sampling flow rate.


After the inlet assembly, the sample stream enters the optical sensing stage where the instantaneous concentration of airborne particulate matter is measured by the highly sensitive light-scattering photometer (i.e., nephelometer) technology. The intensity of the light scattered by airborne particles passing through the sensing chamber is linearly proportional to their concentration. This optical configuration produces optimal response to particles, providing continuous measurements of the concentrations of airborne particles independent of the speed with which the particles pass through the sensing stage. The ADR-1500 covers a wide measurement range: from 1 to 400,000 µg/m3, a 400,000-fold span, corresponding to very clean air up to an extremely high aerosol concentration. 

After the particle mass concentration has been sensed photometrically, the stream passes through a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filter capsule. After passing through the filter stage, the filtered air stream then enters the flow assembly. This assembly contains a rotary vane pump and a volumetric flow rate control system based on sensing the pressure drop across a sub-sonic orifice that is protected by an inline filter. The ADR-1500 incorporates a temperature and relative humidity sensor coupled with an internal heater to mitigate the positive bias with elevated ambient humidity. Additionally, the flow control is truly volumetric and is maintained through digital feedback of the onboard barometric pressure sensor, temperature sensor, and calibrated differential pressure across a precision orifice. The principles of true volumetric flow, as incorporated by the ADR-1500, result in an accurate sample volume and precise particle cut-point. The sampling flow rate can be selected by keypad control on the front panel of the instrument. The sampling flow rate will be set for a cut-off diameter of PM10. The ADR-1500 will be configured to notify Project staff proactively via e-mail when PM10 exceeds 150 µg/m3 for a 15­minute duration.

2.3.2 Portable Dust Meter
Dust (as PM10) will be monitored periodically at portable perimeter stations, excavations, and the off-site haul route using a Thermo Scientific pDR-1000AN Personal Dust Monitor (pDR-1000) to be supplied by Pine Environmental. The pDR-1000 is a compact, rugged and portable meter that uses the same light-scattering nephelometer used in the ADR-1500 to measure real-time concentrations of dust in industrial as well as other indoor and outdoor environments. Specifications for the pDR-1000 are provided in Appendix D and the operation manual is provided in Appendix E.

2.3.3 COC Sampling Equipment


Airborne COCs will be sampled periodically at all four fixed perimeter stations. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300 (provided in Appendix F) that specifies sampling media of filter cassettes containing a 0.8 µm mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane for capturing metals, and a sampling flow rate of 1 to 4 liters per minute (lpm). The filter cassette will be connected to a personal air sampling pump (Sensidyne GilAir or equivalent) with tubing. NIOSH Method 5503 (Appendix F) specifies sampling media of glass fiber filters and Florisil sorbent tubes for capturing PCBs, a sampling flow rate of 0.05 to 0.2 lpm, and a similar sampling pump. USEPA Method TO-9A (Appendix F) will be modified for low-volume sampling using a polyurethane foam (PUF) sorbent tube, a flow rate of 1 to 5 lpm, and similar sampling pump. The COC sampling equipment will be secured to a tripod with the inlet of the tubing at approximately 5 feet above ground to represent breathing level. The target flow rates for the air sampling pumps will be calibrated at the beginning and end of the sample duration, which will typically be 8 hours for comparison to the PELs.

2.3.4 Landfill Gas Meter
CAPE will monitor excavations with a hand-held landfill gas meter (RKI Eagle or equivalent) capable of measuring methane concentration in air expressed as percent of the LEL (%LEL).

2.3.5 Weather Station
A Davis Instruments Vantage Pro2 Weather Station will be co-located at one of the fixed perimeter stations to monitor meteorological parameters. The integrated sensor suite (ISS) features an anemometer for measuring wind speed and direction, tipping bucket for measuring precipitation, barometer for measuring barometric pressure, and a shielded thermometer for measuring ambient temperature and humidity. The ISS will be mounted on a pole such that the anemometer is located approximately 3 meters above ground surface. The operations manual for the Vantage Pro2 is provided in Appendix G.

3. Quality Assurance 

The quality assurance program incorporates the following items: standard operating procedures (SOPs), equipment calibration and maintenance, standard analytical methods, and quality control samples.
3.1 Standard Operating Procedures
The SOP for the ADR-1500 continuous dust monitors is provided in Appendix C. The ADR-1500 is intended for unattended continuous operation since critical parameters (e.g., battery voltage and antenna strength) can be checked remotely. The SOP for the pDR-1000 portable dust meter is provided in Appendix E. The SOP for COC sampling is included in the NIOSH and USEPA methods provided in Appendix F. The SOP for the Vantage Pro2 Weather Station is provided in Appendix G.

3.2 Equipment Calibration
Calibration of the equipment described in Section 2.3 will be performed in accordance with manufacturer specifications.

ADR-1500 Continuous Dust Monitors: Calibration will be performed by Thermo Scientific or Pine Environmental according to the following schedule: -Upon installation; -Once every 12 months or as otherwise suggested by the manufacturer; and -After Project completion.


pDR-1000 Portable Dust Meter: Calibration typically involves zeroing the meter in the field on a weekly basis, or more frequently as needed.


Landfill Gas Meter: The equipment supplier will typically calibrate the meter monthly calibration with a methane standard.


Vantage Pro2 Weather Station: Davis Instruments calibrates all sensors in the ISS prior to shipment. On-site calibration includes leveling the anemometer and aligning it to true north.


Personal Air Sampling Pump: The flow rate for the assembled COC sampling equipment will be measured with an air flow calibrator at the beginning and end of the sampling duration. The average flow rate will be used to calculate the sample volume.

 

3.3 Equipment Maintenance
Maintenance of the equipment described in Section 2.3 will be performed in accordance with manufacturer specifications.

• 

ADR-1500 Continuous Dust Monitors: Routine maintenance includes the following: -Removing dust from the inside/outside of the weatherproof enclosure as

needed; -Removing dust from the solar panel as needed; -Cleaning the optical sensing chamber monthly with compressed filtered air; and -Replacing the internal filters every 6 months, or more frequently as needed.


pDR-1000 Portable Dust Meter and Landfill Gas Meter: These meters are designed for rugged, outdoor use with minimal maintenance.


Vantage Pro2 Weather Station: Routine maintenance includes the following: -Removing dust from the solar panel as needed; and -Inspecting the anemometer and rain collector periodically and removing any debris (e.g., twigs, leaves, webs and nests).

3.4 Analytical Methods
Analytical methods approved by NIOSH and USEPA will be used as indicated in the following table.

Chemical Method Sampling Media Sampling Flow Rate Sampling Duration Sampling Volume Mass Det. Limit Conc. Det. Limit
Arsenic NIOSH MCE filter 480 min 1.2 m3 0.6 µg 0.5 µg/m3
Lead 7300 2.5 lpm 0.8 µg 0.6 µg/m3
PCBs NIOSH 5503 glass fiber filter & Florisil sorbent 0.2 lpm 480 min 0.096 m3 0.02 µg 0.2 µg/m3
Dioxins & Furans Modified EPA TO-9A PUF sorbent tube 2.0 lpm 480 min 0.96 m3 10 to 100 pg varies


3.5 Quality Control Samples
Quality control samples for this AQMP are specified in NIOSH and USEPA analytical methods and consist of collecting field blanks during lead sampling.
• Field Blanks: Analyses of field blanks are used to assess the potential for contamination of samples during sample collection. A field blank consists of temporarily connecting a clean filter cassette to the air sampling pump with tubing, then removing the cassette without operating the pump. One field blank will be analyzed for every 20 primary samples.

4. Data Acquisition, Management andVerification 

This section describes how data will be acquired, managed, and verified during the project. In addition, data quality objectives (DQOs) are specified.
4.1 Data Acquisition
Data to be acquired during the project consists of dust measurements, COC analytical data, and meteorological measurements.

4.2 Dust Data
Dust measurements will be acquired over 15 minute periods continuously at all four fixed monitoring stations for the duration of the Project and data will be recorded by the data logger. In addition to dust concentration data, the following data can be acquired: battery voltage and current; temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure for volumetric flow control; and antenna signal strength. The data will be transmitted continuously via cellular antenna to the Environet website (https://ienvironet.com/) that displays near real-time dust data to the Project team. An example screen shot of the Environet interface is provided above.
Dust measurements will be obtained with a portable dust meter at the 16 portable monitoring stations along the Site perimeter and nine portable haul road locations. The Air Quality Specialist will walk the perimeter and haul route periodically during construction days when ground disturbing activities are conducted and record the dust measurements on a daily field data sheet.

4.3 COC Analytical Data
Metals and PCBs will be analyzed by Forensic Analytical Laboratories (Forensic) located in Hayward. Forensic has current accreditation by the California Department of Public Health (CA DPH) and the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA). Dioxins/furans will be analyzed by Vista Analytical Laboratory in El Dorado Hills. For each batch of samples, Forensic and Vista will provide an Electronic Data Deliverable (EDD) that will be uploaded electronically into the Project database.

4.4 Meteorological Data
Meteorological measurements will be acquired continuously for the duration of the monitoring program and data will be recorded by the data logger every 60 minutes. The data will be transmitted continuously via a solar-powered transmitter with battery backup to a remote console/receiver with backlit LCD screen that will be located in the construction contractor on-site trailer. The console/receiver will upload data to the WeatherLink website (https://weatherlink.com/) that displays near real-time meteorological data to the Project team. An example screen shot of the WeatherLink interface is provided above.

4.5 Data Management and Verification
A Project database has been created in Microsoft Access for data management and verification. Queries and reports will be created in the database to support data interpretation.

Dust and Meteorological Data: Dust concentration data from continuous dust monitors at all four monitoring stations will be downloaded from Environet to the Project database on a weekly basis, or more frequently as needed. Dust concentration data recorded on the field data sheets from the portable monitoring stations (perimeter and haul road) will be hand-entered into the Project database on a weekly basis, or more frequently as needed. The field data sheets will be scanned and saved to the Project server on a weekly basis. Meteorological data will be downloaded from WeatherLink on a weekly basis, or more frequently as necessary. The dust concentration and meteorological data will be verified and qualifiers will be added as necessary (e.g., rejection of data during brief periods of calibration or maintenance). The dust measurement DQO is 90% usable data. The meteorological DQO is 95% usable data.


COC Analytical Data: The NIOSH and USEPA methods specify DQOs for accuracy and precision that must be met by the analytical laboratory. The data will be verified (i.e., Level 2) and qualifiers will be added as necessary.

5. Schedule and Reporting
The Project is planned to begin the fourth week of April 2018 with CAPE mobilization and other pre-construction activities. The construction period is expected to take 6 months. The schedule for air quality monitoring is summarized in the following table.

Type of Monitoring or Sampling Pre-Construction Period (2 weeks) Construction Period (approx. 6 months) Post-Construction Period (2 weeks)
Dust – Continuous Monitors (AM-1 to AM-4) Continuous with 15-min data logging Continuous with 15-min data logging Continuous with 15-min data logging
Dust – Portable Meter* (P1 to P16 and HR1 to HR9) None Collect instantaneous readings at portable stations (perimeter and haul road) and excavations 2 to 4 times per day during earth-disturbing activities None
Landfill Gas* None Collect instantaneous readings at excavations 2 to 4 times per day during earth-disturbing activities None
COCs Conduct two 8-hour sampling events Conduct two 8-hour sampling events during: • Start of grubbing/surface scraping • Start of excavation/stockpiling • Start of off-site hauling of burn waste None
Meteorological Continuous with 60-min data logging Continuous with 60-min data logging Continuous with 60-min data logging

* Portable dust meter and landfill gas meter will be available for spot checks throughout the day as needed
Reporting during the Project will consist of daily reports, weekly reports, and a summary report.
• Daily Reports: A daily report will be prepared for each day during the construction period. The daily report will be prepared on the next business day following the day of monitoring. The daily report will summarize the following information: -24-hour average PM10 concentration calculated from the 96 measurements
typically recorded with 15-minute data logging; -Wind rose displaying the 24 wind speed and direction measurements typically
recorded with 60-minute data logging; -Chemical-specific analytical results, if conducted on the day of monitoring; and -If the 24-hour average PM10 concentration is greater than the Contractor Dust
Action Level of 150 µg/m3, the daily report will include an explanation regarding the source of the dust emissions and what actions were taken to address it.
The air quality daily reports will be available to the public via a link on the Project website that directs the browser to the TRC external website. The daily report for weekdays Monday through Thursday will typically be available by noon the subsequent day. The daily report for Friday and weekend days will be typically be available on Monday at noon.

• 

Weekly Reports: The Project team will hold weekly status meetings to discuss safety, air quality, dust control, schedule/progress of the work, outstanding deficiencies, and work coordination. Meeting minutes will be prepared that include the air quality daily reports for the prior week.


Summary Report: At the completion of the Project, the results of air quality monitoring will be included as an appendix to the Construction Completion Report. The appendix will summarize the construction activities, measurements for dust/landfill gas/meteorological parameters, and COC analytical results.

6. References
American River Flood Control District, 2018. Temporary Use Permit. Correspondence to CAPE. January 31.
Brown and Caldwell (B&C), 2016. Results of Investigations to Support Construction Activities, Station E Substation Construction Project, North B Street and 20th Street, Sacramento, CA. February 9.
B&C, 2017. Construction Soil Management Plan and Postclosure Land Use Plan, Station E Substation Construction Project, Sacramento, California, Amendment 1. Prepared for SMUD. July 31.
California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4, Subchapter 4, Article 4, Section 1532.1 (d)(3)(D) Objective Data Determination for Lead.
Gillette, D. A., Patterson, E. M. Jr., Prospero, J. M., and Jackson, M. L., 1992. Soil Aerosols. In Aerosol Effects on Climate. Edited by S. G. Jennings, Tucson: University of Arizona Press. Pages 73–109.
Merkus, H. G., 2009. Particle Size Measurements: Fundamentals, Practice, Quality. New York: Springer.
Sacramento Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD), 2018a. Permit Exemption for SMUD Station E Substation Phase 1B Excavation and Rough Grading Project Near C Street & 28th Street, Sacramento, CA. Correspondence to CAPE. February 14.
SMAQMD, 2018b. SMUD Station E Substation Construction Mitigation Plan (SMAQMD #SAC201501548). Correspondence to CAPE. February 26.
SMUD, 2014. Final Initial Study and Mitigated Negative Declaration, Station E Substation Project. March 19.
World Health Organization (WHO), 1997. Assessment of Exposure to Indoor Air Pollutants. WHO Regional Publications European Series, No. 78. WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen. Pages 54, 81-82, 87-88.



FIGURES

Picture Placeholder

Picture Placeholder

Picture Placeholder 

 

APPENDIX A EVALUATION OF POTENTIAL OFF-SITE EXPOSURE


11020 White Rock Road, Suite 200 Rancho Cordova, CA 95670
T: 916.444.0123 F: 916.635.8805

April 6, 2018
Ms. Sarah Cheney Sacramento Municipal Utility District 6201 S Street Sacramento, California 95817
Subject: Evaluation of Potential Offsite Contaminants of Concern (COC) Exposure, Station E Substation, 20th and B Street, Sacramento, California
Dear Ms. Cheney:
Brown and Caldwell, Inc. (BC) has conducted an evaluation to determine whether chemicals of concern (COCs) migrating off the Station E Substation site (Site) as dust during construction could pose a significant health risk to local populations, including children and the elderly. We did this by estimating worst-case off-site concentrations in air and comparing them to levels established to protect the health of sensitive groups.
COC Concentrations in Dust
SMUD contractors have compiled a database of soil concentrations of arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and PCB-1260 in Site soils, both from stockpiles and test pits. These data were evaluated to estimate the highest representative concentration that could reasonably be present in these soils, using United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) software (ProUCL version 5.1). ProUCL calculates the upper 95th percentile concentration (UCL) on the mean, which is above the concentration of the true mean with 95% confidence. We used this statistic, as is standard in risk estimation1, because it tends to overestimate the true chemical concentration and is therefore considered conservative (erring on the side of protection).
There are dioxin concentration data only for the backfill and not for burn waste, so we used the higher-concentration information from the adjacent burn waste site (the old city landfill comprising the North City Substation site). Based on our collective knowledge, municipal solid burn waste from North City and from Station E are similar. Municipal burn waste is visually different from soil or Cogeneration Ash (both have been analyzed for dioxins) and has unique odors that make it easy to differentiate from unburned municipal solid waste, soil or ash. The presence of low-level dioxins identified in Station E backfill soils in the 2016 Supplemental Investigation indicate the likely presence of residual burn waste impacts. However, Station E soil dioxin concentrations are 5 to 100 times below federal and state direct contact health-based screening levels for industrial sites.
\\rcordova-fp1\natural resources\rmd projects\smud\substation e\air monitoring\work plan\appendices\app a exposure eval\final risk calc letter (jss)_kt jb rev 4-10-2018 sc cmnts tls.docx

Ms. Sarah Cheney Sacramento Municipal Utility District April 6, 2018 Page 2
There were two dioxin concentrations reported in soil for the North City landfill and we used the higher one. The dioxin concentrations include all the dioxin and furan compounds analyzed and are expressed in term of the most hazardous dioxin compound.
We understand that SMUD will monitor dust and use standard mitigation measures to keep dust below the action level of 0.15 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), on average of a 24-hour period, for particles small enough to be inhaled, or about one thousandth of a gram in 1.3 cubic yards of air. To estimate the worst-case dust concentrations off site, we assumed that all of the observed dust particles consist of contaminated soil, that the dust concentration is always equivalent to the maximum observed, and that there is no dilution or dispersion of dust between the measurement location (Site boundary) and the location where a local resident may be inhaling the dust.
The estimated COC concentrations in soil and dust are listed below. A milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) is one thousandth of a gram of chemical in a kilogram of soil, or about 0.00016 ounces per pound. A microgram per cubic meter (µg/m3) is one millionth of a gram (about 35 billionths of an ounce) in about a 1.3 cubic yards of air.

COC Soil Concentration (mg/kg) Dust Concentration (µg/m3)
Arsenic 20.7 0.0031
Lead 841 0.13
PCB­1260 0.231 0.00035
Dioxins 0.000132 0.000000020

These concentrations were based on the calculated UCL using Site data from 143 soil samples for lead and arsenic and 58 samples for PCBs. As indicated above, the dioxin concentration is the higher of two observations in burn waste from the adjacent North City site.
Risk Screening
We compared the estimated COC dust concentrations to risk-based concentrations to determine if there is an exposure concern. Because the California Department of Toxic Substances (DTSC) does not publish air screening levels for the COCs, we used the EPA Regional Screening Levels (RSLs2) for residents. There are two kinds of RSLs, to protect against cancer and noncancer effects (lead is not regulated as a carcinogen and therefore only has a noncancer RSL; PCB-1260 only has a cancer RSL). The cancer RSLs are calculated assuming 26 years of full-time exposure. These RSLs were scaled to account for the eight-month exposure period, which is standard risk practice to evaluate
\\rcordova-fp1\natural resources\rmd projects\smud\substation e\air monitoring\work plan\appendices\app a exposure eval\final risk calc letter (jss)_kt jb rev 4-10-2018 sc cmnts tls.docx

Ms. Sarah Cheney Sacramento Municipal Utility District April 6, 2018 Page 3
exposures that are of less duration3. The noncancer RSLs are also based on 26 years of full-time exposure but these values are not typically scaled. The lead RSL is the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). We used the lower of the adjusted cancer and noncancer RSLs to ensure the most protective value for comparison. RSLs are developed using toxicity information with safety factors to protect sensitive subpopulations.

COC Dust Concentration (µg/m3) RSL (µg/m3) Comment
Arsenic 0.0031 0.016 (nc) COC conc. in dust < RSL
Lead 0.13 0.15 NAAQS COC conc. in dust < RSL
PCB­1260 0.000035 0.19 (c) COC conc. in dust < RSL
Dioxins 0.000000020 0.0000029 (c) COC conc. in dust < RSL

(nc) –noncancer basis, (c) –cancer basis, NAAQS – National Ambient Air Quality Standard
Additional details from this evaluation are included in the attached table. The COC
concentrations in dust for the four COCs are below the risk-based concentrations,
indicating that there are no significant risks to human health. This screening is also
extremely conservative because
.
The estimated concentrations in soil are conservative and the true average level of contamination is likely to be lower.

.
As indicated above, we have assumed that dust leaving the Site will be at the monitoring limits, when in fact it is likely to be far lower the majority of the time.

.
As indicated above, we have assumed that this dust concentration does not reduce with distance from the Site boundary, which does not account for rapid dispersion in air. Furthermore, a specific exposure location is not always downwind of the Site and may have zero Site contribution at times.

.
Dust is assumed to be composed entirely of contaminated Site soil, but in fact dust has other sources (surface soil from other sites, vehicles and heavy equipment, for example).

.
The monitoring limit is based on total measured respirable dust and does not account for the fact that the Site will almost certainly not be the only source of dust; the Site’s contribution will be less than 100% and may be a small component or zero, depending on the prevailing wind conditions at any given time.

.
The RSLs themselves are conservative in that they are based on continuous exposure, but in reality people are not expected to be at the maximally impacted location for the entire eight-month construction period.


Overall, therefore, we believe that the potential fugitive dust leaving the Site does not pose a risk concern to local populations.
3 The RSL calculation (EPA 2017) includes a variable for Exposure Duration (ED). The default is 26 years (312 months). Therefore, the cancer basis RSLs to adjust for an 8-month exposure period were multiplied by 312/8, or a factor of 39.
\\rcordova-fp1\natural resources\rmd projects\smud\substation e\air monitoring\work plan\appendices\app a exposure eval\final risk calc letter (jss)_kt jb rev 4-10-2018 sc cmnts tls.docx

Ms. Sarah Cheney Sacramento Municipal Utility District April 6, 2018 Page 4
If you have any questions, please call Kristene Tidwell at 916.853-5321.
Very truly yours,
Brown and Caldwell,

Tamara L. Sorell, Ph.D., BCES Kristene Tidwell, P.G.,C.Hg. (#8583, #969) Chief Scientist/National Risk Practice Lead Project Manager

Jeffrey G. Bold, Ph.D Soil and Water Scientist
Attachments: Table: Evaluation of Potential Risks in Dust
cc: Mr. Patrick Durham, Sacramento Municipal Utility District
\\rcordova-fp1\natural resources\rmd projects\smud\substation e\air monitoring\work plan\appendices\app a exposure eval\final risk calc letter (jss)_kt jb rev 4-10-2018 sc cmnts tls.docx

 

APPENDIX B ADR-1500 CONTINUOUS DUST MONITOR SPECIFICATIONS

 

Thermo Scientific ADR-1500 Area Dust Monitor
Real-time ambient dust monitor designed for continuous monitoring
Product Specifications


The Thermo ScientificTM ADR-1500 Area Dust Monitor utilizes highly sensitive light-scattering photometer (nephelometer) technology, as used in the Thermo Scientific pDR Series monitors.

Volumetric flow control


Modular optics and long-life primary HEPA filter for simple servicing


Multiple power and communications


capabilities

Durable weather-proof IP65 enclosure


Designed for ease of transport and installation

 

Picture Placeholder

The intensity of light scattered by airborne particles passing through the sensing chamber is linearly proportional to their concentration. This optical configuration produces optimal response to particles providing continuous measurements of the concentrations of airborne particles for total particulate and cut-points ranging from PM­10 down to PM-1.
The ADR-1500 monitor incorporates a temperature and relative humidity (RH) sensor coupled with an internal heater to mitigate the positive bias with elevated ambient RH. Additionally, the flow control is truly volumetric and is maintained through digital feedback of the onboard barometric pressure sensor, temperature sensor, and calibrated differential pressure across a precision orifice. The principles of true volumetric flow, as incorporated by the ADR­1500 monitor, result in an accurate sample volume and precise particle cut-point.
The measured concentration of particulate matter is displayed in real-time on the two-line LCD readout display. Additional values can be displayed, such as run start time and date, time averaged concentrations, elapsed run time and many more.
The flexible power capabilities allow the ADR-1500 monitor to operate on AC,external DC,or an internal battery. Communications options are available for USB, RS-232, analog and wireless capability.
The ADR-1500 monitor is housed in a weather-proof IP65 enclosure producing a compact and durable instrument that is ready for rapid deployment and unattended operation.

 

Thermo Scientific ADR-1500 Area Dust Monitor
Formula Placeholder

Ordering Information

Formula Placeholder

To maintain optimal product performance, you need immediate access to experts worldwide, as well as priority status when your air quality equipment needs repair or replacement. We offer comprehensive, flexible support solutions for all phases of the product life cycle. Through predictable, fixed-cost pricing, our services help protect the return on investment and total cost of ownership of your Thermo Scientific products.
For more information, visit our website at thermoscientific.com
© 2014 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. All rights reserved. All trademarks are the property of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries. Specifications, terms and pricing are subject to change. Not all products are available in all countries. Please consult your local sales representative for details.
This product is manufactured in a plant whose quality management system is ISO 9001 certified.
USA India China Europe
27 Forge Parkway C/327, TTC Industrial Area +Units 702-715, 7th Floor Takkebijsters 1 Franklin, MA 02038 MIDC Pawane Tower West, Yonghe Breda Netherlands 4801EB Ph: (866) 282-0430 New Mumbai 400 705, India Beijing, China 100007 +31 765795641 Fax: (508) 520-1460 Ph: +91 22 4157 8800 +86 10 84193588 info.aq.breda@thermofisher.com customerservice.aqi@thermofisher.com india@thermofisher.com info.eid.china@thermofisher.com

Lit_ADR1500EPM_0912

 

APPENDIX C ADR-1500 CONTINUOUS DUST MONITOR OPERATING MANUAL

 


MIE ADR-1500
Instruction Manual
Particulate Monitor Part Number 108836-00 5Mar2010

 Picture Placeholder 

© 2009 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. All rights reserved.
Specifications, terms and pricing are subject to change. Not all products are available in all countries. Please consult your local sales representative for details.
Thermo Fisher Scientific Air Quality Instruments 27 Forge Parkway Franklin, MA 02038 1-508-520-0430 www.thermo.com/aqi

WEEE Compliance
This product is required to comply with the European Union’s Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive 2002/96/EC. It is marked with the following symbol:

Thermo Fisher Scientific has contracted with one or more recycling/disposal companies in each EU Member State, and this product should be disposed of or recycled through them. Further information on Thermo Fisher Scientific’s compliance with these Directives, the recyclers in your country, and information on Thermo Fisher Scientific products which may assist the detection of substances subject to the RoHS Directive are available at: www.thermo.com/WEEERoHS.

 

Safety
About This Manual
This manual provides information about installing, operating, maintaining, and servicing the Model MIE ADR-1500 Particulate Monitor. It also contains important alerts to ensure safe operation and prevent equipment damage. The manual is organized into the following chapters and appendices to provide direct access to specific operation and service information.
Chapter 1 “Introduction” provides a general description of the instrument, and lists the specifications.
Chapter 2 “Guidelines and Instrument Layout” provides the guidelines and layout for instrument operation.
Chapter 3 “Operation” describes the operating modes, keypad functions, and menu-driven firmware.
Chapter 4 “Calibration and Particle Size Selection” provides the calibration process and procedures for calibrating the instrument.
Chapter 5 “Maintenance and Service” provides step-by-step instructions for repairing and replacing components, and a replacement parts list.
Chapter 6 “Troubleshooting” provides guidelines for diagnosing problems or failures, and includes recommended actions for restoring operation.
Chapter 7 “Outputs and Alarm” describes serial communications and analog/alarm output.
Chapter 8 “Optional Accessories” describes the optional equipment that can be used with this instrument.
Appendix A “Warranty” is a copy of the warranty statement.
Appendix B “Serial Commands” provides a list of the serial port commands that can be used to remotely control the instrument.
Review the following safety information carefully before using the instrument. This manual provides specific information on how to operate the instrument, however, if the instrument is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the protection provided by the equipment may be impaired.


About This Manual
Safety and Equipment Damage Alerts

 


About This Manual

 


About This Manual


The instrument should be charged in the upright position.
.
Replace with specified battery only. .
Disconnect the battery cable from the power communication board. .
If unsuccessful, the instrument must be sent back to the factory for service. .
For the 0 to 2 V output signal, the externally connected load must have an impedance of more than 200 kilo-ohms; For the 4 to 20 mA output signal, the externally connected load must have an impedance of less than 300 ohms. .
WEEE Symbol

Where to Get Help Service is available from exclusive distributors worldwide. Contact one of the phone numbers below for product support and technical information or visit us on the web at www.thermo.com/aqi.
1-866-282-0430 Toll Free
1-508-520-0430 International

 

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Contents
Introduction........................................................................................................ 1-1 General Description ............................................................................ 1-3 Specifications ...................................................................................... 1-7
Guidelines and Instrument Layout................................................................. 2-1 Unpacking and Parts Identification..................................................... 2-2 Handling............................................................................................. 2-3 Safety .................................................................................................. 2-4 Positioning.......................................................................................... 2-5 Sampling Guidelines ........................................................................... 2-9 Instrument Layout ............................................................................ 2-10 Front Panel Display ....................................................................... 2-11 Bottom Power Port ........................................................................ 2-12 Side USB, Analog Panel ................................................................. 2-13 Top View....................................................................................... 2-14 Rear View ...................................................................................... 2-15 Preparation for Operation ................................................................. 2-16 Power Options ............................................................................... 2-16 AC Power Connection ................................................................... 2-16 Installing the Inlet.......................................................................... 2-16 Electrical Connections.................................................................... 2-17 Environmental Constraints and Certifications................................... 2-18 Communications with Computer ..................................................... 2-19 Software Installation Procedure...................................................... 2-19 Communication between ADR-1500 and Computer..................... 2-19
Operation ............................................................................................................ 3-1 Operating Modes ................................................................................ 3-2 Keypad and Screen Cursor Functions and Operation.......................... 3-3 Key Press Functions ......................................................................... 3-4 Startup ............................................................................................. 3-5 Operate Menu..................................................................................... 3-6 Start A Run...................................................................................... 3-6 Concentration/Scattering .............................................................. 3-6 Elapsed Time ................................................................................ 3-7 Maximum Run Reading................................................................ 3-7 STEL ............................................................................................ 3-7 Battery/Memory............................................................................ 3-8 Temperature/RH .......................................................................... 3-8


Contents
Flow/Pressure................................................................................ 3-8 Stop Run....................................................................................... 3-9 Delayed Start ................................................................................... 3-9 Delayed Start Edit......................................................................... 3-9 Start Time/Date............................................................................... 3-9 Start Time/Date Edit .................................................................. 3-10 Delayed Start Countdown........................................................... 3-10 Zeroing the ADR-1500.................................................................. 3-10 Zero In Progress.......................................................................... 3-11 Zero Complete............................................................................ 3-11 Logging Parameters........................................................................ 3-11 Logging Status Edit..................................................................... 3-12 Logging Period Edit .................................................................... 3-12 Logging Site Edit ........................................................................ 3-12 Logging Tag Number.................................................................. 3-13 Battery/Memory Status .................................................................. 3-13 Configure Menu ............................................................................... 3-14 Display Average Time .................................................................... 3-14 Display Average Time Edit.......................................................... 3-14 Flow Rate....................................................................................... 3-15 Flow Rate Edit ............................................................................ 3-15 Logging Parameters........................................................................ 3-15 Logging Status Edit..................................................................... 3-16 Logging Period Edit .................................................................... 3-16 Logging Site Edit ........................................................................ 3-16 Logging Tag Number.................................................................. 3-17 Inlet Type ...................................................................................... 3-17 Inlet Type Edit............................................................................ 3-17 RH Correction............................................................................... 3-18 RH Correction Edit .................................................................... 3-18 Alarm............................................................................................. 3-18 Alarm Option Edit...................................................................... 3-19 Alarm Level Edit ......................................................................... 3-19 Units.............................................................................................. 3-19 Units Edit ................................................................................... 3-20 Analog Output............................................................................... 3-20 Analog Output Edit .................................................................... 3-20 LCD Backlight............................................................................... 3-21 LCD Backlight Edit .................................................................... 3-21 LCD Contrast................................................................................ 3-22 LCD Contrast Edit ..................................................................... 3-22 Time/Date ..................................................................................... 3-22 Time/Date Edit........................................................................... 3-22 Calibrate Menu................................................................................. 3-24 Temperature Offset........................................................................ 3-24 Temperature Offset Edit ............................................................. 3-24


Contents
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Chapter 6
Pressure Offset ............................................................................... 3-25 Pressure Offset Edit..................................................................... 3-25 RH Offset ...................................................................................... 3-25 RH Offset Edit ........................................................................... 3-25 Flow Rate Calibration .................................................................... 3-26 Flow Rate Calibration Edit ......................................................... 3-26 Calibration Factor.......................................................................... 3-27 Calibration Factor Edit ............................................................... 3-27 Starting a Run................................................................................... 3-28 Filter Requirements........................................................................ 3-28 ZERO/Initialize Operation ............................................................ 3-28 Auto-Start (Optional) .................................................................... 3-29 Configuration Review .................................................................... 3-29 Start the Run.................................................................................. 3-32
Calibration and Particle Size Selection.......................................................4-1 Factory Calibration ............................................................................. 4-2 How to Apply a Correction Factor...................................................... 4-3 Site Calibration Factors.................................................................... 4-4 Particle Size Cut Points ....................................................................... 4-5 Continuous Unattended Monitoring .................................................. 4-6
Maintenance and Service...............................................................................5-1 General Guidelines.............................................................................. 5-2 Replacement Parts List ........................................................................ 5-3 Instrument Storage.............................................................................. 5-6 Cleaning of Optical Sensing Chamber ................................................ 5-7 Removing the Internal Covers............................................................. 5-8 LCD Assembly Replacement............................................................. 5-10 Pump Assembly Replacement............................................................ 5-12 Communications PCB Replacement ................................................. 5-14 Optics Enclosure Assembly Removal................................................. 5-18 Heater Switch Assembly Replacement............................................... 5-20 Battery Use ....................................................................................... 5-23 Lead Acid Battery Replacement......................................................... 5-24 In-Line Flow Meter Filter with Fittings Replacement........................ 5-26 Extended Monitoring HEPA Filter Replacement .............................. 5-27 37-mm Filter Cassette Holder Assembly Replacement (Optional)..... 5-28 Bracket Assembly and Power Supply/Charger Replacement .............. 5-30 Service Locations............................................................................... 5-32
Troubleshooting ................................................................................................ 6-1 Safety Precautions ............................................................................... 6-2 Troubleshooting Guide....................................................................... 6-3 Instrument Status Flags....................................................................... 6-5


Contents
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
Appendix A Appendix B
Board-Level Block Diagram ................................................................ 6-6 Connector Pin Descriptions................................................................ 6-7 Service Locations............................................................................... 6-10

Outputs and Alarm.............................................................................................7-1 Analog Signal Output ......................................................................... 7-2 Alarm Description and Operation....................................................... 7-3 Analog Outputs................................................................................... 7-4 Real-time RS-232 Output................................................................... 7-6 Serial Communications Protocols and Use of Modems ....................... 7-7
Optional Accessories .......................................................................................8-1 37-mm Filter Cassette Holder Assembly ............................................. 8-2 Relay Kit ............................................................................................. 8-3 Alarm Relay Connection.................................................................. 8-3 Inlets................................................................................................... 8-5 Cables ................................................................................................. 8-6 Analog Data Cable ........................................................................... 8-6 12/24 VDC Cable............................................................................ 8-6 Pole Mounting Kits............................................................................. 8-7
Warranty.............................................................................................................A-1
Serial Commands .............................................................................................B-1

Figures
Figure 2–1. ADR-1500 Pole Mount..................................................................... 2-6 Figure 2–2. ADR-1500 Horizontal Tab Wall Mount ........................................... 2-7 Figure 2–3. ADR-1500 Vertical Tab Wall Mount ............................................... 2-8 Figure 2–4. ADR-1500 Front View.................................................................... 2-10 Figure 2–5. ADR-1500 Front Panel LCD Display............................................... 2-11 Figure 2–6. ADR-1500 Bottom Power Port....................................................... 2-12 Figure 2–7. ADR-1500 Side USB, Analog Panel............................................... 2-13 Figure 2–8. ADR-1500 Top View ...................................................................... 2-14 Figure 2–9. ADR-1500 Rear View..................................................................... 2-15 Figure 3–1. Keypad Overview............................................................................. 3-3 Figure 3–2. Keypad Functions............................................................................. 3-4 Figure 4–1. Cyclone D50 Curves......................................................................... 4-5 Figure 5–1. ADR-1500 Instrument Layout .......................................................... 5-5 Figure 5–2. Removing the Internal Cover........................................................... 5-9 Figure 5–3. Replacing the LCD Assembly ........................................................ 5-11 Figure 5–4. Replacing the Pump....................................................................... 5-13 Figure 5–5. Replacing the Communications PCB ............................................. 5-15 Figure 5–6. Wiring Diagram 1 .......................................................................... 5-16 Figure 5–7. Wiring Diagram 2 .......................................................................... 5-17 Figure 5–8. Replacing the Heater Switch Assembly ....................................... 5-21 Figure 5–9. Power/Com Assembly-Pump Installation ..................................... 5-22 Figure 5–10. Replacing the Lead Acid Battery................................................. 5-25 Figure 5–11. Replacing the Filters.................................................................... 5-27 Figure 5–12. Replacing the 37-mm Filter Cassette Holder Assembly............. 5-28 Figure 5–13. Filter Support and Holder – Snap Rings and Filter ..................... 5-29 Figure 5–14. Replacing the Bracket Assembly and Power Supply/Charger.... 5-31 Figure 6–1. ADR-1500 Board-Level Block Diagram ........................................... 6-6 Figure 7–1. ADR-1500 External Analog Driver................................................... 7-4 Figure 8–1. Alarm Relay Connection.................................................................. 8-3 Figure 8–2. ADR-1500 Optional Accessories ..................................................... 8-8


Figures

Tables
Table 1–1. MIE ADR-1500 Specifications .......................................................... 1-7 Table 5–1. ADR-1500 Replacement Parts .......................................................... 5-3 Table 6–1. Troubleshooting – General Guide .................................................... 6-3 Table 6–2. Troubleshooting – Error Code Responses from Zeroing .................. 6-5 Table 6–3. ADR-1500 Communications Board Pin Out ...................................... 6-7 Table 7–1. Analog Output Descriptions ............................................................. 7-4


Tables

Chapter 1 Introduction
The Thermo Scientific Model ADR-1500 is a real-time particulate monitoring system designed for outdoor operation. The unit is designed for continuous unattended monitoring with continuous real-time data transmission to a central location and/or data logging. Its weatherproof enclosure ensures safe and effective operation under a wide range of ambient environmental conditions. Either a long-term monitoring HEPA filter or optional sample collection filter can be used. Options include sharp cut cyclones, tripod stand, relay and pole-mounting hardware.
The ADR-1500 incorporates light scattering photometry for which Thermo Fisher Scientific (formerly MIE) is known worldwide. Long-term, precise and drift-less measurements of airborne particulate matter concentrations down to 1 µg/m3 are assured by a unique sate-of-the-art combination of optical sensing and electronic processing techniques refined over the last 25 years.
The ADR-1500 can be used for size-selective particulate measurements using an omni-directional inlet and ACGIH traceable metal cyclones for monitoring PM10, PM4, PM2.5, and PM1.0. For suspended particulate monitoring the cyclone is removed from the inlet flow path and the inlet remains in place.
In addition to the real-time particulate measurements, the instrument provides the user with the capability to collect the sampled particles on a 37-millimeter filter for gravimetric and/or chemical analysis. Many NIOSH filters, and thereby NIOSH methods, are compatible with the ADR-1500.
A high-intensity flashing beacon is provided on the outside of the ADR­1500 for visual alarm whenever the measured particulate concentration exceeds a user selected alarm threshold. This alarm signal can be seen from a considerable distance and is intended principally for perimeter monitoring applications. For a description of the instrument and product specifications, see the following topics:
.
“General Description” on page 1-3

.
“Specifications” on page 1-7

 


Introduction
Thermo Fisher Scientific is pleased to supply this ambient particulate monitoring system. We are committed to the manufacture of instruments exhibiting high standards of quality, performance, and workmanship. Service personnel are available for assistance with any questions or problems that may arise in the use of this monitor. For more information on Servicing, see Chapter 5, “Maintenance and Service”.

Introduction
General Description
The ADR-1500 is a complete particulate monitoring system designed to provide the user with continuous measurements of the concentration of airborne particles for suspended particulate and 50% cut-points ranging from PM10 down to PM1, that is, the concentration of particles smaller than 10 µm down to 1 µm aerodynamic equivalent diameter, respectively.
Reference should be made to Figure 5–1 of this manual for the location and identification of various component elements of the ADR-1500, described in this and subsequent sections of this manual.
The ADR-1500 samples the air through an omni-directional inlet, which ensures representative sampling of suspended particles, even under windy conditions. This inlet rises about 30 cm over the upper surface of the ADR­1500 enclosure. The sampled air stream can then enter an optional cyclone located downstream of the inlet, wherein particles larger than the cut-off diameter of the cyclone are retained, and those smaller than the cut-off diameter continue into the optical sensing stage of the monitor. The particle cut-off size is dependent on the sampling flow rate.
After the inlet assembly, the stream enters the optical sensing stage where the instantaneous concentration of airborne particulate matter is measured by light scattering photometry. It is important to point out that this sensing technique is independent of the speed with which the particles pass through the sensing stage, and therefore changes in flow rate have no effect on the measured concentration. However, changes in the flow rate will affect the particle cut-point if an optional cyclone is used.
After the particle mass concentration has been sensed photometrical, the stream passes through either a HEPA filter capsule (for long-term monitoring) or a standard 37-mm filter holder within which a membrane or fiber filter can be installed for further particle analysis (gravimetric, microscopic, chemical, etc.). When using the ADR-1500 for continuous unattended monitoring, however, it is advisable to use the HEPA capsule.
After passing through the filter stage, the filtered air stream then enters the flow assembly. This assembly contains a rotary vane pump and a volumetric flow rate control system based on sensing the pressure drop across a sub-sonic orifice that is protected by an inline filter. The sampling flow rate can be selected by keypad control on the front panel of the instrument.
After passing through the flow assembly, the air is exhausted from the ADR-1500 enclosure through a small bulkhead fitting. This exhaust port can also be used as a flow return in special sampling applications where the inlet of the ADR-1500 is connected to an environment at either positive or negative pressure (with respect to ambient).


Introduction
The ADR-1500 accepts a universal A.C. power input (100-240 VAC, 50/60 Hz) or a 12-24 D.C. power input from an auxiliary power supply. The A.C. power is diverted to an internal 24 VDC power supply and a dedicated charger for the internal 12-Ah rechargeable lead acid battery. This battery is mounted at the base of the instrument and the 24 VDC power supply and battery charger are centrally mounted above the battery. Should the instrument be powered from an external auxiliary 12-24 VDC power source, a dedicated cable shall be used and it must be understood that the internal battery can not be charged from this auxiliary power supply.
The measured concentration of particulate matter is displayed in real time on the ADR-1500 LCD readout, provided digitally via USB and analog voltage and current signals updated every second. In addition, the user is provided with an alarm switching output to drive external devices (e.g., siren, shut-off equipment, etc.). The measured data can be logged internally in the ADR-1500 for subsequent downloading to a PC, modem, etc. The external USB port also serves to link to a PC for programming internal parameters of the ADR-1500 (e.g., logging period, measurement averaging time, alarm level, calibration constant, etc.). However, it should be noted that an additional RS-232 digital communications is reserved as in internal connection for most after-market wireless connections that may be made to the instrument.
The component elements of the ADR-1500 are designed to be CE certified, and the instrument is designed for IP65.
The ADR-1500 borrows the highly sensitive nephelometric (i.e., photometric) monitor from the pDR-1500 whose legacy light scattering sensing configuration has been optimized for the measurement of the respirable fraction of airborne dust, smoke, fumes and mists in industrial and other indoor and outdoor environments. The ADR-1500 incorporates a temperature and relative humidity (RH) sensor to mitigate the positive bias with elevated ambient RH. Additionally, the flow control is truly volumetric and is maintained through digital feedback of the onboard barometric pressure sensor, temperature sensor, and calibrated differential pressure across a precision orifice.
Downstream of the internal vacuum pump is a HEPA filter which will ensure a clean air source is delivered to the calibrated orifice and exhausted from the instrument. Zeroing is accomplished by attaching a HEPA filter to the inlet for a few minutes. By providing filtered air through the optical bench, the optical background of the instrument is established throughout the dynamic range of the instrument.
The ADR-1500 is a compact, rugged and totally self-contained instrument designed for rapid deployment and unattended operation mounted on a

Introduction
wall, post, or tripod. It is powered either by its internal rechargeable battery, or by an AC supply or auxiliary power source.
The ADR-1500 covers a wide measurement range: from 0.001 mg/m3 (1 µg/m3) to 400 mg/m3, a 400,000-fold span, corresponding to very clean air up to an extremely high aerosol concentration.
In addition to the auto-ranging real-time concentration readout, the ADR­1500 offers the user a wide range of information by scrolling its two-line LCD screen, such as run start time and date, time averaged concentration, elapsed run time, maximum and STEL values with times of occurrence, battery voltage, remaining data storage memory, temperature, RH, volumetric flow rate, barometric pressure, etc.
Operating parameters selected, diagnostic information, and calibration displays are also available with the ADR-1500. From the instrument display panel the user can:
.
Enable a run

.
Enable an auto-start run time and date

.
Zero the instrument

.
Fully configure data logging options

.
Adjust display average time

.
Adjust analog span output

.
Identify type of inlet/cyclone installed

.
Adjust flow rate with automatic D50 cut point feedback

.
Enable/disable f (RH) correction

.
Enable/disable the heater

.
Enable/disable and select alarm output threshold

.
Adjust time and date

.
Enable/disable display backlight and contrast

.
Calibrate barometric pressure, temperature, RH, flow rate, and dust response factor


Furthermore, the ADR-1500 features complete, large capacity internal data logging capabilities with retrieval through an externally connected computer via USB device. The stored information (> 450k data points) includes average concentration and maximum values with time information and tag numbers, operating parameters, error codes, and each time­stamped logged record provided concentration, temperature, RH, barometric pressure, and error status.


Introduction
Selectable alarm levels with built-in audible signal and switched output, a USB communications port, and a programmable analog concentration output (voltage and current) are all part of this versatile instrument.
A custom software package (pDR Port) is provided with the ADR-1500 to program operating/logging parameters (e.g., logging period, alarm level, concentration display averaging time, etc.) as well as to download stored or real-time data to a PC or laptop for tabular and/or graphic presentation. If required, the data can also be imported to standard spreadsheet packages (e.g., Microsoft Excel™, Lotus 1-2-3™, etc.).
The ADR-1500 combines, easy to use menu-driven software, and advanced diagnostics to offer unsurpassed flexibility and reliability. The ADR-1500 specifications follow.

Introduction

Specifications Table 1–1 lists the specifications for the Model ADR-1500.
Table 1–1. MIE ADR-1500 Specifications

Formula Placeholder

 

Chapter 2 Guidelines and Instrument Layout
This chapter includes unpacking and parts identification, positioning and handling of the instrument, monitoring applications, instrument layout, outdoor provisions, and computer requirements.
. “Unpacking and Parts Identification” on page 2-2
. “Handling” on page 2-3
. “Safety” on page 2-4
. “Positioning” on page 2-5
. “Sampling Guidelines” on page 2-9
. “Instrument Layout” on page 2-10
. “Preparation for Operation” on page 2-16
. “Environmental Constraints and Certifications” on page 2-18
. “Communications with Computer” on page 2-19


Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Unpacking and Parts Identification


Carefully unpack the ADR-1500 from the shipping container. The ADR­1500 is provided to the user with the following standard accessories:
.
Power cord (110 or 220)

.
Wall-mounting hardware

.
USB communications cable

.
pDR Port software CD ROM

.
Particulate inlet

.
Zeroing filter

.
Instruction manual If any parts are missing, contact Thermo Fisher Scientific immediately.


Equipment Damage Do not attempt to lift the instrument by the cover or other external fittings. .
Note Do not discard the packaging material. .

Handling


Guidelines and Instrument Layout
The ADR-1500 is a sophisticated optical/electronic instrument and should be handled accordingly. Although the ADR-1500 is very rugged, it should not be subjected to excessive shock, vibration, temperature or humidity outside the stated specifications.
WARNING The ADR-1500 must not be submersed. .
WARNING The ADR-1500 must not exceed conditions greater than IP65. .
If the ADR-1500 has been exposed to low temperatures (e.g., in the trunk of a car during winter) for more than a few minutes, care should be taken to allow the instrument to return near room ambient temperature before operation. This is advisable because water vapor may condense on the interior surfaces of the ADR-1500 causing temporary malfunction or erroneous readings. Once the instrument warms up to temperature, such condensation will have evaporated. Re-zeroing is recommended upon installation.
Equipment Damage Whenever the ADR-1500 is shipped, care should be taken in repackaging it with the original factory provided packaging. .


Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Safety Review the following information carefully:
.
Read and understand all instructions in this manual.

.
Do not attempt to disassemble the instrument. If maintenance is required, return unit to the factory for qualified service or contact technical support.

 

WARNING The ADR-1500 should be operated only from the type of power sources described in this manual. .
.
When installing or replacing the battery, follow the instructions provided within this manual.

.
Shut off ADR-1500 and any external devices (e.g., PC) before connecting or disconnecting them.

 

WARNING Shut off ADR-1500 before replacing the internal battery, or when plugging in or disconnecting the AC power supply. .

Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Positioning

The ADR-1500 real-time aerosol monitor can be operated in a vertical (upright) position and preferred for outdoor fixed location operation as well as for most indoor applications.
The ADR-1500 can be pole mounted (Figure 2–1) or wall (or post) mounted using the four wall mounting tabs that protrude above and below the enclosure. These tabs have mounting holes with a diameter of 5/16 (7.9 mm). If required, these mounting tabs can be removed. For details, see Figure 2–2 and Figure 2–3. For more information on the optional 2-inch, 3-inch, and 4-inch pole mounting kits, see chapter 8 “Optional Accessories”.
When mounting the ADR-1500 care should be taken to ensure that the front door of the unit can be opened without hindrance, and that free access is provided to the connectors and feed-throughs on the right face of the enclosure.
It is important to ensure free access of the air to be monitored to the sampling inlet. For ambient air monitoring, the omni-directional inlet provided with the ADR-1500 should always be used, and this inlet should not be obstructed by nearby objects, in order to ensure representative sampling.
Under typical operating conditions, the door of the ADR-1500 enclosure should be closed. Holes are provided on the enclosure to add a padlock to prevent unauthorized access to the interior of the unit. The door should be opened only to access the control keys of the ADR-1500, to replace either of the filters, or for other maintenance.
WARNING Personal injury could occur when mounting the instrument. Assistance may be required. .
Equipment Damage Damage could occur if not installed in a vertical, upright, position. .


Guidelines and Instrument Layout

 Picture Placeholder

Figure 2–1. ADR-1500 Pole Mount
WARNING The rechargeable lead acid battery must be charged in the up­right position. .

Guidelines and Instrument Layout

Picture Placeholder
Figure 2–2. ADR-1500 Horizontal Tab Wall Mount

WARNING The rechargeable lead acid battery must be charged in the up­right position. .

Picture Placeholder
Guidelines and Instrument Layout

Figure 2–3. ADR-1500 Vertical Tab Wall Mount


WARNING The rechargeable lead acid battery must be charged in the up­right position. .

Sampling Guidelines

Guidelines and Instrument Layout
For ambient air sampling, the omni-directional inlet unit must be used to minimize wind speed and direction effects on particle sampling representativeness. This special omni-directional inlet is provided as a standard accessory of the ADR-1500. On receipt by the customer, this inlet will arrive packaged separately, and needs to be installed. Refer to Figure 2– 7 for the final (installed) appearance of the omni-directional inlet. To install proceed as follows:
Slide the omni-directional inlet onto the inlet stem of the ADR-1500 until it bottoms. To remove the omni-directional inlet, lift and twist the unit from the inlet stem.
If the ADR-1500 is to be used for extractive sampling (e.g., from a chamber, duct, stack, etc.) a flexible plastic tubing (preferably electrically conductive) can be used and connected to the inlet stem on the upper face of the ADR-1500. In this case the omni-directional inlet is not used and a 3/8-inch compression fitting with Teflon or nylon ferrules should be used.
For sampling situations involving water sprays, fog, etc. it is recommended that the in-line inlet heater be switched on. This optional operational configuration ensures the sample relative humidity will not exceed 70%. If not necessary, and to extend the run-time of the ADR-1500, when running off of the internal battery, simply switch the internal heater off.
Equipment Damage Damage may occur to the instrument if the environmental conditions exceed IP65. .


Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Instrument Layout


The user should become familiar with the location and function of all externally accessible controls, connectors and other features of the ADR­1500. Refer to Figure 2–4 and Figure 5–1. All related functions are externally accessible.
Qualified Thermo Fisher Scientific personnel should perform all repair and maintenance. Please contact the factory if any problem should arise. Do not attempt to disassemble the ADR-1500, except as described in Chapter 5, “Maintenance and Service”, otherwise voiding of instrument warranty will result.
WARNING Caution should be used when accessing or servicing any exposed wiring within the instrument. .

Picture Placeholder

Figure 2–4. ADR-1500 Front View

Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Front Panel Display
The front panel contains the five touch switches (keys) and the LCD screen required for the operation of the ADR-1500. The touch keys provide tactile ("popping") feedback when properly actuated. For more information on keys, see “Key Press Functions” on page 3-4
The two-line, 16-character per line LCD indicates either measured values of concentration (instantaneous and time averaged on the same screen), elapsed run time, maximum and short term excursion limit (STEL) values, operating and logging parameters, diagnostics, command prompting or other messages.
The LCD screen is backlit whenever the ADR-1500 is selected as an always on feature.
Refer to Figure 2–5 for location of controls and display below.

Picture Placeholder
Figure 2–5. ADR-1500 Front Panel LCD Display


Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Bottom Power Port


There are three critical components to the bottom panel of the ADR-1500; the universal AC power port (100-240 VAC 50/60 Hz), the auxiliary 12­24 VDC power port, and the instrument exhaust. The AC power should be connected whenever the internal batteries are exhausted or not present, and/or when running continuously from the AC line. Any other DC source (e.g., solar power supply, external battery, etc.) to be used to power the ADR-1500 would be connected to its respective port. Please note that the auxiliary 12-24 VDC will not charge the internal battery.
Refer to Figure 2–6 below for the location of power port items on the bottom of the ADR-1500.
Equipment Damage Equipment damage may occur to instrument if power inputs or fuse type exceeds specified ranges. .
Equipment Damage Equipment damage may occur if exhaust port is blocked or port covers are not in place if unused. .

Picture Placeholder

Figure 2–6. ADR-1500 Bottom Power Port

Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Side USB, Analog Panel

There are four features of the right side of the ADR-1500 enclosure; the locking latches for the hinged door, the sealed USB connection, the sealed analog/alarm connect and a sealed cord grip. The locking latches join the enclosure body to the front door and compress the gasketing for proper sealing of the enclosure. These latches also permit the use of padlocks, if necessary. The sealed USB connector is used for PC-based communication for instrument configuration, data downloads and firmware upgrade using the factory-supplied pDR Port user interface. The sealed analog/alarm connector is for tying the ADR-1500 to an external data logger or PLC using the factory-supplied cable. The cord grip permits the user with access to the interior instrument for customization (e.g., wireless communications) and to the optional relay connector. For more information on options, see Chapter 8, “Optional Accessories”.
Refer to Figure 2–7 below for the location of items on the Side USB, Analog Panel of the ADR-1500.
Equipment Damage Equipment damage may occur if exhaust port is blocked or port covers are not in place if unused. .
Omni-Directional Inlet
Beacon
USB Connector

Analog/Alarm Connector Sealed Cord Grip USB Cover


Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Top View


There are three features on the top of the ADR-1500; the inlet stem, the beacon, and the carry handle. The inlet stem is used to draw the sample into the nephelometric stage for aerosol sensing. This stem is 3/8-inch
O.D. and is compatible with 3/8 compression fittings. It is recommended that the compression ferrules be made of nylon or Teflon; otherwise, compressed steel ferrules may render the instrument useless for backward compatibility with the intended inlet accessories. The connections to this stem are:
.
Omni-directional inlet

.
Cyclone adapter

.
Zeroing filter

.
3/8-inch compression fitting with nylon or Teflon ferrules


The yellow beacon will flash if the alarm is enabled and the measured concentration exceeds the threshold chosen by the user. The alarm may be enabled for either an instantaneous value or for a STEL concentration.
The carry handle is to be used for carrying the instrument or hauling the instrument to an elevated installation. The carry handle is designed for the weight of the ADR-1500 only.
Equipment Damage Do not attach additional items to the handle for vertical hauling as this might compromise the strength of the handle and the ADR-1500 enclosure. .
Refer to Figure 2–8 below for the location of items on the inlet stem, the beacon, and carry handle of the ADR-1500.

Beacon

Picture Placeholder

Figure 2–8. ADR-1500 Top View

Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Rear View

Brass Threaded Bosses (4)
The rear of the ADR-1500 shows four brass threaded bosses that can be used with the wall mounting kit (standard accessory). Furthermore, a pole-mounting kit (optional accessory) may be attached to the rear of the enclosure in a 2-inch, 3-inch, or 4-inch pole. Tripod mounting conversion kits are also available. For more information on mounting options, see Chapter 8, “Optional Accessories”.
Refer to Figure 2–9 below for the location of the four brass threaded bosses.

Picture Placeholder
Figure 2–9. ADR-1500 Rear View


Guidelines and Instrument Layout
Preparation for Operation
Power Options
AC Power Connection


Installing the Inlet
To begin using the ADR-1500, the user must first verify that either the AC/DC power supply is connected to both the instrument and suitable wall socket, or the instrument is installed with a charged battery.
The ADR-1500 has three basic power options:
.
AC Power Supply (100-240 VAC 50/60 Hz)

.
Auxiliary DC Power Supply (12-24 VDC)

.
Battery Power (12 VDC 12 Ah lead acid)


An A.C. power cord (US or EU) is provided as a standard accessory with the ADR-1500 and is to be used with the universal A.C. power supply receptacle.
The ADR-1500 as received from the factory is provided with an A.C. power cord and US or EU three-prong plug. The user can therefore connect the ADR-1500, as received, into an A.C. outlet to operate the system.
Equipment Damage It should be noted that the ADR-1500 can be powered from any line with a voltage between 100-240 volts A.C., 50 to 60 Hz. No internal adjustments or selections need to be made for power lines with voltages and frequencies in those ranges. The internal AC-to-DC power unit performs any adjustments automatically. .
Prior to starting a measurement run, it is recommended that the ADR­1500 is zeroed. This can be achieved by placing a HEPA filter onto the inlet stem and following the “Zeroing the ADR-1500” procedure on page 3-10. Do not attempt to zero through a cyclone.
The next step is to install a clean inlet assembly onto the inlet system. If a particle size cut-point is needed, an optional cyclone can be installed between the inlet stem and the omni-directional inlet.
If tubing is to be used, attach the tubing to the inlet stem or the cyclone stem.
The ADR-1500 is shipped from the factory with a high-capacity HEPA filter immediately downstream of the optical assembly. This permits periods of time. For sample recovery, it is recommended to use the optional 37-mm filter cassette holder, which can accommodate glass filter, Teflon, MCE and PVC filter material.


Electrical Connections


Equipment Damage Please note that the important purpose of the HEPA filter or filter cassette is to protect the pump. .
Equipment Damage At no time should the ADR-1500 be running without a filter in place, otherwise serious damage to the pump components may result. .
If AC power is not available and the ADR-1500 must operate outside the instrument specifications for the internal battery, please consult with Thermo Fisher Scientific for a Technical Note regarding the use of an external battery or other DC source.
Equipment Damage Plugging or unplugging any external equipment (e.g., computer, modem, alarm circuitry, etc.) should be made only while both the ADR-1500 and the external equipment are shut off, in order to prevent damage or interference due to transient electrical effects. .


Environmental Constraints and Certifications
The ADR-1500 is designed to be reasonably dust and splash resistant; it is weatherproof.
The pDR-1500 is certified for compliance with the electromagnetic radiation limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. The unit also complies and is marked with the CE (European Community) approval for both immunity to electromagnetic radiation and absence of excessive emission interference.
The unit also complies with:
.
ANSI/UL 61010-1:2004, 2nd Edition, Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control and Laboratory Use – Part 1: General Requirements

.
CAN/CSA C22.2 No. 61010-1:2004 2nd Edition, Safety Requirements for Electrical Equipment for Measurement, Control and Laboratory Use – Part 1: General Requirements

.
CENELEC EN 61326-1

.
FCC 47 CFR 15B cIA

 

Communications The computer requirements to install and run the software provided with
with Computer
Software Installation Procedure
Communication between ADR-1500 and Computer

the ADR-1500 (pDR Port) is the following:
.
IBM-PC compatible

.
Pentium I or higher processor

.
Minimum operating system: Windows 95 and later

.
32 MB of RAM

.
10 MB hard disk drive

.
CD-ROM

.
VGA or higher resolution monitor

Thermo Fisher Scientific custom hardware and software provided with ADR-1500 as standard accessories:

.
USB communications cable

.
Software CD (pDR Port)

To install the Thermo Scientific provided software (pDR Port) in the computer, proceed as follows:

.
Insert the CD labeled pDR Port into the computer

.
The install program should start automatically

.
The computer displayed install shield then serves to guide the rest of the installation.

.
Please be sure to accept the Silicon Laboratories USB Driver installation.


To effect the communication between the ADR-1500 (via the pDR Port software installed in the computer) and the PC, proceed as follows:
Equipment Damage It is recommended to turn the instrument and computer OFF before making a connection. .
.
Connect the ADR-1500 to one of the computer’s USB ports using the USB communication cable

.
Key ON the ADR-1500; hold ON/OFF for 4 seconds

.
From your computer Start menu, or your computer desktop, open the pDR Port software program. A multi-tabbed notebook display should appear on the computer screen. From the menu bar or the embedded Settings window, the serial connection port can be selected (e.g., COM 4). Select the port to which the USB cable has connected to on you computer using the Select Port pop-up window and click OK to proceed. The user may now click on the Show Instrument Panel to emulate the instrument keypad or utilize the tabs within the pDR Port notebook display.

Most operations with the pDR Port software program are self-evidently labeled, including fly-over dialog boxes. In addition, instructions may be found in the On-line Help files by selecting Help and then Contents.

The following operating/logging parameters of the ADR-1500 can be selected (edited) via the computer:
.
Current date (year, month and day of the month)

.
Current time (hour, minute and second)

.
Display averaging time (1 to 60 seconds, in 1-second increments)

.
Calibration factor (0.01 to 9.99, in 0.01 increments)

.
Analog output full scale concentration (0.1, 0.4, 1, 4, 10, 40, 100, or 400 mg/m3

.
Analog output status (enabled or disabled)

.
Alarm level (0.001 to 400.0 mg/m3, in 1-µg/m3 increments)

.
Alarm status (enabled or disabled)

.
Humidity correction (enabled or disabled)

 

The serial number of the ADR-1500 is transferred automatically to the PC and displayed on the screen. From the multi-tabbed notebook, select from the following options:
Main. This tab allows the user to select the serial port connection, and show or hide the instrument panel.

Data text. This tab allows the user to download, tabulate, print and delete data, or transfer to a CSV file of the data downloaded from
the ADR-1500. First – click on the blue instrument icon ( ) in the upper left hand corner of this Data text Tab and the “Select a Tag number” window will appear. From this window, the user can select a single Tag (data file) to be loaded or deleted. In the image below, the “Delete all data” box appears with a check mark. By selecting this box and clicking on Delete, all tag files can be deleted at once.

Picture Placeholder
In this second image of the Data Text tab, it shows a Tag File loaded to the window. The data can now be viewed in the Data Graph tab and saved as a CSV file.

Picture Placeholder

 

Data graph. This tab automatically plots the data from the Data text tab into a time series plot. Mass concentration or scattering coefficient, temperature, relative humidity and barometer pressure can all be plotted on this graph simultaneously or independently.

Chart Graph Placeholder

Configure instrument. This screen allows the user to edit the instrument configuration. Click on the item to be edited and select or type in the new value. To review the parameter values currently programmed into the ADR-1500, click on Get current configuration. After editing the parameters, click on Set new configuration to input the newly selected values into the ADR­1500.

 Picture Placeholder

Site List. This tab allows the user to retrieve, edit, and set the site list for the instrument. Site lists may also be read and written to a file on a computer.

Picture Placeholder 

 

 

Chapter 3 Operation
This chapter describes the operating modes, keypad and screen cursor functions, menu-driven firmware, and starting a run. For details, see the following topics:
. “Operating Modes” on page 3-2
. “Keypad and Screen Cursor Functions and Operation” on page 3-3
. “Operate Menu” on page 3-6
. “Configure Menu” on page 3-14
. “Calibrate Menu” on page 3-24
. “Starting a Run” on page 3-28



Operating Modes
The ADR-1500 has five modes of Operation:
1.
Start-up. This is accomplished by holding the ON/OFF key for 4 seconds whereby the splash screen will appear.

2.
Run Mode. This is when the instrument is measuring aerosol and operating with an active flow rate. Normally the instrument is set for data logging to be enabled in this mode.

3.
Standby. This is when the instrument is in an idle mode during which the user is interfacing with the instrument menu, configuring the instrument, downloading data, calibration, or when the instrument is set to begin sampling via an auto-start.

4.
Zeroing. This mode is used to establish the optical background (Rayleigh scattering) of the ADR-1500. During this mode of operation the user is required to install a zeroing tube that connects the inlet stem to a HEPA filter.

5.
Shutdown. Accomplished by holding the ON/OFF key until text on screen is no longer visible. The instrument is off.

 

Keypad and Screen Cursor Functions and Operation
Operation
Before starting the ADR-1500, it is recommended that the user become familiar with the keypad functionality. There are three menus that outline the keypad functions and these are OPERATE, CONFIGURE, and CALIBRATE. Figure 3–1 below demonstrates the ADR-1500 menu structure. Following is a description of each menu.
Thermo Scientific ADR-1500 v1.30

Chart Graph Placeholder
Figure 3–1. Keypad Overview



The Figure 3–2 below depicts the Operate Menu screen of the ADR-1500 after start-up and identifies the specific keys on the keypad.

ENTER Key

Picture Placeholder

Figure 3–2. Keypad Functions
The equivalent of this screen is represented below, and this format will be used throughout the remainder of this Instruction Manual.
Key Press Functions
ON
OPERATE

OFF
ESC UP DOWN ENTER


The following is a general description of the key press functions:
.
ON/OFF powers the instrument on or off. Press and hold ON/OFF for at least 4 seconds.

.
ESC selects the display through which the current display was accessed (back up a level) or to bail out of an edit display without saving and return to the previous display from which the current display was assessed.

.
UP ( . ) scrolls through menu displays that are in a circular list (in a backward direction) or scrolls through values (also in a backward direction) in a display that is not part of a list (an edit display).

.
DOWN ( . ) scrolls through menu displays that are in a circular list (in a forward direction) or scrolls through values (also in forward direction) in a display that is not part of a list (an edit display).

.
ENTER selects the function displayed on menu displays that are in a circular list, or used to exit and save the values as displayed in an edit display and return to the previous display from which the current display were accessed.


Note Holding down the . or . key will cause the rightmost digit to increase or decrease twice per second. After 5 seconds the next digit to the left will increase or decrease. Releasing the button returns control to the rightmost digit again. .

Startup To place the ADR-1500 into the Startup mode, press and hold the ON/OFF key for 4 seconds until you hear a beep followed by the Splash Screen appearing with the backlight on. The following splash screen appears:
ThermoScientific
ADR-1500 v01.30

This screen appears for three seconds upon initiation of a power-up sequence, then default directly to the Operate Menu screen. In this screen you may scroll up or down to the Calibrate Menu or Configure Menu, respectively.


Operate Menu The Operate Menu is used to access the list of displays allowing the user to access the operating modes and run-time parameters of the ADR-1500 including “Start A Run”, “Delayed Start”, “Zero”, “Logging Parameters” and “Battery/Memory Status”.
Start A Run

OPERATE


The Start A Run menu allows the user to begin monitoring/sampling. The run will be logged only if the asterisk (*) appears at the end of the first display line (see below). If the ADR-1500 is ready to begin a monitoring run, press ENTER and the instrument will begin operating as configured.
Equipment Damage Verify that the exhaust port and the inlet port are not blocked. .
.
From the Operate Menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Start a Run screen.

.
Press the ENTER key and the instrument will begin operating as configured.


START A RUN *


Concentration/Scattering
Once a run is started, press the . and . keys to view a series of the following displays.
The instrument measures concentration or scattering coefficient of ug/m3 for concentration or 1/Mm for scattering coefficient. The real-time concentration is presented on the first line and the time-weighted average is presented on the second line. The real-time concentration is an average taken over a time interval called “Display Time”, which is programmed by the user. The presence of the asterisk (*) in the first line indicates that data logging is enabled.

. From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or
. key to the Conc/Scat screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.
CONC 32.3*µg/m3
TWA 34.0 µg/m3

Elapsed Time
The Elapsed Time screen allows the user to view the elapsed time in hours, minutes and seconds on the first line and the start time and date of the run on the second line. After ten seconds of key pad inactivity, the display will return to the concentration/scattering screen.
. From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or
. key to the ET screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.
ET 00000:07:12
08:15 13-Nov-09

Maximum Run Reading
The MAX display screen allows the user to view maximum real-time reading (concentration or scattering coefficient) of the run and the time of occurrence. After ten seconds of key pad inactivity, the display will return to the concentration/scattering screen.
. From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or
. key to the Max screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.
MAX 56.4 ug/m3
08:26 13 Nov-09


STEL The STEL screen allows the user to view STEL maximum reading concentration or scattering coefficient. The STEL is based on the average of the last 15 minutes prior to the time of occurrence. After ten seconds of key pad inactivity, the display will return to the concentration/scattering screen.
. From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or
. key to the Stel screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.


STEL 34.1 ug/m3 

08:30 13-Nov-09


Battery/Memory The Battery/Memory screen reads the battery voltage and the percentage of data logging memory left. After ten seconds of key pad inactivity, the display will return to the concentration/scattering screen.
. From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or
. key to the Battery/Memory screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.
BATTERY 12.6V
MEMORY LEFT 97%

Temperature/RH

The Temperature/RH screen allows the user to view the current ambient temperature (degrees Celsius) and relative humidity. After ten seconds of key pad inactivity, the display will return to the concentration/scattering screen.
. From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or
. key to the Temp/RH screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.
TEMP 27.1 C
RHUM 41.4%

Flow/Pressure

The Flow/Pressure screen allows the user to view the flow rate in liters per minute and the (ambient) atmospheric pressure in millimetres mercury. After ten seconds of key pad inactivity, the display will return to the concentration/scattering screen.
. From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or
. key to the Flow/Pres screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.
FLOW 2.000 LPM
PRES 750 mmHg

 

Stop Run The Stop Run screen offers the user to confirm that the run is to be stopped. 

.
From the Start a Run screen, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or

. key to the Stop Run screen or press the ESC key to stop a run.

.
Press the Enter key and the run is terminated.


STOP RUN?
PRESS ENTER


Delayed Start The Delayed Start screen offers the user to view and edit the delayed start status as “enabled” or “disabled”.
. From the Operate menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Delayed Start screen.
DELAYED START
DISABLED


Delayed Start Edit The Delayed Start Edit screen allows the user to edit the delayed start as “enabled” or “disabled”. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
. From the Delayed Start screen, press the ENTER key to enable or disable a delayed start.
DELAYED START
* ENABLED

Start Time/Date
The Start Time/Date screen allows the user to view and edit the delayed start time and date. The instrument will store the start time and date regardless of whether Delayed Start is enabled or disabled. If the start time and date is earlier than the current time, then it defaults to the current time.
. From the Operate menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Start@ screen.



START@ 14:45:30
13-Nov-09

Start Time/Date Edit

The Start Time/Date Edit screen allows the user to edit the delayed start time and date. In the display, the ENTER and the ESC keys provide navigation through six fields within the display in the following sequence: hours, minutes, seconds, years, months, and days. The ENTER key navigates forward while the Esc key navigates backwards. The . and . keys are used to increment/decrement the field values. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
. From the Start@ screen, press the ENTER key and to advance to edit the next field, except if day (of month) is selected: the delayed start time and date saved, the delayed start status is enabled, and the display advances to Delayed Start Countdown.
START@ *14:45:30
13-Nov-09


Delayed Start Countdown The Delayed Start Countdown screen displays the time of day that the ADR-1500 will start a run on the first line and the amount of time remaining before the instrument starts this run in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. The presence of the asterisk in the first line indicates that data logging is enabled.
START@ *14:45:30
120Days hh:mm:ss


Zeroing the ADR-1500
The Zero Instrument screen is used to initiate a zero sequence to measure and store the optical background. The second line displays advice to the user that a filter must be applied to the Total Inlet to provide clean (particulate-free) air to the optics for this process.
. From the Operate menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Zero Instrument screen.
Note Do not zero through the red or blue sharp-cut cyclones. Only zero through a clean Total Inlet. .

Operation
ZERO INSTRUMENT
FILTER READY


Zero In Progress The Zeroing screen is shown while the ADR-1500 is performing a background measurement and optical signal offset adjustment, and key functions are different.
. From the Zero Instrument screen, press the ENTER key and the display advances to Zero in Progress (Zeroing).
ZEROING
PLEASE WAIT

Zero Complete
Note Please be sure a HEPA filter is installed to a clean Total Inlet during this procedure to ensure proper measurements. Do not zero through the cyclones. .
After zeroing is complete, if the measurement was successful and within specification, the following screen appears. If the measurement was successful and outside of specification the instrument will respond with “COMPLETE: BKG HI”. If diagnostics indicated that measurement was compromised, the instrument will respond with “FAILURE 0x00ee”, where 0x00ee is a hex code indicating the type of error the diagnostic failure encountered during background measurement. Re-zero the instrument. After three attempts, contact customer service.
ZERO INSTRUMENT
COMPLETE: BKG OK


Logging Parameters The Logging Parameters display screen indicates on the first line whether data logging is enabled or disabled. The second line of this screen displays the logging period for 3 seconds, displays site label for 3 seconds, and tag number for 3 seconds in sequence.
. From the Operate menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Logging screen.


Operation
LOGGING ENABLED
1:00:00 h:m:s

LOGGING ENABLED
Factory default

LOGGING ENABLED
01


Logging Status Edit The Logging Status Edit screen allows the user to enable or disable data logging. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Logging Parameters screen, press the ENTER key and the display advances to Logging Period Edit.

.
Press the ENTER key enable or disable data logging.


LOGGING STATUS
* ENABLED

Logging Period Edit

The Logging Period Edit screen allows the user to the logging period. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited. The . and . keys are used to increment/decrement the time. If either button is held, then the logging period will change twice per second but the editing focus will switch to the digit on the left after the button is held for five seconds.
.
From the Logging Parameters screen, press the ENTER key and the display advances to Logging Period Edit.

.
Press the ENTER key to enable or disable data logging.


LOGGING PERIOD
* 14:45:30 h:m:s


Logging Site Edit The Logging Site Edit screen allows the user to select from the list of 50 logging sites. Each site has three associated values: Site Number, a Site Name, and a Calibration Factor. The Site Name is the only value displayed
3-12 MIE ADR-1500 Instruction Manual Thermo Fisher Scientific


Logging Tag Number
Operation
on the second line. Pressing the . and . keys changes the Site Number and the corresponding Site Name appears on the second line. Also, the corresponding Calibration Factor is chosen. The Site Numbers are in range (1, 2, 3..., 50), the Site Names and Calibration Factors are editable only by external serial command. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Logging Parameters screen, press the ENTER key and the display advances to Logging Period Edit.

.
Press the ENTER key to save Site selection and forward to Logging Tag Number.


LOGGING SITE
*Site 01

The Logging Tag Number screen allows the user to select the tag no. (00, 01, 02...99), a number assigned to a logged run as label to access/retrieve the stored data. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Logging Parameters screen, press the ENTER key and the display advances to Logging Period Edit.

.
Press the ENTER key to save Site selection and forward to Logging Tag Number.


LOGGING TAG NO.
* 00


Battery/Memory The Battery/Memory Status screen reads the internal battery voltage on the first line and the percentage of the un-written memory on the second.
Status
. From the Operate menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Battery/Memory screen.
BATTERY 12.6V
MEMORY LEFT 97%

 

Operation
Configure Menu The Configure Menu is used to access the list of displays allowing the user to configure how the instrument measures and logs data including “Display Avg Time”, “Flow Rate”, “Logging Parameters”, “Inlet Type”, “RH Correction”, “Alarm”, “Units”, “Analog Output”, “LCD Backlight”, LCD Contrast” and “Time/Date”.
Display Average Time
CONFIGURE


The Display Average Time screen offers the user to adjust the running (boxcar) average time of the displayed concentration (or scattering coefficient) between 1 and 60 seconds. The average concentration displayed is the value scaled to the analog output and offered as an alarm criterion.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Display Avg Time screen.
DISPLAY AVG TIME
10 seconds


Display Average Time Edit The Display Average Time Edit screen allows the user to change the running average displayed on the screen between 1 and 60 seconds. This also doubles as the running average that is provided as an analog output and also as one of the values that triggers the alarm. Use the . and . keys to increase or decrease the display average time by seconds. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
. From the Display Avg Time screen, press the ENTER key and edit the display averaging time.
. Press the ENTER key to save the display averaging time and return to Display Avg Time screen.

DISPLAY AVG TIME
* 11 seconds

 

Operation

Flow Rate The Flow Rate screen displays the set flow rate and the corresponding cyclone mass median diameter 50% cut point (D50).
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Flow Rate screen.
FLOW RATE (D50)
1.19 LPM 10.00

Flow Rate Edit
The Flow Rate Edit screen allows the user to edit the volumetric flow rate. The flow range is 1–3.5 L/min and if a cyclone has already been chosen, the corresponding 50% aerodynamic cut point (D50 in micrometers) will change simultaneously. Use the . and . keys to increase or decrease the flow rate in increments of 0.01 LPM. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Flow Rate screen, press the ENTER key and edit the flow rate.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the flow rate and return to the Flow Rate screen.


FLOW RATE (D50)
*1.19 LPM 10.00


Logging Parameters The Logging Parameters display screen indicates on the first line whether data logging is enabled or disabled. The second line of this screen displays the logging period for 3 seconds, the site label for 3 seconds, and the tag number for 3 seconds in sequence.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Logging screen.
LOGGING ENABLED
1:00:00 h:m:s

LOGGING ENABLED
Factory default

 

Operation
LOGGING ENABLED
01


Logging Status Edit The Logging Status Edit screen allows the user to enable or disable data logging. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Logging Parameters screen, press the ENTER key and edit the logging status.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the logging status and forward to the Logging Period edit.


LOGGING STATUS
* ENABLED

Logging Period Edit

The Logging Period Edit screen allows the user to edit the logging period. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited. Use the . and
. keys to increment or decrement the time. If either button is held, then the logging period will change twice per second but the editing focus will switch to the digit on the left after the button is held for five seconds.
.
From the Logging status screen, press the ENTER key to edit the logging period.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the logging period and forward to the Logging Site edit.


LOGGING PERIOD
* 1:00:00 h:m:s

Logging Site Edit

The Logging Site Edit screen allows the user to select from the list of 50 logging sites. Each site has three associated values: Site Number, a Site Name, and a Calibration Factor. The site name is the only value displayed on the second line. Use the . and . keys to change the site number and the corresponding site name appears on the second line. Also, the corresponding calibration factor is chosen. The site numbers are in range (1, 2, 3..., 50), the site names and calibration factors are editable only by external serial command. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.

Logging Tag Number
Operation
.
From the Logging Period screen, press the ENTER key to edit the logging site.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the logging period and forward to the Logging Site edit.


LOGGING SITE
*Site 01

The Logging Tag Number screen allows the user to select the tag no. (00, 01, 02...99), a number assigned to a logged run as label to access/retrieve the stored data. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Logging Site screen, press the ENTER key to edit the logging tag number.

.
Press the ENTER key to save Site selection and return to the Logging Parameters display screens.


LOGGING TAG NO.
* 00


Inlet Type The Inlet Type screen allows the user to select the inlet type being used (Red, Cyclone, or Total).
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Inlet Type screen.
INLET TYPE
BLUE CYCLONE

Inlet Type Edit
The Inlet Type Edit screen allows the user to select the type of inlet being used. Inlet types are: Cyclone, Blue Cyclone or Total Inlet. Use the . and
. keys to change the inlet type. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Inlet Type screen, press the ENTER key to edit the inlet type.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the inlet type and return to the Inlet Type screen.

 


Operation
INLET TYPE
*RED CYCLONE


RH Correction The RH Correction screen allows the user to view whether RH correction is enabled or disabled.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the RH Correction screen.
RH CORRECTION
DISABLED

RH Correction Edit

Note RH Correction should be enabled when the RH is expected to exceed 50–60%. Ambient monitoring should always use the RH Correction as being enabled. However, precision can be affected between collocated devices. .
The RH Correction Edit screen allows the user to enable or disable RH correction. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited
.
From the RH Correction screen, press the ENTER key to edit the RH correction.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the RH correction and return to the RH Correction screen.


RH CORRECTION
* ENABLED


Alarm The Alarm screen indicates the alarm options for triggering the alarm (Disabled, Instant, or STEL) and the value at which it is triggered. The instant setting causes the alarm to be triggered when the displayed concentration is higher than the instant alarm level setting. The STEL setting causes the alarm to be triggered when the 15 minute rolling (boxcar) average is higher than the STEL alarm level setting. Each of the two enabled alarm options use separately stored alarm level values.

Alarm Option Edit
Operation
Note The units mg/m3 are replaced with /km when the ADR-1500 is measuring scattering coefficient, using the units 1/Mm. .
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Alarm screen.
ALARM INSTANT
0.15 mg/m3

The Alarm Option Edit screen allows the user to edit the alarm. Alarm options are: Instant, STEL, or Disabled. Use the . and . keys to change the alarm option. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Alarm screen, press the ENTER key and edit the alarm option.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the alarm option and forward to the Alarm Level edit screen.


ALARM INSTANT
* STEL

Alarm Level Edit
The Alarm Level Edit screen allows the user to edit the alarm for which the alarm is triggered. Use the . and . keys to increase or decrease the alarm level by 0.01 mg/m3. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Logging status screen, press the ENTER key to edit the alarm level.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the alarm option and return to the Alarm screen.


ALARM STEL
* 200.00 mg/m3


Units The Units screen allows the selection of units from micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) or to a measure of the aerosol scattering coefficient in units of inverse mega meters (1/Mm).
Thermo Fisher Scientific MIE ADR-1500 Instruction Manual 3-19

Operation
Note When the units /Mm are chosen, the RH correction becomes automatically disabled. .
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Units edit screen.
UNITS 1/Mm


Units Edit The Units Edit screen allows the user to change the option for units. Use the . and . keys to toggle between the two unit options. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Units screen, press the ENTER key to edit the units.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the units and return to the Units screen.


UNITS 1/Mm
* ug/m3

Analog Output

The Analog Output screen indicates the status of the analog output (enabled/disabled) and offers the user the option to enable or disable the analog output and change the analog span range in corresponding units of measure (ug/m3 or 1/Mm). The proportional voltage output range is 0–2 VDC for the analog output.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Analog Output screen.
ANALOG OUTPUT
ENABLED


Analog Output Edit The Units Edit screen allows the user to configure the analog output. The values offered for selection are compatible with the selected units. The values offered for /Mm (scattering coefficient) are: disabled, 10/Mm, 100/Mm, 1000/Mm, 10000/Mm, and 100000/Mm. The values offered for µg/M3 (concentration) are: disabled, 0.10 mg/m3, 0.40 mg/m3, 1.00 mg/m3, 4.00 mg/m3, 10.0 mg/m3, 40 mg/m3, 100 mg/m3, 400 mg/m3, and

LCD Backlight
Operation
1000 mg/m3. Use the . and . keys to cycle through the list of analog output items. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Analog Output screen, press the ENTER key to edit the analog output.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the analog output selection and return to the Analog Output screen.


ANALOG OUTPUT
* 0.40 mg/m3

The LCD Backlight screen displays whether the backlight is enabled or disabled and offers the user to choose whether to enable or disable the LCD backlight. If the backlight is enabled and the instrument is running solely from battery power, the backlight will come on for a period of 10 seconds after each keystroke. Thereafter, the backlight will automatically shut off in an effort to conserve power. If running on external power supply, the LCD backlight stays on.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the LCD Backlight screen.
LCD BACKLIGHT
DISABLED

LCD Backlight Edit
The LCD Backlight Edit screen allows the user to enable or disable the LCD backlight. Use the . and . keys to toggle between enable or disable. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the LCD Backlight screen, press the ENTER key to edit the LCD backlight.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the LCD backlight status and return to the LCD Backlight screen.


LCD BACKLIGHT
* ENABLED

 

Operation
LCD Contrast
LCD CONTRAST
25

LCD Contrast Edit

The LCD Contrast screen allows the user to view and edit the contrast of the display. Lower settings darken the contrast and make the display more readable at colder temperatures. Higher settings lighten the contrast and make the display more readable at warmer temperatures. The nominal setting is 25.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the LCD Contrast screen.
The LCD Contrast Edit screen allows the user to edit the contrast of the display. Use the . and . keys to increment or decrement the LCD contrast. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the LCD Contrast screen, press the ENTER key to edit the LCD contrast.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the LCD contrast status and return to the LCD Contrast screen.


LCD CONTRAST
* 20


Time/Date The Time/Date screen displays the current time and date and offers the user to re-program the time and date.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Time/Date screen.
TIME 15:59:41
13-Nov-09


Time/Date Edit The Time/Date Edit screen allows the user to edit the current time and date. The Start Time/Date Edit screen allows the user to edit the delayed start time and date. In the display, the ENTER and the ESC keys provide
3-22 MIE ADR-1500 Instruction Manual Thermo Fisher Scientific


Operation
navigation through six fields within the display in the following sequence: hours, minutes, seconds, years, months, and days. The ENTER key navigates forward while the Esc key navigates backwards. The . and . keys are used to increment/decrement the field values. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Time/Date screen, press the ENTER key to and to advance to edit the next field.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the time/date and return to the Time/Date screen.


TIME *15:59:41
13-Nov-09

 

Operation
Calibrate Menu The Calibrate Menu is used to access the list of displays allowing the user to calibrate the sensors used to measure scattering, temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, flow rate, and the time and date. The displays include “Temp Offset”, “Pressure Offset”, “RH Offset”, “Flow Rate Cal”, and “Cal Factor”.
CALIBRATE


Temperature Offset The Temperature Offset screen allows the user to view and edit the temperature offset of the measurement to coincide with their traceable standards.
. From the Calibrate Menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Temp Offset screen.
TEMP OFFSET
0.0 22.3 C


Temperature Offset Edit
The Temperature Offset Edit screen allows the user to edit the temperature offset. Use the . and . keys to increase or decrease the user temperature offset in increments of 0.1 in degrees Celsius. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Temp Offset screen, press the ENTER key and edit the temperature offset.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the temperature offset and return to Temp Offset screen.


TEMP OFFSET
* 0.1 22.2 C


Please note that a precise and accurate calibration of the RH-sensor is critical to maintaining precision between collocated devices when using RH Correction enabled.
3-24 MIE ADR-1500 Instruction Manual Thermo Fisher Scientific

Pressure Offset
Operation
The Pressure Offset screen allows the user to view and edit the pressure offset of the barometric pressure measurement to coincide with their traceable standards.
. From the Calibrate Menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Pressure Offset screen.
PRESSURE OFFSET
0 760 mmHg

Pressure Offset Edit
The Pressure Offset Edit screen allows the user to edit the pressure offset. Use the . and . keys to increase or decrease the user pressure offset in increments of 1 in millimetres of mercury. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Pressure Offset screen, press the ENTER key and edit the pressure offset.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the user pressure offset and return to Pressure Offset screen.


PRESSURE OFFSET
* 10 750 mmHg


RH Offset The RH Offset screen allows the user to view and edit the RH offset of the barometric pressure measurement to coincide with their traceable standards.
. From the Calibrate Menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the RH Offset screen.
RH OFFSET
0.0 47.3 %


RH Offset Edit The RH Offset Edit screen allows the user to edit the RH offset. Use the
. and . keys to increase or decrease the RH offset in increments of 0.1% RH. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.

Thermo Fisher Scientific MIE ADR-1500 Instruction Manual 3-25

Operation
.
From the RH Offset screen, press the ENTER key and edit the RH offset.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the user RH offset and return to the RH Offset screen.


RH OFFSET
* 5.0 42.3 %


Flow Rate The Flow Rate Calibration screen allows the user the option to perform a multi-point inlet flow calibration.
Calibration

. From the Calibrate Menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Flow Rate Cal screen.
Flow Rate Calibration Edit
FLOW RATE CAL

 

The Flow Rate Calibration Edit screen allows the user to calibrate the six flow control settings and define the flow rate at each flow control setting. This will build a table of the six calibration point to be used for interpolating the flow control setting to achieve the flow rate set in the Configure menu’s “Flow Rate Edit”.
The flow rate calibration is accomplished in a sequence of six displays for six flow calibration points, setting the six flow control settings for the corresponding six defined flow rate setting. The ENTER and ESC keys are used to navigate through the edit fields, while the . and . keys are used to increase and decrease the values. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
For factory settings, the flow control adjust is adjusted for flow calibration points (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) to produce corresponding defined flow rates (1.00, 1.50, 2.00, 2.50, 3.00, and 3.50 liters per minute) and the defined flow rates are kept at the factory default setting. The user may, however, redefine the defined flow rate for each flow calibration point to get a more accurate calibration. However, the defined flow rate values must increase in value as the flow calibration point increases.
In the following screen there are two values shown; ADJ = 188 and LPM =
1.00. In this screen the 188 is the pump speed control value used to achieve
1.00 L/min. The user may adjust the motor speed to achieve 1.00 L/min or

Calibration Factor
Operation
may adjust the measured inlet flow rate that is equal at that pump speed. After pressing the ENTER key, the next calibration point is pursued.
Note Should the temperature and pressure be re-calibrated, the accuracy of the flow calibration should be verified. .
. From the Flow Rate Cal screen, press the ENTER key to navigate forward, until last step (flow calibration point 6, defined flow rate) the display returns to the Flow Rate Cal screen and the new calibration is saved only if at least one of the values was edited.
FLOW RATE CAL 1
ADJ* 188LPM:1.00

The Calibration Factor screen shows the site number selected and allows the user to edit the calibration factor for that site number. The calibration factor is the value used to scale the concentration output to agree with a primary calibration or user defined standard.
In the following screen, the ADR-1500 shows the instrument is operating for Site 1, and the Calibration Factor is 1.000 which will provide a 1:1 response with the factory calibration. For more information about calibration, see Chapter 4, “Calibration and Particle Size Selection”.
. From the Calibrate Menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Cal Factor screen.
CAL FACTOR 1
1.000

Calibration Factor Edit
The Calibration Factor Edit screen allows the user to edit the calibration factor values. Use the . and . keys to increase or decrease the value by
0.001. The asterisk (*) appears to the left of the field being edited.
.
From the Cal Factor screen, press the ENTER key and edit the values.

.
Press the ENTER key to save the calibration factor associated with the site number and return to Cal Factor screen.


CAL FACTOR 2
* 1.000

 

Operation
Starting a Run Filter Requirements

ZERO/Initialize Operation

The following provides a brief overview of how to start a monitoring and sampling run.
Before starting a run, a HEPA filter or optional 37-mm filter must be inserted downstream of the optical assembly. The recommended 37-mm filters are glass microfibre filters. If using the 5-micron PVC filters, use the glass microfibre filters as a backing media when using battery power.
Equipment Damage At no time should the ADR-1500 be running without a filter in place, otherwise serious damage to the internal components may result. .
Before initiating a measurement run it is advisable to perform the zeroing and automatic internal check out sequences, to ensure optimal operation.
. From the Operate menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Zero Instrument screen.
ZERO INSTRUMENT
FILTER READY


Attach a HEPA filter to the Total Inlet and press ENTER. Do not zero through the cyclone.
During zeroing, each range within the auto-ranging potential is used to measure the optical background of the instrument and each value is stored for subsequent data calculations. The duration of a Zero Operation is usually 2-3 minutes. After Zeroing is complete, the following screen should be present:
ZERO INSTRUMENT
COMPLETE: BKG OK


. From the Zero Instrument screen, by pressing the . key, the user proceeds to a series of logging screens in the following order:
3-28 MIE ADR-1500 Instruction Manual Thermo Fisher Scientific

Operation
LOGGING ENABLED
1:00:00 h:m:s

LOGGING ENABLED
Factory default

LOGGING ENABLED
01


Auto-Start (Optional)
In the screens above, by pressing the ENTER key, the user can edit the logging tag number, the logged averaging period, and the logging site name.
The desired time and date for the automatic start of a run and data logging can be selected as described previously. This feature is optional.
. From the Operate menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Start@ screen.
START@ 14:45:30
13-Nov-08

Configuration Review
In this screen, the user can press ENTER to alter a delayed start time and date for the ADR-1500. If this feature is selected, the instrument will remain in Standby mode until the current time reaches the start time.
In addition to the description of the “Configure Menu” earlier in this chapter, the configuration of the instrument should be reviewed prior to beginning a run.
In addition to assuring that the data logging features are set, the three most important configuration settings to review are the:
.
Inlet Type – Total, Red Cyclone, or Blue Cyclone

.
The Flow Rate and respective D50 cut-point, and

.
The Enabling or Disabling of the RH Correction

 


Operation
The inlet type, flow rate, and respective particle cut-point (D50) are described in “Particle Size Cut Points” on page 4-5.
. From the Configure menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Inlet Type screen.
INLET TYPE
BLUE CYCLONE


In the above screen, the Inlet Type is shown. By pressing ENTER, the inlet can be changed from Total to Red Cyclone or Blue Cyclone. If a cyclone is selected, the D50 cut-point will change depending upon the flow rate selected.
When the relative humidity correction function is enabled, the particle growth effect due to a high humidity environment is corrected for. This means that the computed mass concentration is based on the original dry environment particle population. This correction only applies when mass concentration units have been selected, but not when scattering coefficient has been selected.
RH CORRECTION
* ENABLED


As with any light scattering device, the scattering efficiency of an aerosol will increase with an increased relative humidity. Furthermore, the scattering efficiency of a particle is maximized when the particle diameter is the same as the wavelength of the incident light. In the case of the ADR­1500 an 880 nm LED light source is used and a RH Correction has been implemented based on data taken from multiple field evaluations. When enabled, the ADR-1500 will normalize the response to a relative humidity of 40% when the measured RH > 40 %. Although the RH Correction is effective at providing a more accurate response, the connector can affect the precision between two instruments.
Additional Configuration parameters are the Alarm setting, units of measure, and the Analog Output settings.
ALARM DISABLED

 

Operation
By pressing the ENTER Key, the user can enable the Alarm whereby the concentration required to trigger the alarm can be adjusted from 0.01 – 200 mg/m3.
UNITS ug/m3

In the screen above, the units of measure can be changed from either micrograms per cubic meter (µg/m3) to a measure of the aerosol scattering coefficient in units of inverse megameters (1/Mm), whereby the RH Correction should become automatically disabled.
ANALOG OUTPUT
DISABLED

The user can enable or disable the analog output and change the analog span range in corresponding units of measure (µg/m3 or 1/Mm). The voltage output range is 0-2 VDC for the analog output. The Analog output settings are 0 - 0.1, 0 - 0.4, 0 - 1.0, 0 - 4.0, 0 - 10, 0 - 40, 0 - 100, 0 – 400, and 0 – 1,000 mg/m3.
The last configuration screen is to set the time. This screen is used to set the time and date, should these require resetting.
TIME 15:59:41
13-Nov-09

In the screen above the current time and date are displayed and may be adjusted as necessary. The first line indicates the time presently registered by the ADR-1500. The second is the present date registered by the ADR­1500.
To set the time accurately, press ENTER and a flashing asterisk (*) will appear to the left of the character to change. Adjust the value using the up and down keys and press ENTER. The asterisk will move throughout the screen to adjust each respective value.
In the U.S., it is convenient to dial 1-900-410-8463 (U.S. Naval Observatory time information), and at the instant when the time announced equals the time preset on the second line of the above screen, key ENTER, as instructed on the last line. 

Start the Run To start the run, press ENTER from the Operate menu.
. From the Operate Menu, press the ENTER key and scroll the . or . key to the Start a Run screen.
START A RUN *


In this screen, the ADR-1500 prompts the user regarding the valve, which is just an assurance that the exhaust port and the inlet port are not blocked. If the ADR-1500 is ready to begin a monitoring run, press ENTER and the instrument will begin operating as configured.
It should be remembered that the measurement units can only be selected in the set-up mode and not during a run.

Chapter 4 Calibration and Particle Size Selection
The following sections discuss the calibration process and procedures for calibrating the instrument:
.
“Factory Calibration” on page 4-2

.
“How to Apply a Correction Factor” on page 4-3

.
“Particle Size Cut Points” on page 4-5

.
“Continuous Unattended Monitoring” on page 4-6

 


Calibration and Particle Size Selection
Factory Calibration

For mass concentration measurements, each ADR-1500 is factory calibrated against a set of reference monitors that, in turn, are periodically calibrated against a gravimetric standard traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST).
The primary factory reference method consists of generating a dust aerosol by means of a fluidized bed generator, and injecting continuously the dust into a mixing chamber from which samples are extracted concurrently by two reference filter collectors and by two master real-time monitors that are used for the routine calibration of every ADR-1500.
The primary dust concentration reference value is obtained from the weight increase of the two filters due to the dust collected over a measured period of time, at a constant and known flow rate. The two master real-time monitors are then adjusted to agree with the reference mass concentration value (obtained from averaging the measurements of the two gravimetric filters) to within ±1%.
Three primary NIST traceable measurements are involved in the determination of the reference mass concentration: the weight increment from the dust collected on the filter, the sampling flow rate, and the sampling time. Additional conditions that must be met are: a) suspended dust concentration uniformity at all sampling inlets of the mixing chamber;
b) identical sample transport configurations leading to reference and instrument under calibration; and c) essentially 100% collection efficiency of filters used for gravimetric reference for the particle size range of the test dust.
The test dust used for the factory calibration of the ADR-1500 is SAE Fine (ISO Fine) supplied by Powder Technology, Inc. It has the following physical characteristics (as dispersed into the mixing chamber):
.
Mass median aerodynamic particle diameter: 2 to 3 µm

.
Geometric standard deviation of lognormal size distribution: 2.5

. Bulk density: 2.60 to 2.65 g/cm3

.
Refractive index: 1.54


In addition to the mass calibration described above, the ADR-1500 is factory calibrated for temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and volumetric flow rate using NIST-traceable standards.

Calibration and Particle Size Selection

How to Apply a Correction Factor
If desired, the ADR-1500 can be calibrated gravimetrically for a particular aerosol (dust, smoke, mist, etc.), other than SAE Fine, under field conditions (actual conditions of use). To effect such calibration in the particle environment of interest, proceed as indicated below:
.
Place the ADR-1500 within the particle environment.

.
Start a run.

.
After 1-minute, record the time weighted average (TWA).

.
Calculate the run time (t) necessary to collect at least 1 milligram of sample using the following equation:


()t = 500
TWA
For example, if the 1-minute TWA = 2.5 mg/m3, the run time necessary to collect approximately 1 mg of sample equals 200 minutes (i.e., t = 200 minutes).
Now that the run time (t) has been calculated from the above 1-minute preliminary test, proceed with the following steps using the optional 37­mm filter assembly:
.
Perform a tare weight on a fresh 37-mm filter using a microbalance with at least a 0.001 mg resolution and place into the filter assembly.

.
Record the tare weight (m1).

.
Load the filter assembly into the ADR-1500 in place of the large capacity HEPA filter.

.
Place the ADR-1500 within the particle environment of choice

.
Start a run using a 1-minute data logging.

.
Allow the ADR-1500 to run for the run time calculated from the preliminary test (e.g., t = 200 minutes).

.
At the end of the run, record the TWA (mg/m3) run time t (minutes) and flow rate (LPM).

.
Stop the run.

.
Recover the 37-mm filter assembly from the instrument and return to the microbalance room for weighing.

.
Remove the 37-mm filter from the assembly, and weigh the filter after equilibration and anti-static neutralization, as necessary.

 


Calibration and Particle Size Selection
Site Calibration Factors

.
Record the filter gross weight (m2).

.
Calculate the mass increment (.m) due to the collected particles, as follows:


.m = m2 - m1

With the net mass (.m) recorded in unit of milligrams, run time (t) recorded in minutes, and flow rate (Q) recorded in liters per minute, calculate the average gravimetric concentration C, as follows:
.1,000* .m .
C =. .
. t • Q .

Now compare the recorded TWA from the ADR-1500 and the calculated gravimetric particulate mass concentration (C) and calculate the calibration factor to be programmed into the ADR-1500 site list as follows:
C
CAL FACTOR = TWA

For example, if C was found to be 3.2 mg/m3, and TWA had been determined to be 2.5 mg/m3, the CAL FACTOR equals 1.28. The user can now edit this value on the ADR-1500 calibration screen through the use of pDR Port or via the keypad.
The Cal-Factors calculated from the above comparison can be stored via pDR Port into the ADR-1500. The ADR-1500 holds up to 50 different site names. Each site name has a default Cal-Factor of 1.000. The Cal-Factor of each site can be adjusted either through the Menu Interface or through the pDR Port user interface.

Calibration and Particle Size Selection

Particle Size Cut Points
The ADR-1500 has three different inlets to choose from Total Inlet, Red Cyclone, and Blue Cyclone.
The Total Inlet is a standard accessory for the ADR-1500 and is designed for use as a total aerosol mass measurement. When operated in a flow range of 1-2 L/min with a tared 37-mm 5-µm PVC filter, NIOSH Method 0500 can be achieved in addition to the real-time measurements.
The Red Cyclone is an optional ACGIH-traceable cyclone that is used primarily for establishing an aerodynamic diameter 50% cut point between 4 to 10 micrometers. When used at a flow rate of 2.65 L/min with a tared 37-mm 5-µm PVC filter, NIOSH Method 0600 can be achieved in addition to the real-time measurements.
The Blue Cyclone is an optional ACGIH-traceable cyclone that is used primarily for establishing an aerodynamic diameter 50% cut point between 1 to 4 micrometers.
The Red and Blue Cyclones have the following 50% AED cut-point characteristics shown in Figure 4–1.

Chart Graph Placeholder
Figure 4–1. Cyclone D50 Curves


Calibration and Particle Size Selection
Continuous Unattended Monitoring

When the ADR-1500 is used for continuous unattended monitoring (e.g., ambient air monitoring), the optional 37-mm filter holder should not be used. Rather, the large capacity HEPA filter should be used in its place, which will require replacement on an infrequent schedule (see Chapter 5 “Maintenance and Service” of this manual).

Chapter 5 Maintenance and Service
This chapter describes the periodic maintenance procedures that should be performed on the instrument to ensure proper operation. Since usage and environmental conditions vary greatly, the components should be inspected frequently until an appropriate maintenance schedule is determined.
This chapter includes the following preventive maintenance information:
. “General Guidelines” on page 5-2
. “Replacement Parts List” on page 5-3
. “Instrument Storage” on page 5-6
. “Cleaning of Optical Sensing Chamber” on page 5-7
. “Removing the Internal Cover” on page 5-8
. “LCD Assembly Replacement” on page 5-10
. “Pump Assembly Replacement” on page 5-12
. “Communications PCB Replacement” on page 5-14
. “Optics Enclosure Assembly Removal” on page 5-18
. “Heater Switch Assembly Replacement” on page 5-20
. “Battery Use” on page 5-23
. “Lead Acid Battery Replacement” on page 5-24
. “In-Line Flow Meter Filter with Fittings Replacement” on page 5-26
. “Extended Monitoring HEPA Filter Replacement” on page 5-27
. “37-mm Filter Cassette Holder Assembly Replacement (Optional)” on page 5-28
. “Bracket Assembly and Power Supply/Charger Replacement” on page 5-30
. “Service Locations” on page 5-32


Maintenance and Service
General Guidelines


The ADR-1500 is designed to be recalibrated at the factory. However, replacement of the parts listed in Table 5–1 can be done by a proficient technician. Access to the internal components of the optical assembly by others than authorized Thermo Fisher Scientific personnel voids warranty.
Equipment Damage Unless a MALFUNCTION message is displayed, or other operational problems occur, the ADR-1500 should be returned to the factory once every year after being placed into service for routine check out, test, cleaning and calibration check. .

Replacement Parts List

107418-00 Particulate Inlet Assembly
107495-00 Sealing Plug
107400-00 Bracket Filter Mount
108871-00 Relay Kit
108835-00 Relay
107493-00 Relay Cable Assembly
105140-00 LCD Display Assembly
104052-00 Pump
106909-00 Communications PCB
108773-00 Heater Switch Cable Assembly
04-001576 Heater Switch
107422-00 In-Line Flow Meter Filter (with fittings)
32-000380 In-Line Flow Meter Filter (without fittings)
108960-00 Extended Monitoring HEPA Filter
108834-00 Battery, Lead Acid
108517-00 Bracket Assembly, Power Supply/Charger
108764-00 Power Supply Assembly
108765-00 Power Supply Cable Assembly
108766-00 Charger Assembly
108518-00 Battery Mounting Bracket
107480-00 Battery Cable Assembly
108857-00 External USB Cable Assembly
108810-00 External Analog Cable Assembly
108807-00 External 12/24 VDC Cable Assembly
108888-00 Fuse, 1.5 Amp, Slow Blow, 5 x 20 mm
109148-00 Blue Cyclone Assembly
109149-00 Red Cyclone Assembly
109055-00 Cyclone Adapter Assembly

 

Maintenance and Service Maintenance and Service

950-3110 Fiberglass Filter 37-mm 100/Box
109356-00 Stainless Steel Filter Support Screens (pkg of 3)
105854-00 PVC 5.0 µm 37-mm Filter 50/Box
AAWP03700 0.8 µm 37-mm Filter 100/Box
108824-00 Filter Support and Holder
107418-00 Inlet Assembly
105110-00 Cyclone Adapter Replacement O-ring
109170-00 Blue or Red Cyclone Replacement O-ring Kit
105110-00 Inlet Replacement O-ring
108876-00 Pole Mounting Kit, 2”
108877-00 Pole Mounting Kit, 3”
108878-00 Pole Mounting Kit, 4”
108892-00 Zeroing Filter Assembly
109174-00 37 mm Filter Cassette Holder
108836-00 Instruction Manual

 

Sealing Plug
Omni-Directional
Pump
External USB Cable Assembly Communications PCB

In-Line Flow Meter Filter Power Supply and Charger Mounting Bracket Assembly
External Analog Cable Assembly

Extended Monitoring
HEPA Filter

Bracket Filter Mount
Relay Kit Option

Fitting Elbow Reducer
External 12/24 VDC Cable Assembly
Power Supply Cable Assembly
Assembly Power Supply Assembly Charger Assembly

 

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–1. ADR-1500 Instrument Layout



To store the ADR-1500 for an extended period of time (i.e., one month or more) disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power/communications board. This will have no effect on data retention or internal clock function.
During storage always maintain the unit with the inlet covered to protect the sensing optics from gradual dust contamination. Store the ADR-1500 in a dry environment.
Equipment Damage Disconnect the battery cable from the power communication board. .

 

Although the ADR-1500 incorporates an aerodynamic inlet to optimize aerosol delivery through the sensing chamber, continued sampling of airborne particles at high concentrations may result in gradual build-up of contamination on those interior surfaces of the sensing chamber components. This may cause an excessively high optical background level. If this background level does become excessive, the ADR-1500 will alert the user at the completion of the zeroing sequence. If this message is presented, the ADR-1500 can continue to be operated providing accurate measurements only if the background can be reduced. This “might” be possible by blowing a stream of compressed filtered air through the optical chamber and re-zeroing.
Equipment Damage If unsuccessful, the instrument must be sent back to the factory for service. .

 

The internal covers can be removed to allow access to the core components of the ADR-1500. Partial removal allows access to the power/com assembly and center panel of the ADR-1500 and full removal allows access to everything on the ADR-1500. Refer to the following steps when a procedure requires partial or full removal of the internal cover (Figure 5–2).
Equipment Damage Some internal components can be damaged by small amounts of static electricity. A properly grounded antistatic wrist strap must be worn while handling any internal component. .
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
For access to the power/com assembly, unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down. For center panel removal, unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down. For full removal, unfasten the two captive hardware and six screws.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Re-install the internal cover by following the previous steps in reverse order.

 

Maintenance and Service

Captive Hardware (2) Power/Com Assembly
Captive Hardware (2) Center Panel
Screws (6)
Bottom Panel
Figure 5–2. Removing the Internal Cover


Maintenance and Service
LCD Assembly Use the following procedure to replace the LCD assembly (Figure 5–3). Replacement
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the power/com assembly.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Unplug the ribbon cable from the LCD board.

5.
Unfasten the four nuts at the corners of the LCD board.

6.
Lift the LED screen out of the housing.

7.
Remove the four nuts from the LCD.

8.
Re-install the four nuts into the new LCD, and replace the LCD by following the previous steps in reverse order.

 

CAUTION Disconnect battery power and external power supplies before servicing. .
Equipment Damage Some internal components can be damaged by small amounts of static electricity. A properly grounded antistatic wrist strap must be worn while handling any internal component. .

Maintenance and Service

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–3. Replacing the LCD Assembly


Maintenance and Service
Pump Assembly Replacement
Use the following procedure to replace the pump (Figure 5–4).
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the power/com assembly.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Disconnect the connector from the board “PUMP IN”.

5.
Take needle nose pliers and push down on fitting to release tubing (vacuum port).

6.
Take needle nose pliers and push down on fitting to release tubing (pressure port).

7.
Pull pump out from clip.

8.
Remove tubing from pump and install onto new pump.

9.
Make sure to find the “arrow” under the pump fitting. This is your vacuum port. Install pump back onto clip.

10.
Install the vacuum port tube “arrow from pump fitting” to the straight fitting of the housing.

11.
Install pressure tube to the elbow fitting on the housing.

12.
Reconnect pump connector to “PUMP IN” to the board.

13.
Install the new pump by following the previous steps in reverse order.

 

Maintenance and Service

CAUTION Disconnect battery power and external power supplies before servicing. .
Equipment Damage Some internal components can be damaged by small amounts of static electricity. A properly grounded antistatic wrist strap must be worn while handling any internal component. .

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–4. Replacing the Pump


Maintenance and Service
Communications Use the following procedure to replace the communications printed circuit board (Figure 5–5).
PCB Replacement
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the power/com assembly.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Unplug all connectors from the communications PCB. Note the locations of the connectors to facilitate re-connection. See Figure 5–7).

5.
Unscrew the five screws from the communications PCB and remove the board.

6.
Install the new communications PCB following the previous steps in reverse order.

 

CAUTION Disconnect battery power and external power supplies before servicing. .
Equipment Damage Some internal components can be damaged by small amounts of static electricity. A properly grounded antistatic wrist strap must be worn while handling any internal component. .

Maintenance and Service

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–5. Replacing the Communications PCB


Maintenance and Service
LCD Cable

 

Power Supply Assembly (Top)

Disconnect In-Line Filter Disconnect Ext Monitoring Filter Disconnect Tube Exhaust

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–6. Wiring Diagram 1
5-16 MIE ADR-1500 Instruction Manual Thermo Fisher Scientific

Maintenance and Service

Picture Placeholder
Figure 5–7. Wiring Diagram 2


Maintenance and Service
Optics Enclosure Assembly Removal
Use the following procedure to remove the optics enclosure assembly.
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the power/com assembly.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Disconnect “LCD cable” from LCD.

5.
Disconnect “Main board power cable” from communication board “J13”.

6.
Disconnect “RH/Temp Cable” from communication board “Main BD J12”

7.
Disconnect “RH/Temp BD cable” from communication board “J14”.

8.
Disconnect “Com flex cable” from communication board “J16”.

9.
Disconnect “pump cable” from communication board “PUMP IN J3”.

10.
Disconnect “heater cable” form communication board “HEATER OUT J15”.

11.
Use needle nose pliers and release the push connect fitting that is attached to the tubing on the small bypass filter.

12.
Use needle nose pliers and release the push connect fitting that is attached to the large bypass filter. Move filter downwards to gain space.

13.
Use needle nose pliers to release exhaust port tubing.

14.
Use adjustable wrench to loosen inlet fitting.

15. 

Unfasten the four captive hardware, and slide whole enclosure assembly downwards and out.

16.
Send the entire optic enclosure assembly to Thermo Fisher Scientific for repair or maintenance.

17.
To facilitate reconnection, repeat steps 4 to 13 in reverse order and refer to Figure 5–6.


Equipment Damage Some internal components can be damaged by small amounts of static electricity. A properly grounded antistatic wrist strap must be worn while handling any internal component. .

Use the following procedure to replace the heater switch assembly (Figure 5–8). 

1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the power/com assembly.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Unplug the connector from board “HEATER SW”.

5.
Use needle nose pliers and squeeze the sides and push switch out of cover.

6.
Snap the new replacement switch into cover housing (see Figure 5–9). Make sure the 1 is facing left and the 0 is facing right. Refer to the “ISO” view in Figure 5–9.

7.
Connect wire harness “lug end” to the tope 2 or bottom 2, but not one of each. Connect red wire to gold terminal and black wire to silver terminal.

8.
Connect the other end of the wire harness to “HEATER SW” J17 on the board.

9.
Replug the power by following steps 1 to 3 in reverse order.

 

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–8. Replacing the Heater Switch Assembly

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–9. Power/Com Assembly-Pump Installation

 

Battery Use The ADR-1500 power supply can be connected continuously to the instrument whether the ADR-1500 is on or off. However, the 12-24 VDC external power supply will not charge the battery inside the ADR-1500. Equipment Damage The instrument should be charged in the upright position. .

Equipment Damage Replace with specified battery only. .


Lead Acid Battery Replacement


Use the following procedure to replace the lead acid battery (Figure 5–10).
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and six screws to fully remove the cover.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Remove the battery cover plate and slide out the old battery.

5.
Insert new battery, and follow previous steps in reverse order.


CAUTION Disconnect battery power and external power supplies before servicing. .
Equipment Damage Some internal components can be damaged by small amounts of static electricity. A properly grounded antistatic wrist strap must be worn while handling any internal component. .
Equipment Damage Replace with specified battery only. .

Maintenance and Service

Picture Placeholder
Figure 5–10. Replacing the Lead Acid Battery


Maintenance and Service
In-Line Flow Meter Filter with Fittings Replacement
Use the following procedure to replace the in-line flow meter filter with fittings (Figure 5–11).
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the center panel.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Use needle nose pliers and release the fitting from the tubing.

5.
To install the new filter, follow the previous steps in reverse order.


Note When replacing the new filter make sure filter arrow is facing towards the right. .

Maintenance and Service

Extended Use the following procedure to replace the extended monitoring HEPA filter (Figure 5–11).
Monitoring HEPA Filter Replacement
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the center panel.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Use needle nose pliers and release the filter stem from the fittings.

5.
To install the new filter, follow the previous steps in reverse order. Note When replacing the new filter make sure filter arrow is facing up. .


In-Line Flow Meter Filter
Extended Monitoring HEPA Filter

 

Maintenance and Service
37-mm Filter Cassette Use the following procedure to replace the optional 37-mm filter cassette holder assembly (Figure 5–12).
Holder Assembly Replacement
1. Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of (Optional) the instrument.
2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down on the center panel.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Remove the filter by depressing the overlapping push connect fitting to release the HEPA filter.

5.
To install the new filter, follow the previous steps in reverse order.


37-mm Filter Cassette Holder

 

Maintenance and Service
The 37-mm filter holder should have a fresh glass fibre filter installed prior to each day of monitoring in order to keep the pump protected. Operation without this filter in place, or without the filter changed as prescribed, will void the warranty. Turn the compression ring clockwise to seal the cassette into the holder. Turn the compression ring counter-clockwise to disassemble.

Compression Ring
Upper Housing Sealing Gaskets
Top Cassette Ring 37-mm Filter SS Filter Support Screen Bottom Cassette Ring
Lower Housing

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–13. Filter Support and Holder – Snap Rings and Filter


Maintenance and Service
Bracket Assembly and Power Supply/Charger Replacement
Use the following procedure to replace the bracket assembly and power supply/charger (Figure 5–14).
1.
Turn the instrument OFF. Remove the AC plug from the bottom of the instrument.

2.
Unfasten the two captive hardware and swing cover down from the power/com assembly and on the center panel.

3.
Disconnect the battery cable from J6 or J8 from the power communication board.

4.
Disconnect connectors from board and cable power supply. Note the locations of the connectors to facilitate re-connection. See Figure 5–7.

a.
Power supply disconnect: 4-pin power supply to cable power supply 2-pin to 24 V J1 on the power communication board

b.
Charger disconnect: 3-pin charger to cable power supply 4-pin charger to J6 or J8 to power communication board

 

5.
Unfasten four keps nut and remove brackets.

6.
Replace bracket assembly and power supply charger following the previous steps in reverse order.

 

Picture Placeholder

Figure 5–14. Replacing the Bracket Assembly and Power Supply/Charger


Maintenance and Service
Service Service is available from exclusive distributors worldwide. Contact one of the phone numbers below for product support and technical information
Locations

or visit us on the web at www.thermo.com/aqi.
1-866-282-0430 Toll Free 1-508-520-0430 International


Chapter 6 Troubleshooting
This instrument has been designed to achieve a high level of reliability. In the event of problems or failure, the troubleshooting guidelines, board-level connection diagram, presented in this chapter should be helpful in isolating and identifying problems.
The Technical Support Department at Thermo Fisher Scientific can also be consulted in the event of problems. See “Service Locations” at the end of this chapter for contact information. In any correspondence with the factory, please note both the serial number and program number of the instrument.
This chapter provides the following troubleshooting and service support information:
.
“Safety Precautions” on page 6-2

.
“Troubleshooting Guide” on page 6-3

.
“Instrument Status Flags” on page 6-5

.
“Board-Level Block Diagram” on page 6-6

.
“Connector Pin Descriptions” on page 6-7

.
“Service Locations” on page 6-10

 


Safety Read the safety precautions in the Preface and “Maintenance and Service” chapter before performing any actions listed in this chapter.
Precautions



Display is off Wrong contrast setting Adjust contrast setting.
LCD cable loose Check connection and cable
integrity.
LCD defective Replace display.
No flow Blocked inlet Verify inlet is not blocked.
Disconnected pump cable Verify cable connection.
Disconnected tube Verify tubing connection.
Clogged HEPA filter Replace filter.
Defective pump Replace pump.
No battery power Disconnected battery cable Connect battery cable.
Battery not charged Charge battery.
Battery will not take a Disconnected cable Verify cable connections.
charge
Battery defective Replace battery.
Charger defective Replace charger.
No RH/Temp Readings Disconnected cable Verify cables.
RH/Temp board defective Send in for service.
No USB Wrong COM port (pDR Port) Verify COM port (pDR Port).
communication
Disconnected cable Verify cable.

 

Non-working strobe Disconnected cable Verify cable connection.
Defective strobe Send in for service.
No relay (if installed) Disconnected cable Verify cable connection.
Defective relay Replace relay.


Instrument Status Flags
During zeroing, the ADR-1500 also performs diagnostics on the optics and flow rates. The only allowable fault is “Background High”. All other faults will result in a failure to zero the instrument. All faults are reported with a hex coded error flags. The faults can be determined from the following table, but if a fault persists, the ADR-1500 instrument requires service.

Table 6–2. Troubleshooting – Error Code Responses from Zeroing
Hex code Fault Fault criteria
[Flags]
02 x 0000 0010 b Background High > 1000 µg/m3
03 x 0000 0011 b Background calculation Detector signal is not
FAILED sensed or it is not properly
amplified.
04 x 0000 0100 b Source current low < 50 mA
08 x 0000 1000 b Source current high > 75 mA
10 x 0001 0000 b Ref. detector low < 75% Factory set
20 x 0010 0000 b Ref. detector high > 125% Factory set
40 x 0100 0000 b Pump low < 90%
80 x 1000 0000 b Pump high > 110%

 


Board-Level Figure 6–1 is a board-level block diagram for the ADR-1500 and can be used to troubleshoot board-level faults. This illustration can be used along
Block Diagram with the connector pin description in Table 6–3 to troubleshoot board-level faults.

Picture Placeholder

Figure 6–1. ADR-1500 Board-Level Block Diagram

Connector Pin The connector pin description in Table 6–3 can be used along with the board-level connection diagram to troubleshoot board-level faults. 

Descriptions
Table 6–3. ADR-1500 Communications Board Pin Out
Connector Label Reference Pin Signal Description Designator
24 VDC J1 1 DC+
2 Power Ground
Eternal 12/24 VDC J2 1 DC+
2 Power Ground
Pump In 0-8 VDC J3 1 DC+
Depending on flow
rate
2 Power Ground (From Main Signal
Board)
Pump Out 0-8 VDC J4 1 DC+
Depending on flow
rate
2 Power Ground (From Main Signal
Board)
Auxiliary/Radio 12VDC J5 1 DC+
2 Power Ground
Lead Acid Battery or J6 1 No Connection
Charger VDC
2 DC+
3 No Connection
4 Power Ground
USB J7 1 USB_VBUS
2 USB_D-
3 USB_D+
4 Ground
5 Ground Chassis
Lead Acid Battery or J8 1 No Connection
Charger VDC
2 DC+
3 No Connection
4 Power Ground

 

Troubleshooting
Connector Label
Reference

Signal Description Designator

Strobe/Relay 12VDC J9 1 DC+ 2 Power Ground
Analog Out J10 1 2 3 4 5 6 Voltage_OUT Current_OUT Power Ground Alarm Power Ground Ground Chassis
Strobe/Relay 12VDC J11 1 2 DC+ Power Ground
RH/Temp to Main Signal Board J12 1 2 3 4 5 Ground No Connection Temp RH No Connection
Power for main Signal Board J13 1 2 3 Battery Voltage 1/6 Power Ground 8+ VDC
RH/Temp Board J14 1 2 3 4 Ground_Analog 5+ VDC Temp RH
Heater J15 1 2 DC+ Power Ground
Communication from Main Signal Board J16 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 USB_VBUS USB_D-USB_D+ Ground Ground RS232_RXD RS232_TXD Voltage_OUT


Connector Label Reference Designator Signal Description
9 Current_OUT
10 Alarm
Heater Switch J17 1 5+ VDC
2 Enable
3 No Connection
RS232 J18 1 RS232_RXD
2 RS232_TXD
3 Ground
4 Ground Chassis

 

Service Service is available from exclusive distributors worldwide. Contact one of the phone numbers below for product support and technical information
Locations or visit us on the web at www.thermo.com/aqi. 

1-866-282-0430 Toll Free 1-508-520-0430 International


Chapter 7
Outputs and Alarm
This chapter describes serial communications and analog/alarm output.
. “Analog Signal Output” on page 7-2
. “Alarm Description and Operation” on page 7-3
. “Analog Outputs” on page 7-4
. “Real-time RS-232 Output” on page 7-6
. “Serial Communications Protocols” on page 7-7


Analog Signal Output


The ADR-1500 incorporates the capability to provide both a voltage and a current signal output directly proportional to the sensed concentration of airborne particulates. Both these analog signal outputs are concurrently available. These outputs are provided, principally, for fixed-point applications with hard-wired installations.
The particulate concentration range corresponding to the output voltage and current ranges (0 to 2 V and 4 to 20 mA) can be user selected on the ADR-1500 screen (see “Configuration Review” on page 3-29) or via a PC using the pDR Port communications software package included with the instrument. The most sensitive range available is 0 to 0.01 mg/m3 (0 to
10.0 µg/m3), and the least sensitive range is 0 to 400 mg/m3. For example, if the user selects the analog output range of 0 to 0.400 mg/m3 then the analog output signal levels, at a concentration of 0.200 mg/m3, would be
1.0 V and 12 mA. This Analog Output concentration range is independent of the ranging used for the digital display, data logging and real-time digital output range which are controlled automatically (auto ranging).
Since both voltage and current outputs are present at the same time, both can be used concurrently, if so required. The accuracy of the analog output signals is better than 1% of the reading with respect to the digital reading.
The 4 to 20 mA current output is available between pins # 1 and 5 of the 6-pin ANALOG OUTPUTS connector on the side panel (see Figure 2–7). The 0 to 2 V analog voltage output is available between pins # 1 and 4 of that connector. Pin # 1 is common ground.
Equipment Damage For the 0 to 2 V output signal, the externally connected load must have an impedance of more than 200 kilo-ohms; For the 4 to 20 mA output signal, the externally connected load must have an impedance of less than 300 ohms. .

Alarm Description and Operation

In addition to an audible alarm, there is a single alarm switched FET that will enable the yellow beacon on top of the ADR-1500 case. Normally, the switched alarm output is OPEN with respect to ground. During an alarm condition, this output is switched to ground (Rout < 0.1 O). Whenever the alarm is triggered, the on-board sound will be activated. The alarm function can be enabled or disabled and the alarm level (trigger threshold) can be selected by the user through the ADR-1500 keyboard. The alarm is triggered whenever the selected alarm level is exceeded.
In addition to the audible and beacon alarms, an optional two-pole 30A alarm relay is provided for external process control (e.g., vent/fan switching). This relay assembly can be accessed through the side liquid tight cord gland and provides normally open and normally closed contacts.
When the displayed concentration falls below that level the alarm condition stops. While the alarm is on, the user can disable it momentarily by pressing any key on the ADR-1500. If the concentration continues to exceed the set alarm level after 10 seconds, the alarm condition will be reactivated.

 

Analog Outputs The voltage alarm signal is available between pins # 1 through 5 on the ANALOG OUTPUTS connector in the upper middle of the side panel. In Figure 7–1 below, the alarm driver circuit is depicted.

 


Pin 2 Current_OUT BLUE
Pin 3 Power Ground BLACK
Pin 4 Alarm ORANGE
Pin 5 Power Ground GREEN

 

WARNING Do not apply AC voltage to this connector. Maximum allowable DC voltage is 30 V. .

Outputs and Alarm
The switched alarm output is used to close the circuit of a DC powered device and its power supply at the negative side. For example:
1.
The negative terminal of a battery or common ground of a power supply is connected to Pin #5, pDR-1500 ground.

2.
The load’s (device’s) return or negative is connected to #4 (switch alarm output).

3.
The positive of the load and battery, or power supply, are connected together.


The minimum external load impedance for this output is 10 kilo-ohms.


Real-time RS-232 Output
During the RUN mode the ADR-1500 can communicate real-time concentration data through its serial ports via the pDR Port software package. This software application decodes the data and displays the real-time and TWA values in a terminal window.
In order to use this output with some other application, the following information will enable the user to decipher the encoded output signal. The communication settings for the digital output of the ADR-1500 are:
.
Baud rate: 19,200

.
Data bits: 8

.
Stop bits: 1

.
Parity: none

.
Flow control: none

 

Serial Communications Protocols and Use of Modems

The ADR-1500 has two serial ports: RS-232 or USB. Only one can be active at a time and the USB is a slave to the RS-232. The active port is selected via the PC, depending on the connection chosen.
The use of the USB is the primary connection for communicating with the ADR-1500 via pDR Port user interface software.
The use of the RS-232 connector has been reserved for after-market applications if modem connectivity (e.g., wireless modem) through which a continuous stream of concentration data can be transmitted. For more information on connecting to the RS-232 port, refer to Appendix B “Serial Commands”
The communications commands recognized are listed in Appendix B. Mostly these pertain to setup variables in the ADR-1500. The response format will generally repeat the address and command and then follow with the ADR-1500's current settings.

 

Chapter 8
Optional Accessories
The ADR-1500 is available with the following options:
. “37-mm Filter Cassette Holder Assembly” on page 8-2
. “Relay Kit” on page 8-3
. “Inlets” on page 8-5
. “Cables” on page 8-6
. “Pole Mounting Kits” on page 8-7



37-mm Filter The 37-mm filter cassette holder assembly is used for sample collection, during a run, for the purpose of post-sampling gravimetric analysis,
Cassette Holder
chemical speciation and microscopy.
Assembly

For more information on the 37-mm filter cassette holder and replacing, see “37-mm Filter Cassette Holder Assembly Replacement (Optional)” on page 5-28.

 

Relay Kit The relay kit permits the user to activate external alarm indicators. The ADR-1500 provides a switched alarm output, triggered by the alarm signal of the monitor. This switched output (up to 30 amperes, 250 volts) can be used to control other equipment and/or to activate other external alarm indicators. This switched alarm output operates in conjunction with the flashing alarm beacon on the outside of the ADR-1500 enclosure.
Alarm Relay Connection To connect this switched alarm signal to any external equipment, the alarm terminal strip on the lower right of the interior of the ADR-1500 must be accessed. To do so, open the front door, and remove the access panel. Utilize the figure below (Figure 8–1) to identify the corresponding switch configuration.

Picture Placeholder
Figure 8–1. Alarm Relay Connection
.
Terminals #2 and #4 are a normally open switch

.
Terminals #6 and #8 are a normally open switch

.
Terminals #3 and #4 are a normally closed switch

.
Terminals #7 and #8 are a normally closed switch

 


Note Only necessary terminals are present on single throw models. .
Each of the above two switches can switch loads of up to 30 amperes.
Once the leads have been connected to the appropriate terminals of the alarm relay, the sheet metal cover should be reinstalled and secured. The leads should be passed through the adjacent free feed-through cable ground and connected as a switch to apply power to the required external equipment to be controlled by the alarm condition. For DC power application, connect the wire from terminal #1 to the negative terminal of the power source (i.e., battery or D.C. supply). Finally, plug in the cyclone making sure to insert it completely.

Inlets A variety of inlets are offered to target a specific aerosol size: 

.
Red Cyclone – provides an ACGIH traceable D50 AED cut point ranging from 3 to 12 micrometers

.
Blue Cyclone – provides an ACGIH traceable D50 AED cut point ranging from 1 to 4 micrometers


For more information on inlets, see “Particle Size Cut Points” on page 4-5.


Cables Optional cables include:
. Analog Data Cable
. 12/24 VDC Cable
Analog Data Cable The analog data, supporting both concentration output and alarm status, is typically used for analog data streaming to an external data logger and as a contact closure indicative of alarm conditions.
12/24 VDC Cable This auxiliary cable permits the customer to power the instrument using a range of 12-24 VDC. However, the auxiliary power will not charge the internal battery.

 

Pole Mounting Pole mounting kits include; 2-inch, 3-inch and 4-inch lengths. The pole mounting kits are designed to attach an enclosure to a vertical or horizontal
Kits
pole (see “Figure 2–1”). For more information on pole mounting, see “Positioning” on page 2-5.

Picture Placeholder
Figure 8–2. ADR-1500 Optional Accessories

Appendix A Warranty
Seller warrants that the Products will operate or perform substantially in conformance with Seller's published specifications and be free from defects in material and workmanship, when subjected to normal, proper and intended usage by properly trained personnel, for the period of time set forth in the product documentation, published specifications or package inserts. If a period of time is not specified in Seller’s product documentation, published specifications or package inserts, the warranty period shall be one (1) year from the date of shipment to Buyer for equipment and ninety (90) days for all other products (the "Warranty Period"). Seller agrees during the Warranty Period, to repair or replace, at Seller's option, defective Products so as to cause the same to operate in substantial conformance with said published specifications; provided that
(a) Buyer shall promptly notify Seller in writing upon the discovery of any defect, which notice shall include the product model and serial number (if applicable) and details of the warranty claim; (b) after Seller’s review, Seller will provide Buyer with service data and/or a Return Material Authorization (“RMA”), which may include biohazard decontamination procedures and other product-specific handling instructions; and (c) then, if applicable, Buyer may return the defective Products to Seller with all costs prepaid by Buyer. Replacement parts may be new or refurbished, at the election of Seller. All replaced parts shall become the property of Seller. Shipment to Buyer of repaired or replacement Products shall be made in accordance with the Delivery provisions of the Seller’s Terms and Conditions of Sale. Consumables, including but not limited to lamps, fuses, batteries, bulbs and other such expendable items, are expressly excluded from the warranty under this warranty.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, Products supplied by Seller that are obtained by Seller from an original manufacturer or third party supplier are not warranted by Seller, but Seller agrees to assign to Buyer any warranty rights in such Product that Seller may have from the original manufacturer or third party supplier, to the extent such assignment is allowed by such original manufacturer or third party supplier.
In no event shall Seller have any obligation to make repairs, replacements or corrections required, in whole or in part, as the result of (i) normal wear and tear, (ii) accident, disaster or event of force majeure, (iii) misuse, fault or negligence of or by Buyer, (iv) use of the Products in a manner for which they were not designed, (v) causes external to the Products such as, but not limited to, power failure or electrical power surges, (vi) improper storage and handling of the Products or (vii) use of the Products in combination with equipment or software not supplied by Seller. If Seller determines that Products for which Buyer has requested warranty services are not covered by the warranty hereunder, Buyer shall pay or reimburse Seller for all costs of investigating and responding to such request at Seller's then prevailing time and materials rates. If Seller provides repair services or replacement parts that are not covered by the warranty provided in this warranty, Buyer shall pay Seller therefor at Seller's then prevailing time and materials rates. ANY INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, SERVICE, RELOCATION OR ALTERATION TO OR OF, OR OTHER TAMPERING WITH, THE PRODUCTS PERFORMED BY ANY PERSON OR ENTITY OTHER THAN SELLER WITHOUT SELLER'S PRIOR WRITTEN APPROVAL, OR ANY USE OF REPLACEMENT PARTS NOT SUPPLIED BY SELLER, SHALL IMMEDIATELY VOID AND CANCEL ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE AFFECTED PRODUCTS. 

THE OBLIGATIONS CREATED BY THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT TO REPAIR OR REPLACE A DEFECTIVE PRODUCT SHALL BE THE SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER IN THE EVENT OF A DEFECTIVE PRODUCT. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT, SELLER DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ORAL OR WRITTEN, WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCTS, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SELLER DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE ERROR-FREE OR WILL ACCOMPLISH ANY PARTICULAR RESULT.

Appendix B Serial Commands
This appendix provides a list of the ADR-1500 Serial Port Commands that can be used to remotely control the instrument.
Connect to the ADR-1500 at 19200, n, 8, 1, no flow control. The USB connection is actually a virtual serial port and will request appropriate drivers the first time it fires up in a windows environment. These are available with the pDR Port install disk.
The protocol is designed for human terminal access. Commands are executed when the user hits Enter. Spaces between tokens do not matter. Generally, parameters not included in the command line are defaulted.
First is a list of key worded commands that should be made available to the end user as a public interface. With these commands you can completely control the instrument.
ALARM [status] [alarm concentration level] status= {0, 1, 2,}
0 = DISABLED 1 = INSTANT 2 = STEL
alarm concentration level is specified in mg/m3 (0.01 to 400 [mg/m3])
ANALOGOUT [analog output menu choice] If the units are mass concentration (mg/m3), the analog output menu choices = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9}
0 = DISABLED 1 = 0.10 mg/m3 2 = 0.40 mg/m3 3 = 1.00 mg/m3 4 = 4.00 mg/m3 5 = 10.0 mg/m3 6 = 40 mg/m3 7 = 100 mg/m3 8 = 400 mg/m3 9 = 1000 mg/m3


Serial Commands
If the units are scattering coefficient (1/Mm), the analog output menu choices = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
0 = DISABLED 1 = 10/Mm 2 = 100/Mm 3 = 1000/Mm 4 = 10000/Mm 5 = 100000/Mm
The response is ANALOGOUT [menu] “menu entry” [factor to be applied to output voltage to yield output units (ie, mg/m3 or 1/Mm)]
AUTOSTART [min] [hour] [day] [month] [status] Returns, or programs, the automatic start feature parameters. min and hour program the start time day and month program the start day status = {“on”, “off”} The automatic start is enabled if “on” is selected.
BACKLIGHT [Status] Returns, or programs, the backlight status. Status = {“enabled” or “on”, “disabled” or “off”}
BATTERY [battery voltage] [alkaline charge] [NiMH charge] Returns the battery voltage with an estimation of charge time left in percentage if the batteries are Alkaline or NiMH.
CALFACTOR [float value] Returns, or programs, the user calibration adjustment factor. The value can range from 0.001 to 10.000.
CONTRAST [integer value] Returns, or programs, the LCD screen contrast setting. Integer value = {1, 2, 3, …, 255; Hint: display is only visible between 0 and 40}
DATE [day] [month] [year] Returns, or programs, the date in the RTC. Day, month and year are all integer values.
DISPLAY (or DISP, or D, or V 5) [line 1 (16 characters)] [line 2 (16 characters)] [state #] Return the text currently displayed on the LCD. It comes in two quoted strings for the 2 lines of the display. It is followed by a state-number. Note that response is prefixed with “V 5”; this can be ignored.

Serial Commands
DISPLAYAVG [seconds] Returns, or programs, the time period in seconds over which the LCD displayed value is averaged.
FLOWRATE [flow rate] Returns, or programs, the flow rate [LPM] that is to be maintained. This cannot be changed while logging. Flow rate = {1.00, 1.01, 1.02, …, 3.50} [in LPM]
GAIN [gain number] A debug facility which returns or programs the front end gain of the instrument. If you set it, the gain no longer adjusts automatically. To re­establish auto-gain, use “GAIN 200” or “GAIN A” Gain number = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, A} for {1X, 4X, 16X, 64X, 256X, 1024X and AUTOMATIC}
INLET [integer] Returns, or programs, the inlet selection from the choices integer = {0, 1, 2} 0 = TOTAL 1 = CYCLONE RED 2 = CYCLONE BLUE
KEY [name of key] [long] Simulate a key press. Name of key = {“ESC”, “UP”, “DOWN”, “ENTER” or “ONOFF”} Long = {“LONG”, “”} LONG is typed only if you wish this to be a long push.
LOGPERIOD [seconds] Returns, or programs, the logging period in seconds.
MEMORY [percent] Returns a reading of how much logging memory remains unused. The response is “V 145 [percentage of memory remaining]”
OUTPUT (or OUT or O) [conc or scat] [temp (C)] [RH (%)] [Pa (mmHg)] Returns the current values of the concentrations, temperature, RH and atmospheric pressure if the pDR-1500 is running.
RHCORRECT [status] Returns, or programs, the status of RH correction to the computation of mass concentration. Status = {“disable” or “off”, “enable” or “on”}


Serial Commands
SITE [site #] Returns, or programs, the description of site number sitenum. Sites are numbered 1–50.
SD [Status] Returns, or programs, the streaming data status. Status = {“enabled” or “on”, “disabled” or “off”}
TAG [Tag #] [status] Returns, or programs, the tag number to be used when next time logging is to start. And enable or disable logging. Tag # = {00, 1, 2, …, 99} Status = {“enabled” or “on”, “disabled” or “off”}
TAGDUMP [Tag #] Returns the complete data logged under the file tag number. Tag # = {0, 1, 2, …, 99}
TAGS [Tag #], [Tag #], … Get a list of the tag files currently in the device.
TEMP [temp] [RH] [Pa] Get current temperature, RH and atmospheric pressure. temp is in degrees Celsius RH is Relative Humidity in percent Pa is barometric pressure in mmHG
TEMPUNITS [T] Responds with “TEMPUNITS C”, degrees Celsius are the only allowed.
TIME [seconds] [minutes] [hours] Returns, or programs, the RTC’s current time.
UNITS [integer] the current measurement units: Units =
0 = µg/m3 (Mass concentration) 1 = 1/Mm (880 nm scattering coefficient)

Final Air Quality Monitoring Plan SMUD Station E Substation

APPENDIX D PDR-1000 PORTABLE DUST METER SPECIFICATIONS

 

Thermo Scientific Personal
DataRAM pDR-1000AN Monitor
Passive, real-time, personal aerosol monitor/datalogger
Product Specifications


The Thermo Scientific™ personal DataRAM pDR-1000AN Monitor is a passive sampling, light-scattering nephelometer that measures real-time mass concentrations of dust, smoke, mists, and fumes in industrial as well as other indoor and outdoor environments.
• Measures airborne particulate
concentration in real-time
• Highest measurement range of any
real-time personal particulate
monitor

Simple zeroing and calibration


No moving parts, silent operation


Compact, durable, and self-contained


Nephelometry, a light-scattering technology, is highly sensitive and incorporates a pulsed, high output, near-infrared light emitting diode source, as well as a silicon detector/hybrid preamplifier, collimating optics and a source reference feedback PIN silicon detector.
The pDR-1000AN monitor features a high measurement range of 0.001 to 400 mg/ m3 (auto-ranging), a 400,000-fold span. An optical feedback and stabilized sensing system, sets the standard for sensitivity, long-term stability and reliability.
Simple zeroing, with particle-free air, is quick using the included zeroing kit. The internal firmware controls an automatic calibration check. A gravimetric calibration can be performed by weighing a separate filter sample and programming in the calibration constant to provide the same reading.
The pDR-1000AN monitor is an ultra-compact, durable and self-contained instrument designed for hand-held or belt-worn unattended operation.
There are no moving parts which provides for silent, dependable operation.
Selectable alarm levels with built-in audible signal and switched output, a RS-232 communications port, and a programmable analog concentration output are all part of this versatile instrument.

 


Thermo Scientific Personal DataRAM pDR-1000AN Monitor
Concentration Measurement Range 0.001 to 400 mg/m3 range (auto ranging)1
Scattered Coefficient Range 1.5 x 10-6 to 0.6m-1 (approx.) @ lambda= 880nm (not displayed)
Precision/Repeatability Over 30 Days ±0.5 of reading or ± 0.015 mg/m3, whichever is larger, for 1 second averaging time ±0.5 of reading or ± 0.015 mg/m3, whichever is larger for 10 second averaging time ±0.2% of reading or ± 0.005 mg/m3, whichever is larger for 60 second averaging time
Accuracy1 ±5% of reading ± precision (traceable to SAE Fine Test Dust)
Resolution 0.1% of reading or 0.001 mg/m3, whichever is larger
Particle Size Range of Max. Response 0.1 to 10µm
Aerodynamic Particle Cut-Point Range 10µm nominal
Concentration Display Updating Interval 1 second

Product Specifications

Concentration Display Averaging Time2 1 to 60 seconds (user selectable)
Data Logging Averaging Periods3 1 second to 1 hour
Total # of Data Points Logged in Memory 13,391
Number of Data Tags 99 (maximum)
Logged Data Average concentration, time/date, and data point number
Readout Display LCD 16 characters (4 mm height) x 2 lines
Serial Interface RS-232 / 4,800 baud
Computer Requirements IBM-PC compatible, 486 or higher, Windows 95® or higher, = 8 MB memory,
Hard disc drive 3.5” floppy, VGA or higher resolution monitor
Analog Output 0 - 5V and 4-20mA
Physical Dimensions 6” (153mm) H x 3.6” (92mm) W x 2.5” (63mm) D
Weight 18oz. (0.5kg)

Standard Accessories:

Soft shell carrying case


Digital communications cable


Z-Pouch zeroing kit


Belt clip kit


AC power supply and charger


Analog signal output cable


Optional Accessories:

Rechargeable (NiMH) battery pack


Remote alarm unit


Active sampling kit


Portable pump unit


Should strap


Wall mounting bracket


To maintain optimal product performance, you need immediate access to experts worldwide, as well as priority status when your air quality equipment needs repair or replacement. We offer comprehensive, flexible support solutions for all phases of the product life cycle. Through predictable, fixed-cost pricing, our services help protect the return on investment and total cost of ownership of your Thermo Scientific products.
For more information, visit our website at thermoscientific.com/oeh
© 2012 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. All rights reserved. All trademarks are the property of Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. and its subsidiaries. Specifications, terms and pricing are subject to change. Not all products are available in all countries. Please consult your local sales representative for details.
This product is manufactured in a plant whose quality management system is ISO 9001 certified.
USA India China Europe
27 Forge Parkway C/327, TTC Industrial Area +Units 702-715, 7th Floor Takkebijsters 1 Franklin, MA 02038 MIDC Pawane Tower West, Yonghe Breda Netherlands 4801EB Ph: (866) 282-0430 New Mumbai 400 705, India Beijing, China 100007 +31 765795641 Fax: (508) 520-1460 Ph: +91 22 4157 8800 +86 10 84193588 info.aq.breda@thermofisher.com customerservice.aqi@thermofisher.com india@thermofisher.com info.eid.china@thermofisher.com

Lit_pDR1000EPM_09/12

Final Air Quality Monitoring Plan SMUD Station E Substation

APPENDIX E PDR-1000 PORTABLE DUST METER OPERATING MANUAL


Model pDR-1000AN/1200
personalDATARAM Instruction Manual
Particulate Monitor Part Number 100181-00 15May2013

 


© 2007 Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. All rights reserved.
Specifications, terms and pricing are subject to change. Not all products are available in all countries. Please consult your local sales representative for details.
Thermo Fisher Scientific Air Quality Instruments 27 Forge Parkway Franklin, MA 02038 1-508-520-0430 www.thermo.com/aqi

WEEE Compliance
This product is required to comply with the European Union’s Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment (WEEE) Directive 2002/96/EC. It is marked with the following symbol:

Thermo Fisher Scientific has contracted with one or more recycling/disposal companies in each EU Member State, and this product should be disposed of or recycled through them. Further information on Thermo Fisher Scientific’s compliance with these Directives, the recyclers in your country, and information on Thermo Fisher Scientific products which may assist the detection of substances subject to the RoHS Directive are available at: www.thermo.com/WEEERoHS.

 

Table of Contents
WARRANTY ix
1.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION 1 2.0 SPECIFICATIONS 3


3.0 USER GUIDELINES 6
3.1 Handling Instructions 6
3.2 Safety Instructions 6
3.3 Handling and Operation 6 3.3.1 Model pDR-1000AN 6 3.3.2 Model pDR-1200 7
3.4 Air Sampling Guidelines 8
3.5 Environmental Constraints and Certifications 8

4.0 ACCESSORIES 8
4.1 Standard Accessories 8
4.2 Optional Accessories 9

5.0 INSTRUMENT LAYOUT 9
5.1 Front Panel 10
5.2 Bottom Base 14
5.3 Right Side Panel 14
5.4 Back Panel and Belt Clip 17
5.5 Sensing Chamber 17

6.0 PREPARATION FOR OPERATION 17
6.1 Battery Installation 17
6.2 Battery Replacement 18
6.3 AC Power Supply 18
6.4 Rechargeable Battery Module 19
6.5 Zeroing the personalDataRAM 19
6.5.1 Zeroing the model pDR-1000AN 19
6.5.2 Zeroing the model pDR-1200 20

6.6 pDR-1200 Filter Holder Installation 21

 

7.0 OPERATING MODES 21
7.1 Start-Up Mode 21
7.2 Ready Mode 21
7.3 Run and Logging Mode 21
7.3.1 Data Logging 22
7.3.2 Clearing Memory 22
7.3.3 Run Mode Display and Commands 22

8.0 OPERATION 23
8.1 Start-Up 23
8.2 Setting Up For A Run 24
8.3 Measurement Run Procedure 25
8.4 Abbreviated Run Start/Stop Instructions 27
8.5 Resetting Procedure 27
9.0 COMMUNICATIONS WITH COMPUTER 28
9.1 Hardware and Software Requirements 28
9.2 Software Installation Procedure 28
9.3 Communications Between personalDataRAM and Computer 29 9.4 Real-Time RS-232 Output 30
10.0 ANALOG SIGNAL OUTPUT 31
10.1 Analog Output Description 31
10.2 Analog Output Connection 31

11.0 ALARM 32
11.1 Alarm Description and Operation 32
11.2 Alarm Output 32
11.3 Remote Alarm Unit 33


12.0 MAINTENANCE 33
12.1 General Guidelines 33
12.2 Cleaning of Optical Sensing Chamber 33 12.2.1 Model pDR-1000AN 33 12.2.2 Model pDR-1200 34

12.3 Cyclone Cleaning (Model pDR-1200 only) 34


13.0 CALIBRATION 34
13.1 Factory Calibration 34
13.2 Field Gravimetric Calibration 35
13.3 Scattering Coefficient Calibration 36
13.4 Internal Span Check 36

 

14.0 PARTICLE SIZE CLASSIFICATION (Model pDR-1200 only) 37
14.1 Size Fractionated Monitoring 37
14.2 Particle Sizing 37


15.0 CONVERSION BETWEEN personalDataRAM VERSIONS 40
15.1 Conversion procedure from pDR-1000AN to pDR-1200 40
15.2 Conversion procedure from pDR-1200 to pDR-1000AN 41


16.0 SEQUENCE OF KEYSTROKES AND SCREENS 42
17.0 SERVICE LOCATIONS 46


Warranty
Seller warrants that the Products will operate or perform substantially in conformance with Seller's published specifications and be free from defects in material and workmanship, when subjected to normal, proper and intended usage by properly trained personnel, for the period of time set forth in the product documentation, published specifications or package inserts. If a period of time is not specified in Seller’s product documentation, published specifications or package inserts, the warranty period shall be one (1) year from the date of shipment to Buyer for equipment and ninety (90) days for all other products (the "Warranty Period"). Seller agrees during the Warranty Period, to repair or replace, at Seller's option, defective Products so as to cause the same to operate in substantial conformance with said published specifications; provided that
(a) Buyer shall promptly notify Seller in writing upon the discovery of any defect, which notice shall include the product model and serial number (if applicable) and details of the warranty claim; (b) after Seller’s review, Seller will provide Buyer with service data and/or a Return Material Authorization (“RMA”), which may include biohazard decontamination procedures and other product-specific handling instructions; and (c) then, if applicable, Buyer may return the defective Products to Seller with all costs prepaid by Buyer. Replacement parts may be new or refurbished, at the election of Seller. All replaced parts shall become the property of Seller. Shipment to Buyer of repaired or replacement Products shall be made in accordance with the Delivery provisions of the Seller’s Terms and Conditions of Sale. Consumables, including but not limited to lamps, fuses, batteries, bulbs and other such expendable items, are expressly excluded from the warranty under this warranty.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, Products supplied by Seller that are obtained by Seller from an original manufacturer or third party supplier are not warranted by Seller, but Seller agrees to assign to Buyer any warranty rights in such Product that Seller may have from the original manufacturer or third party supplier, to the extent such assignment is allowed by such original manufacturer or third party supplier.
In no event shall Seller have any obligation to make repairs, replacements or corrections required, in whole or in part, as the result of (i) normal wear and tear, (ii) accident, disaster or event of force majeure, (iii) misuse, fault or negligence of or by Buyer, (iv) use of the Products in a manner for which they were not designed, (v) causes external to the Products such as, but not limited to, power failure or electrical power surges, (vi) improper storage and handling of the Products or (vii) use of the Products in combination with equipment or software not supplied by Seller. If Seller determines that Products for which Buyer has requested warranty services are not covered by the warranty hereunder, Buyer shall pay or reimburse Seller for all costs of investigating and responding to such request at Seller's then prevailing time and materials rates. If Seller provides repair services or replacement parts that are not covered by the warranty provided in this warranty, Buyer shall pay Seller therefor at Seller's then prevailing time and materials rates. ANY INSTALLATION, MAINTENANCE, REPAIR, SERVICE, RELOCATION OR ALTERATION TO OR OF, OR OTHER TAMPERING WITH, THE PRODUCTS PERFORMED BY ANY PERSON OR ENTITY OTHER THAN SELLER WITHOUT SELLER'S PRIOR WRITTEN APPROVAL, OR ANY USE OF REPLACEMENT PARTS NOT SUPPLIED BY SELLER, SHALL IMMEDIATELY VOID AND CANCEL ALL WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE AFFECTED PRODUCTS.


THE OBLIGATIONS CREATED BY THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT TO REPAIR OR REPLACE A DEFECTIVE PRODUCT SHALL BE THE SOLE REMEDY OF BUYER IN THE EVENT OF A DEFECTIVE PRODUCT. EXCEPT AS EXPRESSLY PROVIDED IN THIS WARRANTY STATEMENT, SELLER DISCLAIMS ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, ORAL OR WRITTEN, WITH RESPECT TO THE PRODUCTS, INCLUDING WITHOUT LIMITATION ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE. SELLER DOES NOT WARRANT THAT THE PRODUCTS ARE ERROR-FREE OR WILL ACCOMPLISH ANY PARTICULAR RESULT.

1.0 GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The personalDataRAM™ (for Personal Data-logging Real-time Aerosol Monitor) is a technologically advanced instrument designed to measure the concentration of airborne particulate matter (liquid or solid), providing direct and continuous readout as well as electronic recording of the information.
The personalDataRAM is available in two versions: model pDR-1000AN and model pDR-1200. The model pDR-1000AN operates as a passive air sampler whereas the model pDR-1200 uses active air sampling. The user can convert from one to the other of these two versions by means of optional conversion kits offered (see Sections 4.2 and 15.0 of this manual).
The model pDR-1000AN passively samples (i.e., without a pump) the air surrounding the monitor; air freely accesses the sensing chamber of the instrument by means of convection, diffusion, and adventitious air motion. The model pDR­1200, on the other hand, requires a separate vacuum pump (not included) such as the pDR-PU, a personal-type pump for its operation.
In addition, the model pDR-1200 includes a particle size-selective inlet cyclone which permits size segregated measurements (i.e., PM10, PM2.5, respirable, etc.) as well as enabling the user to perform aerodynamic particle sizing by varying the sampling flow rate. The model pDR-1200 incorporates, downstream of its photometric sensing stage, a standard 37-mm filter holder on which all sampled particles are collected for subsequent analysis or gravimetric referencing/calibration, if so desired.
The personalDataRAM is the result of many years of field experience acquired with thousands of units of its well known predecessor, the MIE MINIRAM, and embodies many technological advances made possible by the latest electronic hardware and software. The personalDataRAM is also a worthy miniaturized companion to the DataRAM 4, a recognized paragon of portable aerosol monitors.
The personalDataRAM is a high sensitivity nephelometric (i.e. photometric) monitor whose light scattering sensing configuration has been optimized for the measurement of the respirable fraction of airborne dust, smoke, fumes and mists in industrial and other indoor environments.
The personalDataRAM is an ultra-compact, rugged and totally self-contained instrument designed for hand-held, belt-worn, as well as unattended operation. It is powered either by its internal replaceable 9V battery, or by an optional attachable rechargeable battery pack, or by an AC supply (included as standard accessory). For the model pDR-1200, power to an adjunct pump must be provided separately.

Zeroing is accomplished by means of a hand-inflatable “zero air” pouch included with the model pDR-1000AN, and by an inlet filter cartridge provided with the model pDR-1200. In addition, the instrument automatically checks agreement with its original factory calibration by checking its optical background during the zeroing sequence.
The personalDataRAM covers a wide measurement range: from 0.001 mg/m3 (1 µg/m3) to 400 mg/m3, a 400,000-fold span, corresponding to very clean air up to extremely high particle levels.
In addition to the auto-ranging real-time concentration readout, the personalDataRAM offers the user a wide range of information by scrolling its two-line LCD screen, such as run start time and date, time averaged concentration, elapsed run time, maximum and STEL values with times of occurrence, etc.
Operating parameters selected and diagnostic information displays are also available. Furthermore, the personalDataRAM features complete, large capacity internal data logging capabilities with retrieval through an externally connected computer. The stored information (up to 13,000 data points) includes average concentration values, maximum and STEL values with time information as well as tag numbers.
Selectable alarm levels with built-in audible signal and switched output, a RS-232 communications port, and a programmable analog concentration output (voltage and current) are all part of this versatile instrument.
A custom software package is provided with the personalDataRAM to program operating/logging parameters (e.g. logging period, alarm level, concentration display averaging time, etc.) as well as to download stored or real-time data to a PC or laptop for tabular and/or graphic presentation. If required, the data can also be imported to standard spreadsheet packages (e.g. Microsoft Excel™, IBM Lotus 1-2­3™, etc.).

2.0 SPECIFICATIONS

Concentration measurement range (auto-ranging)1: 0.001 to 400 mg/m3


Scattering coefficient range: 1.5 x 10-6 to 0.6 m-1 (approx.) @ . =880 nm


Precision/repeatability over 30 days (2-sigma)2: ± 2% of reading or ±0.005 mg/m3, whichever is larger, for 1-sec. averaging time ±0.5% of reading or ±0.0015 mg/m3, whichever is larger, for 10-sec. averaging time ±0.2% of reading or ±0.0005 mg/m3, whichever is larger, for 60-sec. averaging time


Accuracy1: ±5% of reading ±precision


Resolution: 0.1% of reading or 0.001 mg/m3, whichever is larger


Particle size range of maximum response: 0.1 to 10 µm


Flow rate range (model pDR-1200 only): 1 to 10 liters/minute (external pump required)


Aerodynamic particle sizing range (model pDR-1200 only): 1.0 to 10 µm


Concentration display updating interval: 1 second


Concentration display averaging time3: 1 to 60 seconds


Alarm level adjustment range3: selectable over entire measurement range


Alarm averaging time3: real-time (1 to 60 seconds), or STEL (15 minutes)


Datalogging averaging periods3: 1 second to 4 hours


Total number of data points that can be logged in memory: 13,391


Number of data tags (data sets): 99 (maximum)


Logged data:



Each data point: average concentration, time/date, and data point number


Run summary: overall average and maximum concentrations, time/date of maximum, total number of logged points, start time/date, total elapsed time (run duration), STEL concentration and time/date of occurrence, averaging (logging) period, calibration factor, and tag number.

 


Elapsed time range: 0 to 100 hours (resets to 0 after 100 hours)


Time keeping and data retention: > 10 years


Readout display: LCD 16 characters (4 mm height) x 2 lines


Serial interface: RS-232, 4,800 baud


Computer requirements: IBM-PC compatible, 486, Pentium, or higher, Windows™ ’95 or higher, = 8 MB memory, hard disk drive, CD-ROM Drive, VGA or higher resolution monitor


Outputs:



Real-time digital signal (1 sec-1): concentration, 16-character code, simplex mode


Real-time analog signal: 0 to 5 V and 4 to 20 mA. Selectable full scale ranges: 0-0.1, 0-0.4, 0-1.0, 0-4.0, 0-10, 0-40, 0-100, and 0-400 mg/m3.


Minimum load impedance for voltage output: 200 k..


Maximum load impedance for current output: 300 . (when powered by AC power supply)


Alarm output: 1 Hz square wave, 5 V peak-to-peak amplitude. Load impedance > 100 k.

 


Internal battery: 9V alkaline, 20-hour run time (typical)


Current consumption: 15 to 25 mA (in Run Mode); 10 to 20 mA (in Ready Mode)


AC source: universal voltage adapter (included) 100-250 V~, 50-60 Hz (CE marked)


Optional battery pack: model pDR-BP, rechargeable NiMH, 72-hour run time (typical)


Operating environment: -10° to 50° C (14° to 122° F), 10 to 95% RH, non-condensing


Storage environment: -20° to 70° C (-4° to 158° F)


Dimensions (max. external):


Model pDR-1000AN: 153 mm (6.0 in) H x 92 mm (3.6 in) W x 63 mm (2.5 in) D


Model pDR-1200 (including cyclone and filter holder): 160 mm (6.3 in) H x 205 mm (8.1in) W x 60 mm (2.4 in) D

 


Weight:


• Model pDR-1000AN: 0.5 kg (18 oz) • Model pDR-1200: 0.68 kg (24 oz)


Cyclone (included in model pDR-1200 only): Model KTL


Filter holder (included in model pDR-1200 only): Model MAWP037AO (with

 


0.8 µm pore size filter)
1 Referred to gravimetric calibration with SAE Fine (ISO Fine) test dust
(mmd = 2 to 3 µm, sg = 2.5, as aerosolized)2 At constant temperature and full battery voltage 3 User selectable

3.0 USER GUIDELINES
3.1 Handling Instructions
The personalDataRAM is a sophisticated optical/electronic instrument and should be handled accordingly. Although the personalDataRAM is very rugged, it should not be subjected to excessive shock, vibration, temperature or humidity. As a practical guideline, the personalDataRAM should be handled with the same care as a portable CD player.
If the personalDataRAM has been exposed to low temperatures (e.g. in the trunk of a car during winter) for more than a few minutes, care should be taken to allow the instrument to return near room temperature before operating it indoors. This is advisable because water vapor may condense on the interior surfaces of the personalDataRAM causing temporary malfunction or erroneous readings. Once the instrument warms up to near room temperature, such condensation will have evaporated. If the personalDataRAM becomes wet (e.g. due to exposure to water sprays, rain, etc.), allow the unit to dry thoroughly before operating.
Whenever the personalDataRAM is shipped care should be taken in placing it in its carrying case and repackaging it with the original cardboard box with the factory provided padding.
3.2 Safety Instructions

Read and understand all instructions in this manual.


Do not attempt to disassemble the instrument. If maintenance is required, return unit to the factory for qualified service.


The personalDataRAM should be operated only from the type of power sources described in this manual.


When replacing the internal 9V battery, follow the instructions provided on the back panel of the unit.


Shut off personalDataRAM and any external devices (e.g. PC or Laptop) before connecting or disconnecting them.


Shut off personalDataRAM before replacing the internal battery, or when plugging in or disconnecting the AC power supply or the optional rechargeable battery pack.


3.3 Handling and Operation
3.3.1 Model pDR-1000AN
The model pDR-1000AN can be operated in any position or orientation. Exposure to high intensity fluctuating light of the interior of the sensing chamber, through the front and back slotted air openings (see Section 5.5), should be avoided. Such large intensity transients may cause erroneous readings. Direct access of sunlight to the sensing chamber should be prevented.

Typical modes of instrument support/handling include:

Hand-held. Do not obstruct or cover the sensing chamber opening slots on front and back of unit.


Belt attached. Use belt clip provided as standard accessory. The unit can be worn on a waist belt, or with optional shoulder belt (model pDR-SS) for breathing zone monitoring.


Tabletop operation. The pDR-1000AN can be placed on a table either in an upright position (i.e., resting on its lower protective bumper), or on its back (i.e., resting on the rear edges of its two protective bumpers).


Tripod mounted. The unit can be attached to any standard tripod using the threaded bushing on the bottom of the monitor (see Figure 3).


Fixed point operation. The model pDR-1000AN can be mounted at a fixed location (e.g., wall or post) using the optional wall-mounting bracket, model pDR-WB.


3.3.2 Model pDR-1200
The pDR-1200 requires an external vacuum pump, such as a small diaphragm pump (e.g., model pDR-PU) for its sampling operation. The inlet of the pump must be connected by means of tubing to the hose fitting on the pDR-1200 37-mm filter holder attached to sensing chamber (see Figure 2).
The inlet metal tube of the cyclone can be oriented in any desired direction (i.e., upward, forward, downward or backward) by rotating the cyclone body within its holder cup on the right side of the sensing chamber (see Figure 2).
Always ensure unobstructed access to the cyclone inlet when sampling directly the air in the instrument's vicinity. Alternatively, tubing can be connected to the cyclone inlet in order to extract a sample stream from a duct, chamber or other enclosed volume.
Typical modes of instrument support/handling include:

Hand-held. For example, using a personal type pump, clipped to the belt and using a tubing connection to the pDR-1200.


Belt attached. Use belt clip kit provided as standard accessory. The unit can be worn on a waist belt, or with the optional shoulder belt (model pDR-SS) for breathing zone monitoring. A personal pump can then be belt-worn as well.


Tabletop operation. The pDR-1200 can be placed on a table either in an upright position (i.e. resting on its lower protective bumper), or on its back (i.e. resting on its backside).


Wall mounted for fixed point monitoring. Use optional wall mounting bracket, model pDR-WB, either in combination with model pDR-PU pump module and model pDR-AC power supply (powering both the pDR-1200 and the pDR-PU), or with a separate pump.


Tripod mounted. The unit can be attached to any standard tripod using the threaded opening on the bottom base (see accessory attachment fitting on Fig. 4).

 

3.4 Air Sampling Guidelines
Although the personalDataRAM is designed primarily for intramural use, i.e. for indoor air quality, in-plant, or mining environment monitoring, its active sampling version (model pDR-1200) also makes it compatible with extramural use (i.e. ambient monitoring). General ambient monitoring applications, however, are performed preferentially using an appropriate inlet configuration, in order to ensure representative particle sampling under conditions of variable wind speed and direction. Consult with Thermo Fisher Scientific for such outdoor applications.
For typical area monitoring applications, the personalDataRAM should be placed and operated centrally within the area to be monitored, away from localized air currents due to fans, blowers, ventilation intakes/exhausts, etc. This is to ensure representative sampling within the area to be assessed.
3.5 Environmental Constraints and Certifications
The personalDataRAM is designed to be reasonably dust and splash resistant, however, it is not weatherproof. To operate the unit outdoors provisions should be made to protect it from environmental extremes outside its specified range, and from any exposure to precipitation.
The personalDataRAM has received intrinsic safety approval (No. 2G-4126-0) from the U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) for use in coal-mining environments containing methane gas. The MSHA approval (type 2G) closely resembles the standard intrinsic safety rating as defined by Class 1, Div. 1, Group D. This approval makes the MIE personalDataRAM the only commercially produced direct reading dust monitor so certified by MSHA and, therefore, the only instrument of this type permitted to be used routinely in U.S. coal mines and similar environments.
The personalDataRAM is certified for compliance with the electromagnetic radiation limits for a Class A digital device, pursuant to part 15 of the FCC Rules. The unit also complies and is marked with the CE (European Community) approval for both immunity to electromagnetic radiation and absence of excessive emission interference.

4.0 ACCESSORIES
4.1 Standard Accessories
The personalDataRAM is provided to the user with the following standard accessories:


Soft-shell carrying case (model pDR-CC-1)


Digital communications cable (model pDR-DCC)


Analog signal/alarm output cable (model pDR-ANC)


Communications software disk (model pDR-COM)


Z-Pouch zeroing kit (model pDR-ZP [for use with pDR-1000AN only])


Zeroing filter cartridge and tubing (model pDR-ZF)(for use with pDR-1200 only)


Belt clip kit (model pDR-CA)


AC power supply (and charger for optional model pDR-BP) (model pDR-AC)


Metal cyclone (model pDR-GK2.05)(for use with pDR-1200 only)


37-mm filter holder and hose fitting (model pDR-FH)(for use with pDR-1200 only)


Instruction manual

 


4.2 Optional Accessories
The following optional accessories are available for use with the personalDataRAM:

Rechargeable battery module (model pDR-BP)


Shoulder strap (model pDR-SS)


Remote alarm unit (model pDR-RA)


Wall mounting bracket (model pDR-WB)


Active sampling kit to convert model pDR-1000AN to model pDR-1200 (model pDR-ASC)


Upper bumper kit to convert model pDR-1200 to model pDR-1000AN (model pDR-UB)


Attachable pump unit (model pDR-PU)(for use with pDR-1200 only)

 


5.0 INSTRUMENT LAYOUT
The user should become familiar with the location and function of all externally accessible controls, connectors and other features of the personalDataRAM. Refer to Figures 1 through 6.
All user related functions are externally accessible. All repair and maintenance should be performed by qualified Thermo Fisher Scientific personnel. Please contact the factory if any problem should arise. Do not attempt to disassemble the personalDataRAM, except as described in Section 12.0 (Maintenance), otherwise voiding of instrument warranty will result.

5.1 Front Panel
Refer to Figures 1 (for model pDR-1000AN) or 2 (for model pDR-1200) for location of controls and display.
The front panel contains the four touch switches (keys) and the LCD screen required for the operation of the personalDataRAM.
The four touch switches provide tactile ("popping") feedback when properly actuated.
The ON/OFF key serves only to turn on the unit (while it is in the off state), and to turn it off (when it is operating).

 

The EXIT and ENTER keys serve to execute specific commands that may be indicated on the screen, and the NEXT key generally serves to scroll the displayed information, e.g. to review the operating parameters that have been programmed, display maximum/STEL values, diagnostic values, etc.
If an incorrect command is keyed (e.g. ENTER when the personalDataRAM displays real-time concentration) a beep is heard to alert the user.
The two-line, 16-character per line LCD indicates either measured values of concentration (instantaneous and time averaged on the same screen), elapsed run time, maximum and STEL (short term excursion limit) values, operating and logging parameters, diagnostics, or other messages.
The acoustic alarm transducer is located directly behind the center of the Thermo Scientific (formerly Thermo Electron Corporation) logo on the front panel.

5.2 Bottom Base
Refer to Figures 3 (for model pDR-1000AN) or 4 (for model pDR-1200). The base of the personalDataRAM contains the following: a) internal battery compartment cover, b) external DC power input receptacle, and c) threaded bushing for the attachment of optional battery pack, tripod, or other mounting/support hardware.
Only the internal battery compartment cover should be opened by the user, for removal and replacement of the on-board 9V battery. Removal of the base plate could result in voiding of instrument warranty.

5.3 Right Side Panel
Refer to Figures 5 (for model pDR-1000AN) or 6 (for model pDR-1200) which shows the manner of attachment of the belt clip assembly (belt clip should be attached only if required by the user). The right side panel (as viewed from front panel) contains the RJ-12 6-contact modular jack connector receptacle for digital (RS-232) communications and analog signal output. This connector also provides the alarm output control for a remote/auxiliary alarm signal. The contacts (from top to bottom) are:
1: 4 – 20 mA analog output (positive)
2: Alarm output
3: Digital data transmission
4: Digital input
5: Common ground (signal returns)
6: 0 to 5 V analog output (positive)
The digital communications cable provided as a standard accessory is to be inserted into this receptacle for interconnection to a computer (for data downloading or to

reprogram parameters). The analog output cable is provided with flying leads for interconnection with other data processing and/or control systems.
WARNING: The modular jack receptacle on the side of the personalDataRAM should be used only for communications with computers and alarm circuitry. Do not, under any circumstance, connect any communications equipment (e.g., telephone) to this receptacle.

 

5.4 Back Panel and Belt Clip
The back panel consists of a label with important user information on safety procedures and certifications, model and serial numbers, etc. and is provided with mounting hardware for the attachment of the belt clip kit (see Figures 5 or 6 for mounting configuration of the belt clip).

5.5 Sensing Chamber
Referring to Figure 1 or 2, the upper mid-section of the personalDataRAM contains the optical sensing chamber. This chamber is the only internal section that the user should access for maintenance purposes (see Section 12.2).
On the model pDR-1000AN, air enters the sensing chamber through the two slot shaped inlets (one on the front and other on the back) under the protective bumper. During instrument operation those two openings should remain unobstructed in order to ensure free access of the surrounding air. When the model pDR-1000AN is used as personal monitor, i.e., clipped to a person’s belt, the rear air inlet opening may be partially obstructed, but care should be exercised in ensuring that the front air inlet remains free of any obstructions.
On the model pDR-1200, air enters the sensing chamber through the opening in the cyclone receptacle cup (black cup on right side of sensing chamber), passes through the photometric stage, and exits through the opening in the filter holder receptacle cup (black cup on left side of sensing chamber), after which the air passes through the filter.


6.0 PREPARATION FOR OPERATION
6.1 Battery Installation
When shipped from the factory, the personalDataRAM will arrive without its replaceable 9V battery installed. Two fresh alkaline batteries (Duracell® type MN1604) are factory packed separately in the carrying case, one of which should be installed in the personalDataRAM when preparing it for operation.
NOTE: Whenever the personalDataRAM is to be left unused for an extended time
(i.e. longer than a month), the 9V battery should be removed from the unit.
Removing the battery will lose neither the program, time/date keeping, nor stored data.
To install the battery proceed as follows:

Hold the personalDataRAM upside down.


Loosen thumbscrew that secures the battery compartment cover (see Figure 3 or 4), and remove that cover.


Observe battery polarity and the back panel battery orientation pattern (the negative battery terminal is the one closer to the side of the instrument).


Insert the battery by sliding it in until it bottoms out. It should protrude slightly above the bottom surface of the instrument.


Place battery compartment cover over battery and, while pushing down the cover firmly (taking care that the cover seats flush on the bottom surface of the personalDataRAM), tighten thumbscrew securely.

 


6.2 Battery Replacement
Normally, only a 9V Duracell® type MN1604 alkaline batteries should be used with the personalDataRAM in accordance the MSHA intrinsic safety approval.
Only fresh batteries should be used in order to ensure the maximum operating time. The personalDataRAM shuts itself off whenever the battery voltage falls below 6 volts (while retaining all programming and data). A fresh 9V alkaline battery, at room temperature, should provide typically 20 hours of continuous operation (please note that not all manufacturers produce batteries of equal capacity). Intermittent operation should extend the total running time because of partial battery recovery effects.
The approximate remaining battery capacity is indicated by the personalDataRAM (see Section 8.2) in increments of 1%, starting from 99%. If the remaining battery capacity is 40% or less, immediate restarting after shut off is automatically inhibited to prevent incomplete runs. If, nevertheless, a new run is to be initiated with low remaining battery capacity, do not shut off the personalDataRAM at the end of the previous run (i.e., remain in the Ready Mode, see section 7.0).
When significantly extended operating times are required (beyond the typical 20 hours), the use of either lithium or zinc-air batteries can be considered. The use of such alternative battery types can provide about 2 to 3 times longer operation than alkaline batteries.

6.3 AC Power Supply
A universal line voltage AC to DC power supply (model pDR-AC) is provided as standard accessory with the personalDataRAM. This power supply can be used with any line with a voltage between 100 and 240 VAC (50 to 60 Hz). When using that power supply, its output plug should be inserted into the external DC receptacle at the base of the personalDataRAM (see Figure 3 or 4). Insertion of that connector automatically disables the internal 9V battery of the instrument. Removal of the pDR-AC plug from the instrument automatically re-connects the internal 9V battery.
NOTE: Before plugging in or unplugging the external power supply, the personalDataRAM must be shut off.


6.4 Rechargeable Battery Module
A rechargeable battery pack (model pDR-BP) is available as an optional accessory. This unit attaches directly to the base of the personalDataRAM.
The pDR-BP contains a sealed nickel-metal-hydride battery (NiMH), which provides typically 72 hours of continuous operation between successive charges (for 3-hour charging).
The use of the personalDataRAM, in combination with the pDR-BP connected to the AC power line ensures totally uninterruptible operation over an indefinite period. In this operating mode, line power interruptions lasting up to 72 hours have no effect on measurement run continuity.
To attach the pDR-BP to the personalDataRAM, the instrument should be shut off. Carefully plug the pDR-BP into the external DC receptacle on the personalDataRAM. Rotate the large thumbscrew at the opposite end of the pDR-BP tightening it firmly. The pDR-BP can be recharged by means of the AC power supply of the personalDataRAM.
Detailed instructions for the use of the rechargeable battery module are furnished with that accessory.

6.5 Zeroing the personalDataRAM
One of the most important steps to be performed by the user before initiating a measurement run with the personalDataRAM is to zero the instrument. This is required to ensure maximum accuracy of concentration measurements, especially at low levels, i.e. below about 0.1 mg/m3.
During the 2-minute pre-run automatic zeroing sequence (see Section 8.1), the personalDataRAM registers its own optical background, stores that level in its memory, and then subtracts that background from all measured concentration values, until the zero is updated again by the user.
Although zeroing can be performed as often as desired (e.g., before every run), in practice it should not be necessary to do so more than once-a-month or even less frequently, except if average particulate concentrations should exceed about 0.5 mg/m3.
6.5.1 Zeroing the model pDR-1000AN
Zeroing of the model pDR-1000AN requires a particle-free environment such as a clean room, clean bench, duct or area directly downstream of a HEPA filter, or the pDR-1000AN Z-Pouch (standard accessory). In some cases, a very clean, well air-conditioned office may offer a sufficiently low particle concentration environment (i.e., = 5 µg/m3) for zeroing, as determined by another monitor (e.g., Thermo Scientific DataRAM 4).

To zero the model pDR-1000AN by means of its Z-Pouch, proceed as follows:

Wipe the outside surfaces of the pDR-1000AN to remove as much dust from those surfaces as possible before placing the instrument inside the Z-Pouch.


In a reasonably clean environment, open the zipper of the Z-Pouch and place the pDR-1000AN inside it. Close the zipper shut.


Open the small nipple on the Z-Pouch, and insert the fitting of the hand pump/in­line filter unit into the nipple.


Start pumping the hand-pump until the Z-Pouch begins to bulge, and proceed with the steps in Section 8.1, pressing the keys of the instrument through the wall of the Z-Pouch. Then slowly continue to pump to maintain positive pressure within the Z-Pouch.


After completing the zeroing (step 2. of Section 8.1) procedure, open the Z-Pouch zipper and remove the pDR-1000AN. Close the zipper and flatten the Z-Pouch while plugging its nipple, in order to prevent dust contamination of the interior of the Z-Pouch.


The pDR-1000AN is now zeroed and ready for a measurement run.

 

6.5.2 Zeroing the model pDR-1200
To provide the particle-free air required to zero the pDR-1200, either of two methods can be used: a) place the instrument on a clean-air bench or in a clean room, or b) connect to the cyclone inlet the green zeroing filter cartridge supplied with the pDR­1200. In either case, proceed as follows:

After implementing either of the two methods, above, run the attached pump for at least one minute (e.g., at 2 liters/minute), and then proceed as described in Section 8.1 of this instruction manual, while continuing to run the pump (or leaving the unit in the clean air environment).


Once the CALIBRATION: OK message appears on the pDR-1200 display, stop the pump and disconnect the zeroing filter cartridge from the cyclone inlet (or remove pDR-1200 from clean bench/room).


The pDR-1200 is now zeroed and ready for a measurement run.


Note: While the pDR-1200 is used to monitor high dust concentrations (= 0.5 mg/m3), the flow through its sensing chamber should not be stopped before purging it, which can be done by connecting the green zeroing filter to the cyclone inlet and continuing to run the pump for about 2 minutes before shutting it off. This is to prevent dust contamination of the sensing chamber.

 

6.6 pDR-1200 Filter Holder Installation
The 37-mm filter holder provided with the pDR-1200 must be installed before operation of the instrument, in order to connect a sampling pump. To install the filter holder, remove protective cover, and insert the open collar over the black attachment cup with the external o-ring, on the left side of the pDR-1200 sensing chamber. Ensure complete insertion.
To replace the membrane filter separate the two sections of the plastic holder prying them apart with screwdriver or a coin. Make sure to place backing under the membrane filter before rejoining the two plastic rings.


7.0 OPERATING MODES
The personalDataRAM has several different operating modes which will be described in what follows. The specific commands and displays within each of these operating modes will be explained in detail in Section 8.0. A complete flow chart of keystrokes and screens is provided in Section 16.0.
7.1 Start-Up Mode
The personalDataRAM enters the Start-Up Mode as soon as the instrument is switched on. The user then has the choice to:
a)
Wait before proceeding;

b)
Zero the instrument and check its readiness; or

c)
Proceed directly to the Ready Mode.

 

7.2 Ready Mode
Once the personalDataRAM is in the Ready Mode, the user is presented with the following alternatives:
a)
Start a run immediately, or after any of the subsequent steps;

b)
Review (by scrolling the display) all operating parameters, status and diagnostic data;

c)
Activate or deactivate the logging function; activate, select (instantaneous or STEL), or deactivate alarm;

d)
Program parameters or output logged data through a computer.

 

7.3 Run and Logging Mode
The Run Mode is the measurement/logging mode. The user can operate the personalDataRAM in this mode either with or without data logging. For example, the instrument may be used first as a survey monitor without logging, for walk-through assessment of an industrial plant, before deciding where to set up the unit for continuous monitoring and logging.

7.3.1 Data Logging
In order to activate the logging function, the unit must be in (or returned to) the Ready Mode (see Section 8.2).
If data logging has been enabled, the data will be logged in the next free (unrecorded) tag or data set. For example, if data had been recorded previously in tags # 1, 2 and 3 then, when a new run is initiated, the new data will be stored in tag #4. The data can be separated into number of sets (tags) up to a total of 99.
Any number of individual data points can be stored in a given tag, i.e. up to a maximum of 13,000 points (i.e. the total memory capacity of the personalDataRAM) assuming that no other data had been logged in other tags. This means that the total memory capacity of 13,000 data points can be grouped into any number of the available 99 data sets (tags).

7.3.2 Clearing of Memory
Data recorded in the personalDataRAM memory can be erased either through an external PC command using the Thermo Scientfic pDR-COM Custom Communications software provided as a standard accessory, or resetting the instrument (see Section 8.5). The PC method permits to erase the data in any number of selected tags, whereas the resetting method results in the deletion of all data stored in the personalDataRAM.

7.3.3 Run Mode Display and Commands
When a measurement run has been initiated (see Section 8.3), the user has the following display choices:
a)
Instantaneous and time-averaged concentrations (both on the same screen);

b)
Elapsed run time, and run start time and date (both on the same screen);

c)
Maximum displayed concentration from run start, and time/date at which current maximum occurred;

d)
Short term excursion limit (STEL) from run start, and time/date at which current STEL occurred;

e)
Remaining battery charge, and (if logging function is enabled) remaining free memory.

f)
Analog output concentration range (if enabled)


The user can command the termination of the run at any time returning it to the Ready Mode. To download logged data into a PC, the personalDataRAM must be in the Ready Mode. No changes in the program parameters or operating conditions can be made while in the Run Mode.
The personalDataRAM can be shut off from any of the three operating modes. Even if shut off while in the Run Mode, the instrument will save all stored data.

 


8.0 OPERATION

8.1 Start-Up KEY DISPLAY NOTES __
1.
ON/OFF START ZERO:ENTER Before starting a run with the

GO TO RUN: NEXT personalDataRAM, zero it (see Section 6.5) and key ENTER while the unit is exposed to particle-free air. Alternatively, key NEXT to go to RUN/READY mode. If ENTER is keyed:

2.
ENTER ZEROING V2.00 Keep clean air flowing while ZEROING is displayed* for 1.1 min., followed by one of these screens:


CALIBRATION: OK or,
BACKGROUND HIGH or,
MALFUNCTION If CALIBRATION: OK, then go to step 3. If one of the other two screens is displayed, consult Section 12.0.
3.
NEXT START RUN: ENTER To start a measurement run

READY: NEXT key ENTER (Section 8.3, step 1). To set up for a run and scroll logging/operating parameters, key NEXT (see Section 8.2).

4.
ON/OFF TURN OFF PDR? Keying ON/OFF while the unit


Y:ENTER N:NEXT is operating will elicit this message to prevent accidental shut off. To confirm shut down, key ENTER. To continue operation, key NEXT.
*The number following the V on the screen refers to the installed firmware version.

8.2 Setting Up For A Run (Ready Mode) KEY DISPLAY NOTES __
1.
NEXT LOGGING DISABLED This screen indicates the logging status. To enable the logging function, key ENTER. Toggling of the on/off logging status can be done by keying ENTER.

2.
ENTER LOG INTRVL 600s This message indicates that

TAG#: 4 logging is enabled. Example is for 10-min log period, selected through the PC (see Section 9.0), and next free tag is #4.

3.
NEXT ALARM: OFF This screen indicates the alarm status. Keying ENTER repeatedly toggles through the 3 alarm modes:

4.
ENTER ALARM: INSTANT This enables the alarm based

LEVEL:1.50 mg/m3 on the real-time concentration. The level (e.g. 1.50 mg/m3) must be set on the PC.

5.
ENTER ALARM: STEL This enables the alarm based

LEVEL:0.50 mg/m3 on the 15-min STEL value. The level (e.g. 0.50 mg/m3) must be set on the PC.

6.
NEXT ANALOG OUTPUT: This screen indicates the analog

DISABLED signal output status. Keying ENTER will enable the analog output. Toggling the analog output on/off can be done by keying ENTER:

7.
ENTER ANALOG OUTPUT: This enables the analog output. 0 – 0.400 mg/m3 The concentration range (e.g., 0

– 0.400 mg/m3) must be set on the PC.


8.
NEXT CAL FACTOR: 1.00 This screen displays the


DIS AVG TIME 10s calibration factor and the display averaging time. Edit via PC 1. ENTER LOGGING DISABLED or, if logging was enabled:

9. NEXT BATTERY LEFT 83% This screen displays the
MEMORY LEFT 96% remaining battery charge, and
the remaining percentage of free
memory.
10. NEXT CONNECT TO PC When this screen has been
selected, the operating
parameters can be edited
and/or the logged data can
be downloaded via the PC
(see Section 9.0). If NEXT
is keyed again, the screen
returns to RUN/READY:
11. NEXT START RUN: ENTER The instrument is now
READY: NEXT ready to run following the
procedure in section 8.3.
8.3 Measurement Run Procedure
KEY DISPLAY NOTES __

LOG INTRVL 600s Logging status will be displayed TAG #: 4 for 3 seconds.
CONC*0.047 mg/m3 After a 3-second delay, the
TWA 0.039 mg/m3 concentration screen appears values shown here are examples). CONC is the real-time and TWA is the time-averaged concentration. The “*” appears only if logging has been enabled.
2.
EXIT TERMINATE RUN? To terminate the current run

Y:ENTER N:EXIT and return to the Ready Mode, key ENTER. To continue the run, key EXIT.

3.
EXIT CONC*0.047 mg/m3 Keying NEXT successively

TWA 0.039 mg/m3 scrolls the display to show various run values (elapsed run time, maximum, STEL, etc.). Keying EXIT returns to the concentration display.

4.
NEXT ET 06:12:49 This screen shows the elapsed

ST 08:18:26MAY15 run time (ET) and the run start time/date (ST).

5.
NEXT MAX: 0.113 mg/m3 This screen shows the maximum

T 10:08:44 MAY15 concentration of current run and time/date of occurrence.

6.
NEXT STEL:0.058 mg/m3 This screen shows the 15-min

T 09:59:22 MAY15 STEL value of the current run and the time/date of occurrence.

7.
NEXT BATTERY LEFT 83% or, if logging was enabled:

 

BATTERY LEFT 83% This screen shows the amount
MEMORY LEFT 96% of usable charge left in the battery and, if logging has been enabled, the overall amount of free memory left.
8.
NEXT ANALOG OUTPUT: This screen shows the status of

0 – 0.400 mg/m3 the analog signal output, and the range, if this output has been enabled.

9.
NEXT CONC*0.047 mg/m3 The last NEXT command

TWA 0.039 mg/m3 returns the display to the concentration screen.

10.
EXIT TERMINATE RUN? As indicated in step 2, to end

Y:ENTER N:NEXT current run, key ENTER, to return to the Ready Mode:

11.
ENTER START RUN: ENTER This keystroke terminates the


READY: NEXT current run and returns the unit to the Ready Mode.
If during a run the instrument memory is filled completely, or if all 99 tags have been used, the run is automatically terminated and the display will indicate:
RUN TERMINATED FULL MEMORY
If a new run is initiated after the memory has been filled, the personalDataRAM can be operated only as a monitor without logging. The memory must then be cleared (see Section 7.3.2) first before logging can be enabled again.

8.4 Abbreviated Run Start/Stop Instructions
To power-up and start a measurement run without zeroing and without logging, proceed as follows:

Key sequentially ON/OFF, NEXT and ENTER.

To terminate run and shut down, proceed as follows starting from the concentration screen (otherwise key EXIT first):


Key sequentially EXIT, ENTER, ON/OFF and ENTER.

 

8.5 Resetting Procedure
The personalDataRAM memory can be reset through commands entered on its own keypad (i.e. without requiring a PC).
Resetting accomplishes the following:

Erases all stored data from memory;


Resets all parameters and operating conditions to their default values and conditions; and


Cancels the zero correction offset.


WARNING: THE RESET TEST WILL ERASE ALL DATA STORED IN MEMORY AND SET ALL PARAMETERS TO FACTORY DEFAULT SETTINGS. DOWNLOAD ANY DATA BEFORE THE RESET PROCEDURE.
The procedure to reset the instrument is as follows:
Starting with the unit shut off, press the EXIT and ENTER keys at the same time, and while holding down those two keys, press ON/OFF. The screen will then indicate: PDR SELF-TEST... and several diagnostic screens will appear in rapid sequence (see Section 16.0, Resetting/Electronics Checking Mode), ending in the message TESTING COMPLETE. The unit will shut off. When turned on again, the personalDataRAM memory will have been reset, as described above.
The default values and operating conditions of the personalDataRAM are:

Logging period (LOG INTRVL): 60 seconds


Logging status: disabled (LOGGING DISABLED) • Alarm level: 1 mg/m3


Alarm status: disabled (ALARM: OFF) • Analog output: 0 to 4 mg/m3


Analog output status: disabled (ANALOG OUTPUT :DISABLED)


Real-time display averaging time (DIS AVG TIME): 10 seconds


Calibration factor (CAL FACTOR): 1.00

 

When turning on the personalDataRAM after resetting the instrument, it should be zeroed (see steps 1 and 2 of Section 8.1) before a run is initiated. Otherwise, its internal optical background level will not be subtracted from the indicated concentration readings. Alternatively, if the instrument is not zeroed after resetting, it will indicate its unsubtracted optical background when run under particle free conditions.


9.0 COMMUNICATIONS WITH COMPUTER
9.1 Hardware and Software Requirements
The computer requirements to install the software provided with the personalDataRAM (Thermo Scientific pDR-COM) are the following:

IBM-PC compatible


486, Pentium, or better processor


Minimum operating system: Windows 95™ or better


•= 8 MB of RAM


2 MB of hard drive space


CD-ROM drive



VGA or higher resolution monitor


NOTE: When large files are logged in the personalDataRAM in one single tag, a faster computer speed is required to handle the data. For example, if all 13,000 data points are logged in one tag, a Pentium I or II processor with a minimum speed of 166 MHz will be required. If, however, the maximum number of data points per tag is 1,000 or below, a 33 MHz, 486 DX processor will suffice.
Thermo Fisher Scientific custom hardware and software (provided as standard accessories):

Digital communications cable (model pDR-DCC)


CD-ROM disk

 


9.2 Software Installation Procedure
Please consult CD-ROM README files for installation procedure.


9.3 Communication Between personalDataRAM and Computer
To effect the communication between the personalDataRAM (via the pDR-COM software installed in the computer as described in the preceding section) and the PC, proceed as follows:
1.
Connect the personalDataRAM to one of the computer's serial ports using the pDR-DCC cable provided. This cable has a 9-pin female connector for the computer port.

2.
Key ON/OFF the personalDataRAM and then key NEXT repeatedly until CONNECT TO PC is displayed on the personalDataRAM.

3.
On the computer, double click on the pDR-COM icon. A four-tabbed notebook display should appear. Click on the Com Port Select and select the port to which the pDR-DCC cable has been connected.

4.
From the four-tabbed notebook displayed on the computer screen select the tab with the desired option. The options are:



Main: This page allows the user to input the personalDataRAM serial number (or any other desired label), and select the Serial Com Port.


Logged data: This page allows the user to download, tabulate, print data, or transfer to a CSV file the data stored in the personalDataRAM. This page also serves to display real-time numerical data when the computer is connected to the personalDataRAM in the Run Mode.


Graph data: This page enables the downloading and graphing of stored data to the computer screen and to a printer. In the Run Mode, this page displays the real-time data in graphic format.

NOTE: Version 2.00 and greater does not possess graphing capability.


Configure pDR: This screen allows the user to edit the operating/logging parameters. Click on the item to be edited and select or type in the new value.

 

To review the parameter values currently programmed into the personalDataRAM, click on Get configuration. After editing the parameters, click on Set configuration to input the new values into the personalDataRAM program.
Most operations within pDR-COM are self-evidently labeled, including fly-over dialog boxes. In addition, instructions may be found in the On-line Help files by selecting Help and then Contents.
The following operating/logging parameters of the personalDataRAM are selected (edited) via the computer:

Current date (month and day of the month)


Current time (hour, minute and second)


Display averaging time (1 to 60 seconds, in 1-second increments)


Calibration factor (0.01 to 9.99, in 0.01 increments)


Logging interval (1 to 14,400 seconds, in 1-second increments)


Analog output full scale concentration (0.1, 0.4, 1, 4, 10, 40, 100, or 400 mg/m3)


Analog output status (enabled, or disabled) (can also be selected directly through personalDataRAM keyboard, see Section 8.2)


Alarm level (0.001 to 400 mg/m3, in 1-µg/m3 increments)


Alarm mode (Off, Instantaneous, or STEL) (can also be selected directly through personalDataRAM keyboard, see Section 8.2)


The serial number of the personalDataRAM is transferred automatically to the PC and displayed on its screen.
In addition, the user can input any other identification for the instrument (up to 20 characters).
9.4 Real-Time RS-232 Output
During the RUN mode, the personalDataRAM can communicate real-time concentration data through its serial port via the pDR-COM software package. This software application decodes the data and displays it on the computer screen in both graphical and tabulated form.
In order to use this output with some other application, the following information will enable the user to decipher the encoded output signal.
The communication settings for the digital output of the personalDataRAM are:

Baud rate: 4800 bps or 9600 bps


Data bits: 8


Stop bits: 1


Parity: none


Flow control: Xon/Xoff

 

Every second during a run, the personalDataRAM serial port will output a sixteen-character code. It consists of two brackets with 14 hexadecimal digits between them, representing sum check (2 digits), sensed concentration (8 digits), and calibration factor (%, 4 digits). The concentration in µg/m3 is obtained by multiplying the sensed concentration times the calibration factor and dividing by 100.
10.0 ANALOG SIGNAL OUTPUT
10.1 Analog Output Description
The personalDataRAM incorporates the capability to provide both a voltage and a current signal output directly proportional to the sensed concentration of airborne particulates. Both these analog signal outputs are concurrently available. These outputs are provided, principally, for fixed-point applications with hard-wired installations, such as for continuous HVAC monitoring and control.
The particulate concentration range corresponding to the output voltage and current ranges (0 to 5 V and 4 to 20 mA) can be user selected (via a PC). The most sensitive range available is 0 to 0.100 mg/m3, and the least sensitive range is 0 to 400 mg/m3. For example, if the user selects the analog output range of 0 to 0.400 mg/m3 then the analog output signal levels, at a concentration of 0.200 mg/m3, would be 2.5 V and 12 mA.
Selection of the concentration range of the analog output must be performed on the PC. This range is independent of the digital display, data logging and real-time digital output range which are controlled automatically (auto-ranging).
Enabling the analog output increases the current consumption from the power source (battery or power supply) of the personalDataRAM by typically 5 mA when no load is connected to the analog signal current output. If such a load is connected then the current consumption of the personalDataRAM further increases by the magnitude of the output signal current (up to a maximum increment of 20 mA). Therefore, when not using the analog output, it is advisable to disable that output (see Section 8.2) in order to minimize power consumption (this is important only when powering the personalDataRAM from a battery source).
10.2 Analog Output Connection
The personalDataRAM is provided with a cable (model pDR-ANC) which has a 6­contact plug at one end and flying leads at the other. There are 4 leads for the analog and alarm outputs. The additional two contacts of the connector are used only for digital communication with a PC, for which a separate cable (model pDR-DCC) is provided.
Counting from top to bottom on the personalDataRAM connector receptacle, contact #1 is the positive 4 – 20 mA analog output, contact #2 is the alarm output, contact #5

is the common ground (return for all signals), and contact #6 is the positive 0 – 5 V analog output.
For the 0 – 5 V output signal, the externally connected load must have an impedance of more than 200 kilo-ohms. For the 4 – 20 mA output signal, the externally connected load must have an impedance of less than 200 ohms when powering the personalDataRAM with a battery, or less than 300 ohms when using the its AC supply.
Since both voltage and current outputs are present at the same time, both can be used concurrently, if so required.
The accuracy of the analog output signals is better than 1% of the reading with respect to the digital reading.
11.0 ALARM

11.1 Alarm Description and Operation
The personalDataRAM alarm function is provided both as an audible signal as well as an electrical output. The audible alarm consists of a series of beeps generated by an on-board piezo-transducer. The electrical output, available at the digital communications port, consists of a 1 Hz square wave signal which can be used to trigger/activate other equipment through an appropriate interface (consult with the factory).
The alarm function can be enabled/disabled by the user through the personalDataRAM keyboard (see Section 8.2). Setting of the alarm level must be performed on the PC (see Section 9.0).
The alarm is triggered whenever the preset alarm level is exceeded based either on:
a) the displayed real-time concentration, if ALARM: INSTANT was selected (see Section 8.2), or b) a 15-minute running average concentration, if ALARM: STEL was selected. When the concentration falls below that level the alarm condition stops. While the alarm is on the user can stop it (i.e. silence the alarm) by pressing any key of the personalDataRAM. If the concentration continues to exceed the set alarm level after 10 seconds, however, the alarm restarts.
11.2 Alarm Output
A pulsed voltage output is available on the personalDataRAM in synchronism with the audible signal. This signal consists of a 1 Hz square wave with an amplitude level of 5 V pp. An externally connected load should have an impedance of no less than 100 kilo-ohms. This alarm output signal is available at pins 2 and 5 (counting from top to bottom) of the 6-contact output/communications port on the side of the personalDataRAM (see Figure 5 or 6).

11.3 Remote Alarm Unit
An alarm relay unit (model pDR-RA) is available as an optional accessory for the personalDataRAM. The pDR-RA, when connected to the alarm output of the personalDataRAM, provides a switched output triggered by the alarm signal of the monitor. This switched output (up to 8 amperes, 250 volts) can be used to activate or deactivate other equipment (e.g. ventilation systems, machinery, etc.), or to control remotely located (by wire connection) alarm indicators (e.g. buzzers, lights, etc.).
12.0 MAINTENANCE
12.1 General Guidelines
The personalDataRAM is designed to be repaired at the factory. Access to the internal components of the unit by others than authorized personnel voids warranty. The exception to this rule is the occasional cleaning of the optical sensing chamber.
Unless a MALFUNCTION message is displayed, or other operational problems occur, the personalDataRAM should be returned to the factory once every two years for routine check out, testing, cleaning and calibration.
12.2 Cleaning of Optical Sensing Chamber
Continued sampling of airborne particles may result in gradual build-up of contamination on the interior surfaces of the sensing chamber components. This may cause an excessive rate of increase in the optical background. If this background level becomes excessive, the personalDataRAM will alert the user at the completion of the zeroing sequence, as indicated in Section 8.1, by the display of a BACKGROUND HIGH message. If this message is presented, the personalDataRAM can continue to be operated providing accurate measurements. However, it is then advisable to clean the interior of the sensing chamber at the first convenient opportunity, proceeding as indicated below.
12.2.1 Model pDR-1000AN

Remove the two screws on the top of the large protective bumper that covers the sensing chamber (see Figure 1);


Remove the large protective bumper by lifting it firmly upwards and away from the sensing chamber;


Remove the socket-head screws on the front and back black covers that were exposed by removal of the large top bumper. Lift away the freed front and back covers of the sensing chamber; set them aside carefully and such that they can be reattached in the same position as they were previously; avoid touching the dull black side of these plates;


Using filtered (particle-free) pressurized air, blow the inside of the sensing chamber taking great care in not marring or scratching any of the exposed surfaces;


Reposition the two sensing chamber cover plates in the same location (front and back) as they had been originally. Insert and tighten socket head screws firmly making sure that the two plates are aligned perfectly with the top of the sensing chamber;


Reposition large protective bumper over sensing chamber pushing down until properly seated. Insert the two top screws holding down the bumper and tighten gently (do not over-tighten);


Check optical background by zeroing the pDR-1000AN as indicated in Section

 

8.1. If the sensing chamber cleaning was performed correctly, the message CALIBRATION: OK should be displayed at the end of the zeroing period.
12.2.2 Model pDR-1200

Remove the two screws (one in the front and one in the back) holding the front and back gasketed covering plates of the sensing chamber, and set these plates aside, such that they may be reattached in the same location as they were previously.


Using filtered (particle-free) pressurized air, blow the inside of sensing chamber taking great care in not marring or scratching any of the exposed surfaces.


Reposition the two sensing chamber cover plates in the same location (front and back) as they had been originally. Insert and tighten socket head screws firmly making sure that the two plates are aligned perfectly with the top of the sensing chamber.


Check optical background by zeroing the pDR-1200 as indicated in Section 8.1. If the sensing chamber cleaning was performed correctly, the message CALIBRATION: OK should be displayed at the end of the zeroing period.


12.3 Cyclone Cleaning (Model pDR-1200 only)
The cyclone will require occasional cleaning. It is advisable to do so whenever the sensing chamber of the pDR-1200 is cleaned (see above). To clean the cyclone, remove it from its black attachment cup on the sensing chamber, and unscrew the grit pot (narrower knurled end). Use clean pressurized air to blow out the grit pot and through all openings of cyclone body. Reattach grit pot to cyclone body and insert cyclone body into attachment cup making sure it is fully inserted.
13.0 CALIBRATION
13.1 Factory Calibration
Each personalDataRAM is factory calibrated against a set of reference monitors that, in turn, are periodically calibrated against a gravimetric standard traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Testing (NIST).

The primary factory reference method consists of generating a dust aerosol by means of a fluidized bed generator, and injecting continuously the dust into a mixing chamber from which samples are extracted concurrently by two reference filter collectors and by two master real-time monitors (Thermo Scientific DataRAM 4) that are used for the routine calibration of every personalDataRAM.
The primary dust concentration reference value is obtained from the weight increase of the two filters due to the dust collected over a measured period of time, at a constant and known flow rate. The two master real-time monitors are then adjusted to agree with the reference mass concentration value (obtained from averaging the measurements of the two gravimetric filters) to within ±1%.
Three primary, NIST traceable, measurements are involved in the determination of the reference mass concentration: the weight increment from the dust collected on the filter, the sampling flow rate, and the sampling time. Additional conditions that must be met are: a) suspended dust concentration uniformity at all sampling inlets of the mixing chamber; b) identical sample transport configurations leading to reference and instrument under calibration; and c) essentially 100% collection efficiency of filters used for gravimetric reference for the particle size range of the test dust.
The test dust used for the Thermo Fisher Scientific factory calibration of the personalDataRAM is SAE Fine (ISO Fine) supplied by Powder Technology, Inc. It has the following physical characteristics (as dispersed into the mixing chamber):

Mass median aerodynamic particle diameter: 2 to 3 µm


Geometric standard deviation of lognormal size distribution: 2.5 • Bulk density: 2.60 to 2.65 g/cm3


Refractive index: 1.54


13.2 Field Gravimetric Calibration
If desired, the personalDataRAM can be calibrated gravimetrically for a particular aerosol (dust, smoke, mist, etc.) under field conditions (actual conditions of use). To effect such calibration in the particle environment of interest, proceed as indicated below.
For field calibration of the model pDR-1000AN, a personal type filter sampler is placed side-by-side (collocated) to the pDR-1000AN to be calibrated, and the two units should be started simultaneously. For the model pDR-1200, its own filter and attached pump can be conveniently used for the same purpose.

Weigh and load into filter holder a fresh membrane filter.


Start pump.



Immediately turn on personalDataRAM and start a run such that the pump and the personalDataRAM are started nearly simultaneously.

 

The duration of this comparison run should be sufficient to collect a mass of at least 1 mg on the reference filter (in order to permit accurate weighing of the collected mass by means of an analytical balance). The time-weighted average (TWA) reading of the personalDataRAM can be used to estimate the required sampling time to collect the above-mentioned mass on the filter. To estimate the required sampling time (ET as measured on the personalDataRAM) in minutes, read the TWA value (see Section 8.3) after an elapsed time (ET) of one minute or more, and apply the following relationship:
ET = 500/TWA

For example, if TWA = 2.5 mg/m3, then ET = 200 minutes (approximately 3 hours). If the TWA value changes significantly as the run proceeds, recalculate the required ET accordingly.
At the end of the run (after time ET has elapsed), record TWA, ET and the flow rate Q used to sample the air. Weigh the filter on an analytical balance and obtain .m, the mass increment due to the collected particles.
Calculate the average gravimetric concentration C, as follows:
C = 1000 .m/ETxQ

Compare the recorded value of TWA and the calculated value C, and calculate the calibration factor to be programmed into the personalDataRAM (see Section 9.0) as follows:
CAL FACTOR = C/TWA

For example, if C was found to be 3.2 mg/m3, and TWA had been determined to be
2.5 mg/m3, the CAL FACTOR equals 1.28. Select this value on the PC, as described in Section 9.0. This completes the gravimetric calibration of the personalDataRAM for a specific aerosol.
13.3 Scattering Coefficient Calibration
Users interested in using the personalDataRAM for scattering coefficient measurements (e.g., for atmospheric visibility monitoring) should contact the factory. A special primary Rayleigh scattering calibration for such purpose can be performed by the factory.
13.4 Internal Span Check
The zeroing procedure (see Section 8.1) and the resulting normal diagnostic display of "CALIBRATION: OK" (step 2) informs the user that the instrument's calibration agrees with the original factory setting. This is an internal span check that consists of an automatic comparison between the initial (factory) optical background of the personalDataRAM (registered in its non-volatile memory), and the current optical background sensed during the zeroing sequence.

14.0 PARTICLE SIZE CLASSIFICATION (model pDR-1200 only)
The particle size selective cyclone of the pDR-1200 provides the user with two important capabilities: a) to measure the particulate matter concentration of a specific aerodynamic size fraction, and b) to determine the mass median size of a particle population. These two applications will be discussed in what follows. For both these applications, a variable measured flow rate pump is required, such as the model pDR-PU (for which a separate instruction manual is provided).
14.1 Size Fractionated Monitoring
The pDR-1200 can be used to monitor a specific particle size fraction below a selectable cut off equivalent aerodynamic diameter. The particle size cut point can be selected by adjustment of the sampling flow rate. The higher the flow rate through the cyclone the smaller the cut off particle diameter. Figure 7 is a graph showing the dependence of the particle cut off size in micrometers as a function of the sampling flow rate in liters per minute. The cut off size is the particle aerodynamic diameter at which the collection efficiency of the cyclone is 50%, or conversely, the size at which the cyclone transmission is 50%. For example, to obtain a particle size cut off of 2.5 µm (i.e., PM2.5), the required sampling flow rate is 4 liters/minute. A that flow rate only particles smaller than (approximately) 2.5 µm are allowed to pass into the pDR-1200 sensing stage, to be monitored and then to be collected on the filter.
As can be seen on Fig. 7, the lowest particle size cut for the GK 2.05 cyclone included with the pDR-1200 is about 1 µm, and the largest is about 12 µm. For particle size classification outside this range, consult with the factory.
14.2 Particle Sizing
The selectable particle size capability of the cyclone, in combination with the concentration measuring capability of the photometric system of the pDR-1200 permits the user to determine the mass median aerodynamic particle diameter of an aerosol, i.e., of the airborne particle population being sampled.
One simple procedure to determine the median particle size is as follows (please refer to the graph of Fig. 7):

Remove cyclone from its black attachment cup and set cyclone aside


Start pump and sample aerosol at a flow rate between 2 and 4 liters/minute


Press ON key on pDR-1200 panel and after about one minute key NEXT and then ENTER


After an elapsed time (ET) of about one minute, read and note TWA concentration


Shut off pump



Plug in cyclone into its attachment cup


Start pump and run at about 1 liter/minute. Observe real-time concentration (CONC) reading


Increase flow rate very slowly and gradually until CONC reading is one-half of the initial concentration measured without the cyclone. Continue sampling at this flow rate for about one minute and confirm that TWA reading is about one-half of the initial one. Otherwise readjust flow rate. Note final flow rate at which the TWA value has decreased to one-half the value noted without the cyclone.


Enter the final flow rate for which the TWA value is one-half of the initial value into the graph of Fig. 7 and read the corresponding D50 particle size in micrometers. This represents the mass median particle diameter of the aerosol.

 

For example, if the TWA value without the cyclone was 0.8 mg/m3, and the flow rate (with the cyclone attached) required to reduce the TWA to 0.4 mg/m3 is 2 liters/minute, the mass median particle size (as obtained from the curve of Fig. 7) is approximately 5.5 µm.

 

15.0 CONVERSION BETWEEN personalDataRAM VERSIONS
The personalDataRAM user has the option to convert from a model pDR-1000AN to a model pDR-1200 or vice versa using the appropriate conversion kit. To convert from a pDR-1000AN to a pDR-1200 (i.e., from a passive air sampling configuration to an active one), the user requires the model pDR-AS conversion kit. To convert from a pDR-1200 to a pDR-1000AN (i.e., from an active air sampling configuration to a passive one), the user requires the model pDR-UB conversion kit.
15.1 Conversion Procedure From pDR-1000AN to pDR-1200
To effect this conversion, use model pDR-AS conversion kit. As you remove parts from the pDR-1000AN, in order to attach the conversion kit components, store these parts carefully for possible future re-conversion. Proceed as follows:

Remove the two screws on the top of the large protective bumper that covers the sensing chamber (see Figure 1). This bumper is not used on the pDR-1200;


Remove the large protective bumper by lifting it firmly upwards and away from the sensing chamber;


Reinsert in the upper two threaded holes and tighten the two screws that had held the protective bumper;


Remove the socket-head screws on the front and back black covers that were exposed by removal of the large top bumper. Lift away the freed front and back covers of the sensing chamber; store them carefully for future use, ensuring that their surfaces are not scratched or marred;


Position one of the two gasketed (soft rubber) sensing chamber cover plates provided in the conversion kit on the front side of the sensing chamber. Insert and tighten the included socket head screw firmly making sure that the plate is aligned perfectly with the top of the sensing chamber. Similarly, attach the other cover plate on the back side of the sensing chamber;


Identify the two black cups of the pDR-AS conversion kit. One of them has an external o-ring (filter holder cup), and the other has no o-ring (cyclone cup); refer to Figures 2 and 4 for the location of these cups on the pDR-1200 sensing chamber. These cups can be installed on either side of the sensing chamber, i.e., the cyclone can be either on the left or the right side of the sensing chamber (Figure 2 shows the case where the cyclone is on the right side);


Attach one cup to the left side of the sensing chamber using the two black socket head screws. Tighten screws firmly. Similarly, attach the other cup to the right side of the sensing chamber;


Take the cyclone/filter holder unit provided as part of the conversion kit, and separate the 37-mm plastic filter holder from the metal cyclone by firmly pulling the two units apart;


Carefully slide the large open end of the plastic filter holder over the cup with the external o-ring, previously attached to the sensing chamber. Ensure that the cup is fully inserted into the filter holder;


Carefully insert the large diameter open end of the metal cyclone into the other cup on the opposite side of the sensing chamber. The cyclone inlet (small short metal tube on side of cyclone) can be oriented as desired (upwards, as shown in Figure 2, sideways, downwards, etc.). Ensure that the cyclone is fully inserted into the cup;


When ready to operate, connect a length of tubing between the barbed fitting at the downstream end of the plastic filter holder and the pump to be used in combination with the pDR-1200.


Perform a zeroing sequence (see Sections 6.5.2 and 8.1) before starting a run. This completes the conversion of the pDR-1000AN to the pDR-1200.

 

15.2 Conversion Procedure from pDR-1200 to pDR-1000AN
To effect this conversion use model pDR-UB conversion kit. As you remove parts from the pDR-1200, in order to attach the conversion kit components, store these parts carefully for possible future re-conversion. Proceed as follows:

Pull off both the cyclone and the filter holder from their respective cups on the two sides of the sensing chamber;


Loosen the two screws that hold each of the two cups on the sides of the sensing chamber (total of 4 screws), and remove the two side cups;


Loosen the single screw on each of the two (front and back) gasketed sealing covers enclosing the sensing chamber, and remove the two covers;


Identify the two flat sensing chamber cover plates provided in the conversion kit; one face of each of each of these two plates has a dull black finish (antireflective); avoid touching those surfaces;


Position one of the two sensing chamber cover plates over the open front of the sensing chamber with the dull surface on the inside, and such that the hole in the plate is aligned with the corresponding threaded mounting hole on the upper wall of the sensing chamber. Insert and tighten firmly black socket head screw provided with the conversion kit, making sure that the plate is aligned perfectly with the top of the sensing chamber. Similarly, attach the other cover plate to the rear of the sensing chamber, with the dull surface facing inward;


Loosen and remove the two small screws on the top surface of the sensing chamber;


Position large protective bumper (provided in the conversion kit) over sensing chamber pushing down until properly seated. Insert the two top screws (two shiny Phillips-head screws provided in the conversion kit) into the two holes in the bumper while holding down the bumper, and tighten gently (do not over-tighten) making sure that the heads of these screws are well inside their cavities in the bumper;


Perform a zeroing sequence (see Sections 6.5.1 and 8.1) before starting a run. This completes the conversion from a pDR-1200 to a pDR-1000AN.

 

16.0 SEQUENCE OF KEYSTROKES AND SCREENS
(pDR-1000AN/1200, ADR-1200S and HPM-1000) Start-Up and Survey Run Mode (Without Data Logging)
ON/OFF


START ZERO:ENTER GO TO RUN: NEXT
ZEROING V 2.00


TERMINATE RUN? Y:ENTER N:NEXT


TURN OFF PDR? Y:ENTER N:NEXT
ENTER NEXT
(power off) CONC 0.036 mg/m3 TWA 0.039 mg/m3

Start-Up, Set-Up and Run Mode (With Data Logging) ON/OFF
(Use Zeroing Kit here) ENTER NEXT ZEROING V 1.00

Start-Up 73 sec.
Mode START ZERO:ENTER GO TO RUN: NEXT
CALIBRATION: OK
NEXT
NEXT

LOGGING DISABLED
ENTER

LOG INTRVL 600s TAG#: 4
NEXT

ALARM: OFF
ENTER

ALARM: INSTANT LEVEL:0.50 mg/m3
NEXT ENTER ALARM: STEL Set-Up LEVEL:0.50 mg/m3 (Ready)
NEXT Mode


NEXT

CAL FACTOR: 1.00 DIS AVG TIME 10s
NEXT

BATTERY LEFT 83% MEMORY LEFT 96%
NEXT

CONNECT TO PC
NEXT

START RUN: ENTER READY:NEXT

(Continues on next page)
ENTER
LOG INTRVL 600s TAG#: 4
5 sec.

CONC*0.054 mg/m3 TWA 0.041 mg/m3

EXIT NEXT
TERMINATE RUN? ET 06:12:49 Y:ENTER N:NEXT ST 08:18:26MAY15
ENTER
NEXT
EXIT NEXT
Run START RUN: ENTER MAX: 0.113 mg/m3 Mode READY: NEXT T 10:08:44 MAY15
ON/OFF EXIT NEXT (logging STEL:0.058 mg/m3 enabled) T 09:59:22 MAY15
EXIT NEXT
CONC*0.047 mg/m3 TWA 0.039 mg/m3

BATTERY LEFT 83% MEMORY LEFT 96%
EXIT NEXT
ANALOG OUTPUT: 0 -4.000 mg/m3
NEXT
CONC*0.044 mg/m3 TWA 0.040 mg/m3
ON/OFF

TURN OFF PDR? Y:ENTER N:NEXT
ENTER NEXT
(power off) CONC*0.036 mg/m3 TWA 0.039 mg/m3

Resetting/Electronic Checking Mode
EXIT + ENTER
+
ON/OFF
PDR SELF-TEST… TESTING ALARM


PDR SELF-TEST… TESTING SERIAL

PDR SELF-TEST… TESTING CLOCK

PDR SELF-TEST… TESTING A/D
Automatic Sequence (30 – 40 sec.)

PDR SELF-TEST… TESTING D/A

PDR SELF-TEST… TESTING MEMORY

PDR SELF-TEST… TESTING COMPLETE

(automatic power off)

NOTE: After the preceding resetting sequence, the instrument should be zeroed; otherwise its optical background will remain unsubtracted.

 

17.0 SERVICE LOCATIONS
For additional assistance, service is available from exclusive distributors worldwide. Contact one of the phone numbers below for product support and technical information or visit us on the web at www.thermo.com/aqi.
1-866-282-0430 Toll Free 1-508-520-0430 International


Final Air Quality Monitoring Plan SMUD Station E Substation
APPENDIX F NIOSH and USEPA Methods
.
NIOSH 7300 Metals by ICP

.
NIOSH 5300 PCBs

.
TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

 

 


ELEMENTS by ICP 7300 (Nitric/Perchloric Acid Ashing)
MW: Table 1 CAS: Table 2 RTECS: Table 2
METHOD: 7300, Issue 3 EVALUATION: PARTIAL Issue 1: 15 August 1990 Issue 3: 15 March 2003
OSHA: Table 2 PROPERTIES: Table 1 NIOSH: Table 2 ACGIH: Table 2
ELEMENTS: aluminum* calcium lanthanum nickel strontium tungsten* antimony* chromium* lithium* potassium tellurium vanadium* arsenic cobalt* magnesium phosphorus tin yittrium barium copper manganese* selenium thallium zinc beryllium* iron molybdenum* silver titanium zirconium* cadmium lead* *Some compounds of these elements require special sample treatment.
SAMPLING MEASUREMENT
SAMPLER: FILTER (0.8-µm, cellulose ester membrane, or 5.0-µm, polyvinyl chloride membrane) FLOWRATE: 1 to 4 L/min VOL-MIN: Table 1 -MAX: Table 1 SHIPMENT: routine SAMPLE STABILITY: stable BLANKS: 2 to 10 field blanks per set TECHNIQUE: INDUCTIVELY COUPLED ARGON PLASMA, ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY (ICP-AES) ANALYTE: elements above ASHING REAGENTS: conc. HNO3/ conc. HClO4 (4:1), 5 mL; 2mL increments added as needed CONDITIONS: room temperature, 30 min; 150 °C to near dryness FINAL SOLUTION: 4% HNO3, 1% HClO4, 25 mL WAVELENGTH: depends upon element; Table 3 BACKGROUND CORRECTION: spectral wavelength shift CALIBRATION: elements in 4% HNO3, 1% HClO4 RANGE: varies with element [1] ESTIMATED LOD: Tables 3 and 4 PRECISION (): Tables 3 and 4
ACCURACY
RANGE STUDIED: not determined BIAS: not determined OVERALL PRECISION (ÖrT): not determined ACCURACY: not determined

APPLICABILITY: The working range of this method is 0.005 to 2.0 mg/m3 for each element in a 500-L air sample. This is simultaneous elemental analysis, not compound specific. Verify that the types of compounds in the samples are soluble with the ashing procedure selected.
INTERFERENCES: Spectral interferences are the primary interferences encountered in ICP-AES analysis. These are minimized by judicious wavelength selection, interelement correction factors and background correction [1-4].
OTHER METHODS: This issue updates issues 1 and 2 of Method 7300, which replaced P&CAM 351 [3] for trace elements. Flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (e.g., Methods 70XX) is an alternate analytical technique for many of these elements. Graphite furnace AAS (e.g., 7102 for Be, 7105 for Pb) is more sensitive.

ELEMENTS (ICP): METHOD 7300, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003 - Page 2 of 8
REAGENTS: EQUIPMENT:
1.
Nitric acid (HNO3), conc., ultra pure.

2.
Perchloric acid (HClO4), conc., ultra pure.*

3.
Ashing acid: 4:1 (v/v) HNO3:HClO4. Mix 4 volumes conc. HNO3 with 1 volume conc. HClO4.

4.
Calibration stock solutions, 1000 µg/mL. Commercially available, or prepared per instrument manufacturer's recomm endation (see step 12).

5.
Dilution acid, 4% HNO3, 1% HClO4. Add 50 mL ashing acid to 600 mL water; dilute to 1 L.

6.
Argon.

7.
Distilled,deionized water.


* See SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS.
1.
Sampler: cellulose ester membrane filter, 0.8-µm pore size; or polyvinyl chloride membrane, 5.0-µm pore size; 37-mm diameter, in cassette filter holder.

2.
Personal sampling pump, 1 to 4 L/min, with flexible connecting tubing.

3.
Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer, equipped as specified by the manufacturer for analysis of elements of interest.

4.
Regulator, two-stage, for argon.

5.
Beakers, Phillips, 125-mL, or Griffin, 50-mL, with watchglass covers.**

6.
Volumetric flasks, 10-, 25-,100-mL., and 1-L**

7.
Assorted volumetric pipets as needed.**

8.
Hotplate, surface temperature 150 °C.


** Clean all glassware with conc. nitric acid and rinse thoroughly in distilled water before use.

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS: All perchloric acid digestions are required to be done in a perchloric acid hood. When working with concentrated acids, wear protective clothing and gloves.

SAMPLING:
1.
Calibrate each personal sampling pump with a representative sampler in line.

2.
Sample at an accurately known flow rate between 1 and 4 L/min for a total sample size of 200 to 2000 L (see Table 1) for TWA measurements. Do not exceed a filter loading of approximately 2 mg total dust.

 

SAMPLE PREPARATION:
3.
Open the cassette filter holders and transfer the samples and blanks to clean beakers.

4.
Add 5 mL ashing acid. Cover with a watchglass. Let stand 30 min at room temperature. NOTE: Start a reagent blank at this step.

5.
Heat on hotplate (120 °C) until ca. 0.5 mL remains.


NOTE 1: Recovery of lead from some paint matrices may require other digestion techniques. See Method 7082 (Lead by Flame AAS) for an alternative hotplate digestion procedure or Method 7302 for a microwave digestion procedure.
NOTE 2: Some species of Al, Be, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Mo, V, and Zr will not be completely solubilized by this procedure. Alternative solubilization techniques for most of these elements can be found elsewhere [5-10]. For example, aqua regia may be needed for Mn [6,12].
6.
Add 2 mL ashing acid and repeat step 5. Repeat this step until the solution is clear.

7.
Remove watchglass and rinse into the beaker with distilled water.

8.
Increase the temperature to 150 °C and take the sample to near dryness (ca. 0.5 mL).

9.
Dissolve the residue in 2 to 3 mL dilution acid.

10.
Transfer the solutions quantitatively to 25-mL volumetric flasks.

11.
Dilute to volume with dilution acid. NOTE: If more sensitivity is required, the final sample volume m ay be held to 10 mL.

 

ELEMENTS (ICP): METHOD 7300, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003 - Page 3 of 8

CALIBRATION AND QUALITY CONTROL:
12. Calibrate the spectrometer according to the manufacturers recomm endations.
NOTE: Typically, an acid blank and 1.0 µg/mL multielement working standards are used. The following multielement combinations are chemically compatible in 4% HNO3/1% HClO4:
a.
Al, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, La, In, Na

b.
Ag, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, V, Y, Zn, Sc

c.
Mo, Sb, Sn, Te, Ti, W, Zr

d.
Acid blank

 

13.
Analyze a standard for every ten samples.

14.
Check recoveries with at least two spiked blank filters per ten samples.

 

MEASUREMENT:
15.
Set spectrometer to conditions specified by manufacturer.

16.
Analyze standards and samples.


NOTE: If the values for the samples are above the range of the standards, dilute the solutions with dilution acid, reanalyze and apply the appropriate dilution factor in the calculations.

CALCULATIONS:
17.
Obtain the solution concentrations for the sample, Cs (µg/mL), and the average media blank, Cb (µg/mL), from the instrument.

18.
Using the solution volumes of sample, Vs (mL), and media blank, Vb (mL), calculate the concentration, C (mg/m 3), of each element in the air volume sampled, V (L):

 

NOTE: µg/L / mg/m 3

EVALUATION OF METHOD:

Issues 1 and 2
Method, 7300 was originally evaluated in 1981 [2,3]. The precision and recovery data were determined at 2.5 and 1000 µg of each element per sample on spiked filters. The measurements used for the method evaluation in Issues 1 and 2 were determined with a Jarrell-Ash Model 1160 Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometer operated according to manufacturer's instructions.
Issue 3
In this update of NIOSH Method 7300, the precision and recovery data were determined at approximately 3x and 10x the instrumental detection limits on comm ercially prepared spiked filters [12] using 25.0 mL as the final sample volume. Tables 3 and 4 list the precision and recovery data, instrumental detection limits, and analytical wavelengths for mixed cellulose ester (MCE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) filters. PVC Filters which can be used for total dust measurements and then digested for metals measurements were tested and found to give good results. The values in Tables 3 and 4 were determined with a Spectro Analytical Instruments Model End On Plasma (EOP)(axial) operated according to manufacturer’s instructions.

ELEMENTS (ICP): METHOD 7300, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003 - Page 4 of 8


REFERENCES:
[1] Millson M, Andrews R [2002]. Backup data report, Method 7300, unpublished report, NIOSH/DART.
[2] Hull RD [1981]. Multielement Analysis of Industrial Hygiene Samples, NIOSH Internal Report, presented at the American Industrial Hygiene Conference, Portland, Oregon.
[3] NIOSH [1982]. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., V. 7, P&CAM 351 (Elements by ICP),
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Publ. (NIOSH) 82-100.
[4] NIOSH [1994]. Elements by ICP: Method 7300, Issue 2. In: Eller PM, Cassinelli ME, eds., NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute forOccupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-113.
[5] NIOSH [1994]. Lead by FAAS: Method 7082. In: Eller PM, Cassinelli ME, eds., NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-113.
[6] NIOSH [1977]. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., V. 2, S5 (Manganese), U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 77-157-B.
[7] NIOSH [1994]. Tungsten, soluble/insoluble: Method 7074. In: Eller PM, Cassinelli ME, eds., NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 4th ed. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational SafetyandHealth, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 94-113.
[8] NIOSH [1979]. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., V. 5, P&CAM 173 (Metals by Atomic Absorption), U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 79-141.
[9] NIOSH [1977]. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., V. 3, S183 (Tin), S185 (Zirconium), and S376 (Molybdenum), U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 77-157-C.
[10] ISO [2001]. Workplace air - Determination of metals and metalloids in airborne particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry - Part 2: Sample preparation. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 15202-2:2001(E).
[11] ASTM [1985]. 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 11.01; Standard Specification for Reagent Water; ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, D1193-77 (1985).
[12] Certification Inorganic Ventures for spikes.
METHOD REVISED BY:
Mark Millson and Ronnee Andrews, NIOSH/DART.
Method originally written by Mark Millson, NIOSH/DART, and R. DeLon Hull, Ph.D., NIOSH/DSHEFS, James
B.Perkins, David L. Wheeler, and Keith Nicholson, DataChem Labortories, Salt Lake City, UT.

ELEMENTS (ICP): METHOD 7300, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003 - Page 5 of 8
TABLE 1. PROPERTIES AND SAMPLING VOLUM ES
Element (Symbol) Properties Atomic W eight MP, °C Air Volume, L @ OSHA PEL MIN MAX

Silver (Ag) 107.87 961
Aluminum (Al) 26.98 660
Arsenic (As) 74.92 817
Barium (Ba) 137.34 710
Beryllium (Be) 9.01 1278
Calcium (Ca) 40.08 842
Cadmium (Cd) 112.40 321
Cobalt (Co) 58.93 1495
Chrom ium (Cr) 52.00 1890
Copper (Cu) 63.54 1083
Iron (Fe) 55.85 1535
Potassium (K) 39.10 63.65
Lanthanum 138.91 920
Lithium (Li) 6.94 179
Magnesium (Mg) 24.31 651
Manganese (Mn) 54.94 1244
Molybdenum (Mo) 95.94 651
Nickel (N i) 58.71 1453
Phosphorus (P) 30.97 44
Lead (Pb) 207.19 328
Antimony (Sb) 121.75 630.5
Selenium (Se) 78.96 217
Tin (Sn) 118.69 231.9
Strontium (Sr) 87.62 769
Tellurium (Te) 127.60 450
Titanium (Ti) 47.90 1675
Thallium (Tl) 204.37 304
Vanadium (V) 50.94 1890
Tungsten (W ) 183.85 3410
Yttrium (Y) 88.91 1495
Zinc (Zn) 65.37 419
Zirconium (Zr) 91.22 1852

250 5 5 50
1250 5 13 25 5 5 5 5 5 100 5 5 5 5 25 50 50 13 5 10 25 5 25 5 5 5 5 5
2000 100 2000 2000 2000 200 2000 2000 1000 1000 100 1000 1000 2000 67 200 67 1000 2000 2000 2000 2000 1000 1000 2000 100 2000 2000 1000 1000 200 200


ELEMENTS (ICP): METHOD 7300, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003 - Page 6 of 8

TABLE 2. EXPOSURE LIMITS, CAS #, RTECS
Element Exposure Limits, mg/m3 (Ca = carcinogen) (Symbol) CAS # RTECS OSHA NIOSH ACGIH
Silver (Ag) 7440-22-4 VW3500000 0.01 (dust, fume, metal) 0.01 (metal, soluble) 0.1 (metal)
0.01 (soluble) Aluminum (Al) 7429-90-5 BD0330000 15 (total dust) 10 (total dust) 10 (dust) 5 (respirable) 5 (respirable fume) 5 (powders, fume)
2 (salts, alkyls) 2 (salts, alkyls) Arsenic (As) 7440-38-2 CG0525000 varies C 0.002, Ca 0.01, Ca Barium (Ba) 7440-39-3 CQ8370000 0.5 0.5 0.5 Beryllium (Be) 7440-41-7 DS1750000 0.002, C 0.005 0.0005, Ca 0.002, Ca Calcium (Ca) 7440-70-2 --varies varies varies Cadmium (Cd) 7440-43-9 EU9800000 0.005 lowest feasible, Ca 0.01 (total), Ca
0.002 (respir.), Ca Cobalt (Co) 7440-48-4 GF8750000 0.1 0.05 (dust, fume) 0.02 (dust, fume) Chromium (Cr) 7440-47-3 GB4200000 0.5 0.5 0.5 Copper (Cu) 7440-50-8 GL5325000 1 (dust, mists) 1 (dust) 1 (dust, mists)
0.1 (fume) 0.1 (fume) 0.2 (fume) Iron (Fe) 7439-89-6 NO4565500 10 (dust, fume) 5 (dust, fume) 5 (fume) Potassium (K) 7440-09-7 TS6460000 -----­Lanthanum 7439-91-0 --– – -­Lithium (Li) 7439-93-2 -------­Magnesium (Mg) 7439-95-4 OM2100000 15 (dust) as oxide 10 (fume) as oxide 10 (fume) as oxide
5 (respirable) Manganese (Mn) 7439-96-5 OO9275000 C 5 1; STEL 3 5 (dust) 1; STEL 3 (fume) Molybdenum (Mo) 7439-98-7 QA4680000 5 (soluble) 5 (soluble) 5 (soluble) 15 (total insoluble) 10 (insoluble) 10 (insoluble) Nickel (Ni) 7440-02-0 QR5950000 1 0.015, Ca 0.1 (soluble)
1 (insoluble, metal) Phosphorus (P) 7723-14-0 TH3500000 0.1 0.1 0.1 Lead (Pb) 7439-92-1 OF7525000 0.05 0.05 0.05 Antimony (Sb) 7440-36-0 CC4025000 0.5 0.5 0.5 Selenium (Se) 7782-49-2 VS7700000 0.2 0.2 0.2 Tin (Sn) 7440-31-5 XP7320000 2 2 2 Strontium (Sr) 7440-24-6 – – – -­Tellurium (Te) 13494-80-9 WY2625000 0.1 0.1 0.1 Titanium (Ti) 7440-32-6 XR1700000 -----­Thallium (Tl) 7440-28-0 XG3425000 0.1 (skin) (soluble) 0.1 (skin) (soluble) 0.1 (skin) Vanadium (V) 7440-62-2 YW240000 --C 0.05 -­Tungsten 7440-33-7 – 5 5 5
10 (STEL) 10 (STEL) Yttrium (Y) 7440-65-5 ZG2980000 1 N/A 1 Zinc (Zn) 7440-66-6 ZG8600000 – ---­Zirconium (Zr) 7440-67-7 ZH7070000 5 5, STEL 10 5, STEL 10

ELEMENTS (ICP): METHOD 7300, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003 - Page 7 of 8

TABLE 3. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES AND DATA [1]. Mixed Cellulose Ester Filters (0.45 µm)
wavelengthEst. LOD Element nm µg/ (a) Filter LOD ng/m L Certified % Recovery Percent 3x LOD (c) RSD (b) (N=25) Certified % Percent 10x LOD Recovery RSD (b) (c) (N=25)
Ag 328 0.042 1.7 0.77 102.9 2.64 3.21 98.3 1.53
Al 167 0.115 4.6 1.54 105.4 11.5 6.40 101.5 1.98
As 189 0.140 5.6 3.08 94.9 2.28 12.9 93.9 1.30
Ba 455 0.005 0.2 0.31 101.8 1.72 1.29 97.7 0.69
Be 313 0.005 0.2 0.31 100.0 1.44 1.29 98.4 0.75
Ca 317 0.908 36.3 15.4 98.7 6.65 64.0 100.2 1.30
Cd 226 0.0075 0.3 0.31 99.8 1.99 1.29 97.5 0.88
Co 228 0.012 0.5 0.31 100.8 1.97 1.29 98.4 0.90
Cr 267 0.020 0.8 0.31 93.4 16.3 1.29 101.2 2.79
Cu 324 0.068 2.7 1.54 102.8 1.47 6.40 100.6 0.92
Fe 259 0.095 3.8 1.54 103.3 5.46 6.40 98.0 0.95
K 766 1.73 69.3 23.0 90.8 1.51 96.4 97.6 0.80
La 408 0.048 1.9 0.77 102.8 2.23 3.21 100.1 0.92
Li 670 0.010 0.4 0.31 110.0 1.91 1.29 97.7 0.81
Mg 279 0.098 3.9 1.54 101.1 8.35 6.40 98.0 1.53
Mn 257 0.005 0.2 0.31 101.0 1.77 1.29 94.7 0.73
Mo 202 0.020 0.8 0.31 105.3 2.47 1.29 98.6 1.09
Ni 231 0.020 0.8 0.31 109.6 3.54 1.29 101.2 1.38
P 178 0.092 3.7 1.54 84.4 6.19 6.40 82.5 4.75
Pb 168 0.062 2.5 1.54 109.4 2.41 6.40 101.7 0.88
Sb 206 0.192 7.7 3.08 90.2 11.4 12.9 41.3 32.58
Se 196 0.135 5.4 2.3 87.6 11.6 9.64 84.9 4.78
Sn 189 0.040 1.6 0.77 90.2 18.0 3.21 49 21.79
Sr 407 0.005 0.2 0.31 101.0 1.55 1.29 97.3 0.65
Te 214 0.078 3.1 1.54 102.0 2.67 6.40 97.4 1.24
Ti 334 0.050 2.0 0.77 98.4 2.04 3.21 93.4 1.08
Tl 190 0.092 3.7 1.54 100.9 2.48 6.40 99.1 0.80
V 292 0.028 1.1 0.77 103.2 1.92 3.21 98.3 0.84
W 207 0.075 3.0 1.54 72.2 10.1 6.40 57.6 14.72
Y 371 0.012 0.5 0.31 100.5 1.80 1.29 97.4 0.75
Zn 213 0.310 12.4 4.60 102.2 1.87 19.3 95.3 0.90
Zr 339 0.022 0.9 0.31 88.0 19.4 1.29 25 57.87

(a) Bold values are qualitative only because of low recovery.
(b) Values are certified by Inorganic Ventures INC. at 3x and 10x the approximate instrumental LOD
(c) Values reported were obtained with a Spectro Analytical Instruments EOP ICP; perform ance m ay vary with
instrument and should be independently verified.


ELEMENTS (ICP): METHOD 7300, Issue 3, dated 15 March 2003 - Page 8 of 8

TABLE 4. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURES AND DATA [1]. Polyvinyl Chloride Filter (5.0 :m)
wavelength Est. LOD Element nm :g per (c) filter LOD ng/m L Certified % Percent 3x LOD Recovery RSD (b) (a) (N=25) Certified17 % Percent 10x LOD Recovery RSD (b) (a) (N=25)
Ag 328 0.042 1.7 0.78 104.2 8.20 3.18 81.8 18.9
Al 167 0.115 4.6 1.56 77.4 115.24 6.40 92.9 20.9
As 189 0.140 5.6 3.10 100.7 5.13 12.70 96.9 3.2
Ba 455 0.005 0.2 0.31 102.4 3.89 1.270 99.8 2.0
Be 313 0.005 0.2 0.31 106.8 3.53 1.270 102.8 2.1
Ca 317 0.908 36.3 15.6 68.1 12.66 64.00 96.8 5.3
Cd 226 0.0075 0.3 0.31 105.2 5.57 1.27 101.9 2.8
Co 228 0.012 0.5 0.31 109.3 4.67 1.27 102.8 2.8
Cr 267 0.020 0.8 0.31 109.4 5.31 1.27 103.4 4.1
Cu 324 0.068 2.7 1.56 104.9 5.18 6.40 101.8 2.4
Fe 259 0.095 3.8 1.56 88.7 46.82 6.40 99.1 9.7
K 766 1.73 69.3 23.4 96.4 4.70 95.00 99.2 2.2
La 408 0.048 1.9 0.78 45.5 4.19 3.18 98.8 2.6
Li 670 0.010 0.4 0.31 107.7 4.80 1.27 110.4 2.7
Mg 279 0.098 3.9 1.56 54.8 20.59 6.40 64.5 5.7
Mn 257 0.005 0.2 0.31 101.9 4.18 1.27 99.3 2.4
Mo 202 0.020 0.8 0.31 106.6 5.82 1.27 98.1 3.8
Ni 231 0.020 0.8 0.31 111.0 5.89 1.27 103.6 3.2
P 178 0.092 3.7 1.56 101.9 17.82 6.40 86.5 10.4
Pb 168 0.062 2.5 1.56 109.6 6.12 6.40 103.2 2.9
Sb 206 0.192 7.7 3.10 64.6 22.54 12.70 38.1 30.5
Se 196 0.135 5.4 2.30 83.1 26.23 9.50 76.0 17.2
Sn 189 0.040 1.6 0.78 85.7 27.29 3.18 52.0 29.4
Sr 407 0.005 0.2 0.31 71.8 4.09 1.27 81.2 2.7
Te 214 0.078 3.1 1.56 109.6 7.49 6.40 97.3 3.8
Ti 334 0.050 2.0 0.78 101.0 9.46 3.18 92.4 5.5
Tl 190 0.092 3.7 1.56 110.3 4.04 6.40 101.9 2.0
V 292 0.028 1.1 0.78 108.3 3.94 3.18 102.5 2.6
W 207 0.075 3.0 1.56 74.9 15.79 6.40 44.7 19.6
Y 371 0.012 0.5 0.31 101.5 3.63 1.27 101.4 2.5
Zn 213 0.310 12.4 4.70 91.0 68.69 19.1 101.0 9.6
Zr 339 0.022 0.9 0.31 70.7 54.20 1.27 40.4 42.1

(a) Values reported were obtained with a Spectro Analytical Instruments EOP ICP; perform ance m ay vary with
instrument and should be independently verified.
(b) Values are certified by Inorganic Ventures INC. at 3x and 10x the approximate instrum ental LOD [12].
(c) Bold values are qualitative only because of low recovery. Other digestion techniques may be more
appropriate for these elements and their compounds.


POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS 5503

mixture: C12H10-xClx MW: ca. 258 (42% Cl ; C12H7Cl3); CAS: Table 1 RTECS: Table 1 [where x = 1 to 10] ca. 326 (54% Cl ; C12H5Cl5)
METHOD: 5503, Issue 2 EVALUATION: PARTIAL Issue 1: 15 February 1984 Revision #1: 15 August 1987 Issue 2: 15 August 1994
OSHA : 1 mg/m3 (42% Cl); PROPERTIES: 42% Cl: BP 325 to 366 °C; MP ­19 °C;
0.5 mg/m3 (54% Cl) d 1.38 g/mL @ 25 °C; NIOSH: 0.001 mg/m3/10 h (carcinogen) VP 0.01 Pa (8 x 10-5 mm Hg; ACGIH: 1 mg/m3 (42% Cl) (skin) 1 mg/m3) @ 20 °C
0.5 mg/m3 (54% Cl) (skin) 54% Cl: BP 365 to 390 °C; MP 10 °C; d 1.54 g/mL @ 25 °C; VP 0.0004 Pa (3 x 10-6 mm Hg; 0.05 mg/m3) @ 20 °C
SYNONYMS: PCB; 1,1'-biphenyl chloro; chlorodiphenyl, 42% Cl (Aroclor 1242); and 54% Cl (Aroclor 1254)
SAMPLING MEASUREMENT
SAMPLER: FILTER + SOLID SORBENT (13-mm glass fiber + Florisil, 100 mg/50 mg) FLOW RATE: 0.05 to 0.2 L/min or less VOL-MIN: 1 L @ 0.5 mg/m3 -MAX: 50 L SHIPMENT: transfer filters to glass vials after sampling SAMPLE STABILITY: unknown for filters; 2 months for Florisil tubes [1] BLANKS: 2 to 10 field blanks per set TECHNIQUE: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY, ECD (6 3Ni) ANALYTE: polychlorobiphenyls DESORPTION: filter + front section, 5 mL hexane; back section, 2 mL hexane INJECTION VOLUME: 4-µL with 1-µL backflush TEMPERATURE-INJECTION: 250 to 300 °C -DETECTOR: 300 to 325 °C -COLUMN: 180 °C CARRIER GAS: N2, 40 mL/min COLUMN: glass, 1.8 m x 2-mm ID, 1.5% OV-17/1.95% QF-1 on 80/100 mesh Chromosorb WHP CALIBRATION: standard PCB mixture in hexane RANGE: 0.4 to 4 µg per sample [2] ESTIMATED LOD: 0.03 µg per sample [2] PRECISION (S): 0.044 [1]r
ACCURACY
RANGE STUDIED: not studied BIAS: none identified OVERALL PRECISION (Sˆ rT): not evaluated ACCURACY: not determined

APPLICABILITY: The working range is 0.01 to 10 mg/m3 for a 40-L air sample [1]. With modifications, surface wipe samples may be analyzed [3,4].
INTERFERENCES: Chlorinated pesticides, such as DDT and DDE, may interfere with quantification of PCB. Sulfur-containing compounds in petroleum products also interfere [5].
OTHER METHODS: This method revises methods S120 [6] and P&CAM 244 [1]. Methods S121 [7] and P&CAM 253 [8] for PCB have not been revised.
NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition, 8/15/94

POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS: METHOD 5503, Issue 2, dated 15 August 1994 - Page 2 of 5
REAGENTS:

1.
Hexane, pesticide quality.

2.
Florisil, 30/48 mesh sieved from 30/60 mesh. After sieving, dry at 105 °C for 45 min. Mix the cooled Florisil with 3% (w/w) distilled water.

3.
Nitrogen, purified.


4.
Stock standard solution of the PCB in methanol or isooctane (commercially available).*


* See SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS.
EQUIPMENT:
1.
Sampler: 13-mm glass fiber filter without binders in a Swinnex cassette (Cat. No. SX 0001300, Millipore Corp.) followed by a glass tube, 7 cm long, 6-mm OD, 4-mm ID containing two sections of 30/48 mesh deactivated Florisil. The front section is preceded by glass wool and contains 100 mg and the backup section contains 50 mg; urethane foam between sections and behind the backup section. (SKC 226-39, Supelco ORBO-60, or equivalent) Join the cassette and Florisil tube with PVC tubing, 3/8" L x 9/32" OD x 5/32" ID, on the outlet of the cassette and with another piece of PVC tubing, 3/4" L x 5/16" OD x 3/16" ID, complete the union.

2.
Personal sampling pump, 0.05 to 0.2 L/min, with flexible connecting tubing.

3.
Tweezers.

4.
Vials, glass, 4- and 7-mL, with aluminum or PTFE-lined caps

5.
Gas chromatograph, electron capture detection (63Ni), integrator and column (page 5503-1).

6.
Volumetric flasks, 10-mL and other convenient


sizes for preparing standards. 7. Syringe, 10-µL.

SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS: Avoid prolonged or repeated contact of skin with PCB and prolonged or repeated breathing of the vapor [9-11].
SAMPLING:

1.
Calibrate each personal sampling pump with a representative sampler in line.

2.
Break the ends of the Florisil tube immediately before sampling. Connect Florisil tube to Swinnex cassette and attach sampler to personal sampling pump with flexible tubing.

3.
Sample at an accurately known flow rate between 0.05 and 0.2 L/min for a total sample size of 1 to 50 L. NOTE: At low PCB concentrations, the sampler was found to be efficient when operated at flow

rates up to 1 L/min, for 24 hours [4]. Under these conditions, the limit of detection was 0.02 µg/m3.

4.
Transfer the glass fiber filters to 7-mL vials. Cap the Florisil tubes with plastic (not rubber) caps and pack securely for shipment.


SAMPLE PREPARATION:

5.
Place the glass wool and 100-mg Florisil bed in the same 7-mL vial in which the filter was stored. Add 5.0 mL hexane.

6.
In a 4-mL vial, place the 50-mg Florisil bed including the two urethane plugs. Add 2.0 mL hexane.

7.
Allow to stand 20 min with occasional agitation.


NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition, 8/15/94

POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS: METHOD 5503, Issue 2, dated 15 August 1994 - Page 3 of 5
CALIBRATION AND QUALITY CONTROL:
8. Calibrate daily with at least six working standards over the range 10 to 500 ng/mL PCB.
a.
Add known amounts of stock standard solution to hexane in 10-mL volumetric flasks and dilute to the mark.

b.
Analyze together with samples and blanks (steps 11 and 12).

c.
Prepare calibration graph (sum of areas of selected peaks vs. ng PCB per sample).


9. Determine desorption efficiency (DE) at least once for each lot of glass fiber filters and Florisil used for sampling in the calibration range (step 8). Prepare three tubes at each of five levels plus three media blanks.
a.
Remove and discard back sorbent section of a media blank Florisil tube.

b.
Inject known amounts of stock standard solution directly onto front sorbent section and onto a media blank filter with a microliter syringe.

c.
Cap the tube. Allow to stand overnight.

d.
Desorb (steps 5 through 7) and analyze together with working standards (steps 11 and 12).

e.
Prepare a graph of DE vs. µg PCB recovered.


10. Analyze three quality control blind spikes and three analyst spikes to ensure that the calibration graph and DE graph are in control.
MEASUREMENT:

11.
Set gas chromatograph according to manufacturer's recommendations and to conditions given on page 5503-1. Inject sample aliquot manually using solvent flush technique or with autosampler. NOTE 1: Where individual identification of PCB is needed, a procedure using a capillary

column may be used [12]. NOTE 2: If peak area is above the linear range of the working standards, dilute with hexane, reanalyze and apply the appropriate dilution factor in calculations.

12.
Sum the areas for five or more selected peaks.


CALCULATIONS:

13.
Determine the mass, µg (corrected for DE) of PCB found on the glass fiber filter (W) and in the Florisil front (Wf) and back (Wb) sorbent sections, and in the average media blank filter (B) and front (Bf) and back (Bb) sorbent sections. NOTE: If Wb > Wf/10, report breakthrough and possible sample loss.

14.
Calculate concentration, C, of PCB in the air volume sampled, V (L):

 

EVALUATION OF METHOD:
This method uses 13-mm glass fiber filters which have not been evaluated for collecting PCB. In Method S120, however, Aroclor 1242 was completely recovered from 37-mm glass fiber filters using 15 mL isooctane [8,13,14]. With 5 mL of hexane, Aroclor 1016 was also completely recovered from 100­mg Florisil beds after one-day storage [1]. Thus, with no adsorption effect likely on glass fiber filters for PCB, 5 mL hexane should be adequate to completely extract PCB from combined filters and front sorbent sections. Sample stability on glass fiber filters has not been investigated. Breakthrough volume was >48 L for the Florisil tube at 75% RH in an atmosphere containing 10 mg/m 3 Aroclor 1016 [1].

NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition, 8/15/94
POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS: METHOD 5503, Issue 2, dated 15 August 1994 - Page 4 of 5
REFERENCES:

[1] NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., V. 1, P&CAM 244, U.S. Department of health,
Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 77-157-A (1977).
[2] User check, Southern Research Institute, NIOSH Sequence #4121-U (unpublished, January 25,
1984).
[3] Kominsky, J. Applied Ind. Hyg. 1 (4), R-6 (1986).
[4] NIOSH Health Hazard Evaluation Report, HETA 85-289-1738 (unpublished, 1986).
[5] Hofstader, R. A., C. A. Bache, and D. J. Lisk. Bull, Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 11, 136 (1974).
[6] NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods, 2nd ed., V. 4, S120, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 78-175 (1978).
[7] Ibid, V. 2, S121, U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 77-157-B
(1977).
[8] Ibid, Vol. 1, P&CAM 253
[9] Criteria for a Recommended Standard . . . Occupational Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls,
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 77-225 (1977).
[10] Current Intelligence Bulletin 7, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, Publ. (NIOSH) 78-127 (1975).
[11] Occupational Diseases, A Guide to Their Recognition, revised ed., 255-256, U.S. Department of
Health, Education, and Welfare, Publ. (NIOSH) 77-181 (1978).
[12] Dunker, J. C. and M. T. J. Hillebrand. Characterization of PCB Components in Clophen
Formulations by Capillary GC-MS and GC-ECD Techniques, Environ. Sci. Technol., 17 (8), 449­
456 (1983).
[13] Backup Data Report for S120, prepared under NIOSH Contract 210-76-0123, available as "Ten
NIOSH Analytical Methods, Set 2," Order No. Pb 271-464 from NTIS, Springfield, VA 22161.
[14] NIOSH Research Report-Development and Validation of Methods for Sampling and Analysis of
Workplace Toxic Substances, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Publ. (NIOSH)
80-133 (1980).
[15] Hutzinger, O., S. Safe, and V. Zitko. The Chemistry of PCBs, CRC Press, Inc., Cleveland, OH
(1974).

METHOD REVISED BY:

James E. Arnold, NIOSH/DPSE; S120 originally validated under NIOSH Contract 210-76-0123.
Table 1. General Information.
Compound CAS RTECS
Polychlorinated Biphenyls 1336-36-3 TQ1350000
Chlorobiphenyl 27323-18-8 DV2063000
Aroclor 1016 (41% Cl) 12674-11-2 TQ1351000
Aroclor 1242 (42% Cl) 53469-21-9 TQ1356000
Aroclor 1254 (54% Cl) 11097-69-1 TQ1360000


NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition, 8/15/94
POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS: METHOD 5503, Issue 2, dated 15 August 1994 - Page 5 of 5
Table 2. Composition of some Aroclors [15].
Major Components Aroclor 1016 Aroclor 1242 Aroclor 1254
Biphenyl 0.1% <0.1% <0.1%
Monochlorobiphenyls 1 1 <0.1
Dichlorobiphenyls 20 16 0.5
Trichlorobiphenyls 57 49 1
Tetrachlorobiphenyls 21 25 21
Pentachlorobiphenyls 1 8 48
Hexachlorobiphenyls <0.1 1 23
Heptachlorobiphenyls none detected <0.1 6
Octachlorobiphenyls none detected none detected none detected


NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods (NMAM), Fourth Edition, 8/15/94
EPA/625/R-96/010b

Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air
Second Edition

Compendium Method TO-9A
Determination Of Polychlorinated, Polybrominated And Brominated/Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins And Dibenzofurans In Ambient Air
Center for Environmental Research Information Office of Research and Development
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, OH 45268
January 1999


Method TO-9A Acknowledgements

This Method was prepared for publication in the Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air, Second Edition (EPA/625/R-96/010b), which was prepared under Contract No. 68-C3-0315, WA No. 3-10, by Midwest Research Institute (MRI), as a subcontractor to Eastern Research Group, Inc. (ERG), and under the sponsorship of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Justice A. Manning, John Burckle, and Scott Hedges, Center for Environmental Research Information (CERI), and Frank
F. McElroy, National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL), all in the EPA Office of Research and Development, were responsible for overseeing the preparation of this method. Additional support was provided by other members of the Compendia Workgroup, which include:

John O. Burckle, U.S. EPA, ORD, Cincinnati, OH


James L. Cheney, Corps of Engineers, Omaha, NB


Michael Davis, U.S. EPA, Region 7, KC, KS


Joseph B. Elkins Jr., U.S. EPA, OAQPS, RTP, NC


Robert G. Lewis, U.S. EPA, NERL, RTP, NC


Justice A. Manning, U.S. EPA, ORD, Cincinnati, OH


William A. McClenny, U.S. EPA, NERL, RTP, NC


Frank F. McElroy, U.S. EPA, NERL, RTP, NC


Heidi Schultz, ERG, Lexington, MA


William T. "Jerry" Winberry, Jr., EnviroTech Solutions, Cary, NC


Method TO-9 was originally published in March of 1989 as one of a series of peer reviewed methods in the second supplement to "Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air," EPA 600/4-89-018. In an effort to keep these methods consistent with current technology, Method TO-9 has been revised and updated as Method TO-9A in this Compendium to incorporate new or improved sampling and analytical technologies.
This Method is the result of the efforts of many individuals. Gratitude goes to each person involved in the preparation and review of this methodology.
Author(s)

Bob Harless, U.S. EPA, NERL, RTP, NC


William T. "Jerry" Winberry, Jr., EnviroTech Solutions, Cary, NC


Gil Radolovich, Midwest Research Institute, KC, MO


Mark Horrigan, Midwest Research Institute, KC, MO


Peer Reviewers

Audrey E. Dupuy, U.S. EPA, NSTL Station, MS


Greg Jungclaus, Midwest Research Institute, KC, MO


Stan Sleva, TRC, RTP, NC


Robert G. Lewis, U.S. EPA, NERL, RTP, NC


Lauren Drees, U.S. EPA, NRMRL, Cincinnati, OH


Finally, recognition is given to Frances Beyer, Lynn Kaufman, Debbie Bond, Cathy Whitaker, and Kathy Johnson of Midwest Research Institute's Administrative Services staff whose dedication and persistence during the development of this manuscript has enabled it's production.
DISCLAIMER

This Compendium has been subjected to the Agency's peer and administrative review, and it has been approved for publication as an EPA document. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

Method TO-9A Determination Of Polychlorinated, Polybrominated And Brominated/Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins And Dibenzofurans In Ambient Air TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

1. Scope........................................................................ 9A-1
2. Summary of Method ............................................................ 9A-2
3. Significance................................................................... 9A-3
4. Safety ....................................................................... 9A-3
5. Applicable Documents .......................................................... 9A-4
5.1 ASTM Standards ........................................................ 9A-4
5.2 EPA Documents ......................................................... 9A-4
5.3 Other Documents ........................................................ 9A-5
6. Definitions ................................................................... 9A-5
7. Interferences And Contamination.................................................. 9A-9
8. Apparatus .................................................................... 9A-9
8.1 High-Volume Sampler .................................................... 9A-9
8.2 High-Volume Sampler Calibrator ........................................... 9A-9
8.3 High Resolution Gas Chromatograph-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer-Data System (HRGC-HRMS-DS)............................................... 9A-10
9. Equipment And Materials ....................................................... 9A-10
9.1 Materials for Sample Collection ............................................ 9A-10
9.2 Laboratory Equipment .................................................... 9A-11
9.3 Reagents and Other Materials .............................................. 9A-11
9.4 Calibration Solutions and Solutions of Standards Used in the Method .............. 9A-12
10. Preparation Of PUF Sampling Cartridge ........................................... 9A-12
10.1 Summary of Method..................................................... 9A-12
10.2 Preparation of Sampling Cartridge ......................................... 9A-13
10.3 Procedure for Certification of PUF Cartridge Assembly......................... 9A-13
10.4 Deployment of Cartridges for Field Sampling................................. 9A-14
11. Assembly, Calibration And Collection Using Sampling System ......................... 9A-14
11.1 Description of Sampling Apparatus......................................... 9A-14
11.2 Calibration of Sampling System ........................................... 9A-15
11.3 Sample Collection ...................................................... 9A-21

iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)
Page

12. Sample Preparation............................................................ 9A-23
12.1 Extraction Procedure for Quartz Fiber Filters and PUF Plugs .................... 9A-23
12.2 Cleanup Procedures ..................................................... 9A-23
12.3 Glassware Cleanup Procedures ............................................ 9A-25
13. HRGC-HRMS System Performance .............................................. 9A-25
13.1 Operation of HRGC-HRMS .............................................. 9A-25
13.2 Colum Performance ..................................................... 9A-26
13.3 SIM Cycle Time ........................................................ 9A-26
13.4 Peak Separation ........................................................ 9A-26
13.5 Initial Calibration ....................................................... 9A-26
13.6 Criteria Required for Initial Calibration ..................................... 9A-27
13.7 Continuing Calibration................................................... 9A-28
14. HRGC-HRMS Analysis And Operating Parameters.................................. 9A-28
14.1 Sample Analysis ........................................................ 9A-28
14.2 Identication Criteria ..................................................... 9A-29
14.3 Quantification.......................................................... 9A-29
14.4 Calculations ........................................................... 9A-30
14.5 Method Detection Limits (MDLs) .......................................... 9A-31
14.6 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalents .......................................... 9A-31
15. Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) ....................................... 9A-32
16. Report Format................................................................ 9A-33
17. References................................................................... 9A-34

iv
METHOD TO-9A

Determination Of Polychlorinated, Polybrominated And Brominated/Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins And Dibenzofurans In Ambient Air
1. Scope
1.1 This document describes a sampling and analysis method for the quantitative determination of polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PHDDs/PHDFs) in ambient air, which include the polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs), and bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (BCDDs/BCDFs). The method uses a high volume air sampler equipped with a quartz-fiber filter and polyurethane foam (PUF) adsorbent for sampling 325 to 400 m3 ambient air in a 24-hour sampling period. Analytical procedures based on high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) are used for analysis of the sample.
1.2 The sampling and analysis method was evaluated using mixtures of PHDDs and PHDFs, including the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners (1,2). It has been used extensively in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ambient air monitoring studies (3,4) for determination of PCDDs and PCDFs.
1.3 The method provides accurate quantitative data for tetra- through octa-PCDDs/PCDFs (total concentrations for each isomeric series).
1.4 Specificity is attained for quantitative determination of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs and specific 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDD/PBDF and BCDD/BCDF congeners.
3

1.5 Minimum detection limits (MDLs) in the range of 0.01 to 0.2 picograms/meter3 (pg/m ) can be achieved for these compounds in ambient air.
1.6 Concentrations as low as 0.2 pg/m3 can be accurately quantified.
1.7 The method incorporates quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) measures in sampling, analysis, and evaluation of data.
1.8 The analytical procedures also have been used for the quantitative determination of these types of compounds in sample matrices such as stack gas emissions, fly ash, soil, sediments, water, and fish and human tissue (5-9).
1.9 The method is similar to methods used by other EPA, industry, commercial, and academic laboratories for determining PCDDs and PCDFs in various sample matrices (10-25). This method is an update of the original EPA Compendium Method TO-9, originally published in 1989 (26).
1.10 The method does not separately quantify gaseous PHDDs and PHDFs and particulate-associated PHDDs and PHDFs because some of the compounds volatilize from the filter and are collected by the PUF adsorbent. For example, most of the OCDD is collected by the filter and most of the TCDDs are collected by the PUF during sampling. PCDDs/PCDFs may be distributed between the gaseous and particle-adsorbed phases in ambient air. Therefore, the filter and PUF are combined for extraction in this method.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-1

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
1.11
The sampling and analysis method is very versatile and can be used to determine other brominated and brominated/chlorinated dioxins and furans in the future when more analytical standards become available for use in the method. A recent modification of the sample preparation procedure provides the capability required to determine PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and PAHs in the same sample (27).

2.
Summary of Method


2.1 Quartz-fiber filters and glass adsorbent cartridges are pre-cleaned with appropriate solvents and dried in a clean atmosphere. The PUF adsorbent plugs are subjected to 4-hour Soxhlet extraction using an oversized extractor to prevent distortion of the PUF plug. The PUF plugs are then air dried in a clean atmosphere and installed in the glass cartridges. A 50 microliter (FL) aliquot of a 16 picogram/microliter (pg/FL) solution of 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD is spiked to the PUF in the laboratory prior to field deployment. (Different amounts and
4

additional 13C -labeled standards such as 13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF may also be used if desired.) The cartridges
12 12
are then wrapped in aluminum foil to protect from light, capped with Teflon® end caps, placed in a cleaned labeled shipping container, and tightly sealed with Teflon® tap until needed.
2.2 For sampling, the quartz-fiber filter and glass cartridge containing the PUF are installed in the high-volume air sampler.
2.3 The high-volume sampler is then immediately put into operation, usually for 24 hours, to sample 325 to 400 m3 ambient air.
[Note: Significant losses were not detected when duplicate samplers were operated 7 days and sampled 2660 m3 ambient air (1-4).]
2.4 The amount of ambient air sampled is recorded at the end of the sampling session. Sample recovery involves placing the filter on top of the PUF. The glass cartridge is then wrapped with the original aluminum foil, capped with Teflon® end caps, placed back into the original shipping container, identified, and shipped to the analytical laboratory for sample processing.
2.5 Sample preparation typically is performed on a "set" of 12 samples, which consists of 9 test samples, a field blank, a method blank, and a matrix spike.
2.6 The filter and PUF are combined for sample preparation, spiked with 9 13C12-labeled PCDD/PCDF and 4 PBDD/PBDF internal standards (28), and Soxhlet extracted for 16 hours. The extract is subjected to an acid/base clean-up procedure followed by clean-up on micro columns of silica gel, alumina, and carbon. The extract is then
13 13
spiked with 0.5 ng C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD (to determine extraction efficiencies achieved for the C12 -labeled internal standards) and then concentrated to 10 FL for HRGC-HRMS analysis in a 1 mL conical reactivial.
2.7 The set of sample extracts is subjected to HRGC-HRMS selected ion monitoring (SIM) analysis using a 60­m DB-5 or 60-m SP-2331 fused silica capillary column to determine the sampler efficiency, extraction efficiency, and the concentrations or the MDLs achieved for the PHDDs/PHDFs (28). Defined identification criteria and QA/QC criteria and requirements are used in evaluating the analytical data. The analytical results along with the volume of air sampled are used to calculate the concentrations of the respective tetra- through octa-isomers, the concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-chlorine or -bromine substituted isomers, or the MDLs. The concentrations and/or
Page 9A-2 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
MDLs are reported in pg/m3. The EPA toxicity equivalence factors (TEFs) can be used to calculate the 2,3,7,8­TCDD toxicity equivalents (TEQs) concentrations, if desired (18).
3. Significance
3.1 The PHDDs and PHDFs may enter the environment by two routes: (1) manufacture, use and disposal of specific chemical products and by-products and (2) the emissions from combustion and incineration processes. Atmospheric transport is considered to be a major route for widespread dispersal of these compounds in stack gas emissions throughout the environment. The PCDDs/PCDFs are found as complex mixtures of all isomers in emissions from combustion sources. The isomer profiles of PCDDs/PCDFs found in ambient air are similar to those found in combustion sources. Isomer profiles of PCDDs/PCDFs related to chemical products and by­products are quite different in that only a few specific and characteristic isomers are detectable, which clearly indicate they are not from a combustion source.
3.2 The 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs are considered to be the most toxic isomers. Fortunately, they account for the smallest percentage of the total PCDD/PCDF concentrations found in stack gas emissions from combustion sources and in ambient air. The 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 1 of 22 TCDD isomers and the most toxic member of PCDDs/PCDFs, is usually found as a very minor component in stack gas emissions (0.5 to 10 percent of total TCDD concentration) and is seldom found in ambient air samples. All of the 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs are retained in tissue of life-forms such as humans, fish, and wildlife, and the non 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs are rapidly metabolized and/or excreted.
3.3 Attention has been focused on determining PHDDs/PHDFs in ambient air only in recent years. The analyses are time-consuming, complex, difficult, and expensive. Extremely sensitive, specific, and efficient analytical procedures are required because the analysis must be performed for very low concentrations in the pg/m3 and sub pg/m3 range. The MDLs, likewise, must be in the range of 0.01 to 0.2 pg/m3 for the results to have significant meaning for ambient air monitoring purposes. The background level of total PCDDs/PCDFs detected in ambient
33

air is usually in the range of 0.5 to 3 pg/m , and the PBDFs is in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 pg/m (2,3,14). Because PCDDs/PCDFs, PBDDs/PBDFs, and BCDDs/BCDFs can be formed by thermal reactions, there has been an increasing interest in ambient air monitoring, especially in the vicinities of combustion and incineration processes such as municipal waste combustors and resource recovery facilities (19,20). PBDDs/PBDFs can be created thermally (22,23), and they may also be formed in certain chemical processes (21). BCDDs/BCDFs have been detected in ash from combustion/incineration processes (9). The sampling and analysis method described here can be used in monitoring studies to accurately determine the presence or absence of pg/m3 and sub pg/m3 levels of these compounds in ambient air (26,27).
4. Safety
4.1 The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and other 2,3,7,8-chlorine or bromine substituted isomers are toxic and can pose health hazards if handled improperly. Techniques for handling radioactive and infectious materials are applicable to 2,3,7,8-TCDD and the other PHDDs and PHDFs. Only highly trained individuals who are thoroughly versed in appropriate laboratory procedures and familiar with the hazards of 2,3,7,8-TCDD should handle these substances. A good laboratory practice involves routine physical examinations and blood checks of employees working with 2,3,7,8-TCDD. It is the responsibility of the laboratory personnel to ensure that safe handling procedures are employed.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-3

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
4.2 The toxicity or carcinogenicity of the other penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octa-PHDDs/PHDFs with chlorine or bromine atoms in positions 2,3,7,8 are known to have similar, but lower, toxicities. However, each compound should be treated as a potential health hazard and exposure to these compounds must be minimized.
4.3 While the procedure specifies benzene as the extraction solution, many laboratories have substituted toluene for benzene (28). This is due to the carcinogenic nature of benzene. The EPA is presently studying the replacement of benzene with toluene.
4.4
A laboratory should develop a strict safety program for working with these compounds, which would include safety and health protocols; work performed in well ventilated and controlled access laboratory; maintenance of current awareness file of OSHA regulations regarding the safe handling of chemicals specified in the method; protective equipment; safety training; isolated work area; waste handling and disposal procedures; decontamination procedures; and laboratory wipe tests. Other safety practices as described in EPA Method 613, Section 4, July 1982 version, EPA Method 1613 Revision A, April 1990, Office of Water and elsewhere (29,30).

5.
Applicable Documents


5.1 ASTM Standards

Method D1365 Definitions of Terms Relating to Atmospheric Sampling and Analysis.


Method E260 Recommended Practice for General Gas Chromatography Procedures.


Method E355 Practice for Gas Chromatography Terms and Relationships.


5.2 EPA Documents

Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems, Volume II, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 600/R-94-038b, May 1994.


Protocol for the Analysis of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin by High Resolution Gas Chromatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 600/40-86-004, January 1986.


"Evaluation of an EPA High Volume Air Sampler for Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans," undated report by Battelle under Contract No. 68-02-4127, Project Officers Robert G. Lewis and Nancy K. Wilson, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.


Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air: Method TO-9, Second Supplement, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 600/4-89-018, March 1989.


Technical Assistance Document for Sampling and Analysis of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 600/4-83-027, June 1983.


"Analytical Procedures and Quality Assurance for Multimedia Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans by High Resolution Gas Chromatography - Low Resolution Mass Spectrometry,"

U.
S. Environmental Protection Agency/OSW, SW-846, RCRA 8280 HRGC-LRMS, January 1987.


"Analytical Procedures and Quality Assurance for Multimedia Analysis of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans by High Resolution Gas Chromatography - High Resolution Mass Spectrometry,"

U.
S. Environmental Protection Agency/OSW, SW-846, RCRA 8290 HRGC-HRMS, June 1987.


Page 9A-4 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

Harless, R., "Analytical Procedures and Quality Assurance Plan for the Determination of PCDDs and PCDFs Ambient Air near the Rutland, Vermont Municipal Incinerator," Final Report, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, AREAL, RTP, NC, 1988.


Feasibility of Environmental Monitoring and Exposure Assessment for a Municipal Waste Combustor: Rutland, Vermont Pilot Study, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, EPA 600/8-91/007, March 1991.


"Method 23, Determination of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs) and Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) from Stationary Sources." Federal Register, Vol. 56, No. 30, February 13, 1991.


Method 1613 Tetra- through Octa-Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dilution HRGC-HRMS,

U.
S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste, Washington, DC, April 1990.


5.3 Other Documents

"Operating Procedures for Model PS-1 Sampler," Graseby/General Metal Works, Inc., Village of Cleves, OH 45002 (800-543-7412).


"Chicago Air Quality: PCB Air Monitoring Plan, Phase 2," IEAP/APC/86-011, Illinois Environmental Protection Agency, Division of Air Pollution Control, April 1986.


"Operating Procedures for the Thermo Environmental Semi-volatile Sampler," Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc. (formerly Wedding and Associates), 8 West Forge Parkway, Franklin, MA 02038 (508-520­0430).


6. Definitions
[Note: Definitions used in this document and any user-prepared Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) should be consistent with those used in ASTM D1356. All abbreviations and symbols are defined within this document at the point of first use.]
6.1 Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)—compounds that contain from 1 to 8 chlorine atoms, resulting in a total of 75 PCDDs and 135 PCDFs. The structures are shown in Figure 1. The numbers of isomers at different chlorination levels are shown in Table 1. The seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs are shown in Table 2.
6.2 Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDFs)—compounds that have the same structure and contain from 1 to 8 bromine atoms, resulting in a total of 75 PBDDs and 135 PBDFs. The structures and isomers are the same as those of the PCDDs/PCDFs shown in Figure 1 and Tables 1 and 2.
6.3 Brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (BCDDs) and brominated/chlorinated dibenzofurans (BCDFs)—compounds with the same structures and may contain from 1 to 8 chlorine and bromine atoms, resulting in 1550 BCDD congeners and 3050 BCDF congeners.
6.4 Polyhalogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PHDDs) and polyhalogenated dibenzofurans (PHDFs)—dibenzo­p-dioxins and dibenzofurans substituted with 1 or more halogen atoms.
6.5 Isomer—compounds having the sample number and type of halogen atoms, but substituted in different positions. For example, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,4-TCDD are isomers. Additionally, there are 22 isomers that constitute the homologues of TCDDs.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-5

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
6.6 Isomeric group—a group of dibenzo-p-dioxins or dibenzofurans having the same number of halogen atoms. For example, the tetra-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins.
6.7 Internal Standard—is an isotopically-labeled analog that is added to all samples, including method blanks (process and field) and quality control samples, before extraction. They are used along with response factors to measure the concentration of the analytes. Nine PCDD/PCDF and 4 PBDD/PBDF internal standards are used in this method. There is one for each of the chlorinated dioxin and furan isomeric groups with a degree of halogenation ranging from four to eight, with the exception of OCDF.
6.8 High-Resolution Calibration Solutions (see Table 3)—solutions in tridecane containing known amounts of 17 selected PCDDs and PCDFs, 9 internal standards (13C12-labeled PCDDs/PCDFs), 2 field standards, 4 surrogate standards, and 1 recovery standard. The set of 5 solutions is used to determine the instrument response
13 13

of the unlabeled analytes relative to the C -labeled internal standards and of the C -labeled internal standards
12 12

relative to the surrogate, field and recovery standards. Different concentrations and other standards may be used, if desired. Criteria for acceptable calibration as outlined in Section 13.5 should be met in order to use the analyte relative response factors.
6.9 Sample Fortification Solutions (see Table 4)—solutions (in isooctane) containing the 13C12-labeled internal standards that are used to spike all samples, field blanks, and process blanks before extraction. Brominated standards used only when desired.

6.10 Recovery Standard Solution (see Table 5)—Recovery Standard Solution (see Table 5)—an isooctane
13 13
solution containing the C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD ( C12-2,3,7,8,9-HxDD optional) recovery standards that are added to the extract before final concentration for HRGC-HRMS analysis to determine the recovery efficiencies achieved for the 13C12-labeled internal standards.
6.11 Air Sampler Field Fortification Solution (see Table 6)—an isooctane solution containing the 37Cl4­2,3,7,8-TCDD standard that is spiked to the PUF plugs prior to shipping them to the field for air sampling.
6.12 Surrogate Standard Solution (see Table 7)—an isooctane solution containing 4 13C12-labeled standards that may be spiked to the filter or PUF prior to air sampling, to the sample prior to extraction, or to the sample extract before cleanup or before HRGC-HRMS analysis to determine sampler efficiency method efficiency or for identification purposes (28). Other standards and different concentrations may be used, if desired.
6.13 Matrix Spike and Method Spike Solutions (see Table 8)—isooctane solutions of native (non-labeled) PCDDs and PCDFs and PBDDs and PBDFs that are spiked to a clean PUF prior to extraction.
6.14 Sample Set—consists of nine test samples, field blank, method blank, and matrix spiked with native PHDDs/PHDFs. Sample preparation, HRGC-HRMS analysis, and evaluation of data is performed on a sample set.
6.15 Lab Control Spike—standard that is prepared during sample preparation and that contains exactly the same amounts of all of the labeled and unlabeled standards that were used in extraction and cleanup of the sample set for HRGC-HRMS analysis.
Page 9A-6 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
6.16 Field Blank—consists of a sample cartridge containing PUF and filter that is spiked with the filed fortification solution, shipped to the field, installed on the sampler, and passively exposed at the sampling area (the sampler is not operated). It is then sealed and returned to the laboratory for extraction, cleanup, and HRGC-HRMS analysis. It is treated in exactly the same manner as a test sample. A field blank is processed with each sampling episode. The field blank represents the background contributions from passive exposure to ambient air, PUF, quartz fiber filter, glassware, and solvents.
6.17 Laboratory Method Blank—represents the background contributions from glassware, extraction and cleanup solvents. A Soxhlet extractor is spiked with a solution of 13C12-labeled internal standards, extracted, cleaned up, and analyzed by HRGC-HRMS in exactly the same manner as the test samples.
6.18 Solvent Blank—an aliquot of solvent (the amount used in the method) that is spiked with the 13C12-labeled internal standards and concentrated to 60 FL for HRGC-HRMS analysis. The analysis provides the background contributions from the specific solvent.
6.19 GC Column Performance Evaluation Solution (see Table 9)—a solution containing a mixture of selected PCDD/PCDF isomers, including the first and last chromatographic eluters for each isomeric group. Used to demonstrate continued acceptable performance of the capillary column and to define the PCDD/PCDF retention time windows. Also includes a mixture of tetradioxin isomers that elute closest to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.
6.20 QA/QC Audit Samples—samples of PUF that contain known amounts of unlabeled PCDDS and PCDFs. These samples are submitted as "blind" test samples to the analytical laboratory. The analytical results can then be used to determine and validate the laboratory's accuracy, precision and overall analytical capabilities for determination of PCDDs/PCDFs.
6.21 Relative Response Factor—response of the mass spectrometer to a known amount of an analyte relative to a known amount of a labeled internal standard.
6.22 Method Blank Contamination—the method blank should be free of interferences that affect the identification and quantification of PHDDs and PHDFs. A valid method blank is an analysis in which all internal standard signals are characterized by S/N ratio greater than 10:1 and the MDLs are adequate for the study. The set of samples must be extracted and analyzed again if a valid method blank cannot be achieved.

6.23 Sample Rerun—additional cleanup of the extract and reanalysis of the extract.
6.24 Extract Reanalysis—analysis by HRGC-HRMS of another aliquot of the final extract.
6.25 Mass Resolution Check—a standard method used to demonstrate a static HRMS resolving power of 10,000 or greater (10 percent valley definition).
6.26 Method Calibration Limits (MCLs)—for a given sample size, a final extract volume, and the lowest and highest calibration solutions, the lower and upper MCLs delineate the region of quantitation for which the HRGC-HRMS system was calibrated with standard solutions.
6.27 HRGC-HRMS Solvent Blank—a 1 or 2 FL aliquot of solvent that is analyzed for tetra- through octa-PCDDs and PCDFs following the analysis of a sample that contains high concentrations of these compounds.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-7

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
An acceptable solvent blank analysis (free of PHDDs/PHDFs) should be achieved before continuing with analysis of the test samples.
6.28 Sampler Spike (SS)—a sampler that is spiked with known amounts of the air sampler field fortification solution (see Table 6) and the matrix spike solutions (see Table 8) prior to operating the sampler for 24 hours to sample 325-400 std m3 ambient air. The results achieved for this sample can be used to determine the efficiency, accuracy and overall capabilities of the sampling device and analytical method.
6.29 Collocated Samplers (CS)—two samplers installed close together at the same site that can be spiked with known amounts of the air sampler field fortification solution (see Table 6) prior to operating the samplers for 24 hours to sample 325-400 std m3 ambient air. The analytical results for these two samples can be used to determine and evaluate efficiency, accuracy, precision, and overall capabilities of the sampling device and analytical method.
6.30 Congener—a term which refers to any one particular member of the same chemical family. As an example, there are 75 congeners of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. A specific congener is denoted by unique chemical notations. For example, 2,4,8,9-tetrachlorodibenzofuran is referred to as 2,4,8,9-TCDF.
6.31 Homologue—a term which refers to a group of structurally related chemicals that have the same degree of chlorination. For example, there are eight homologues of CDDs, monochlorinated through octochlorinated. Notation for homologous classes is as follows:

Class
Dibenzo-p-dioxin D Dibenzofuran F

1 M
2 D 2,4-DCDD
3 Tr
4 T 1,4,7,8-TCDD
5 Pe
6 Hx
7 Hp
8 O
1 through 8 CDDs and CDFs

7. Interferences And Contamination
7.1 Any compound having a similar mass and mass/charge (m/z) ratio eluting from the HRGC column within ± 2 seconds of the PHDD/PHDF of interest is a potential interference. Also, any compound eluting from the HRGC column in a very high concentration will decrease sensitivity in the retention time frame. Some commonly encountered interferences are compounds that are extracted along with the PCDDs and PCDFs or other PHDDs/PHDFs, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), methoxybiphenyls, polychlorinated diphenylethers, polychlorinated naphthalenes, DDE, DDT, etc. The cleanup procedures are designed to eliminate the majority of these substances. The capillary column resolution and mass spectrometer resolving power are extremely helpful in segregating any remaining interferences from PCDDs and PCDFs. The severity of an interference
Page 9A-8 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
problem is usually dependent on the concentrations and the mass spectrometer and chromatographic resolutions. However, polychlorinated diphenylethers are extremely difficult to resolve from PCDFs because they elute in retention time windows of PCDFs, and their fragment ion resulting from the loss of 2 chlorine atoms is identical to that of the respective PCDF. For example, the molecular ions of hexachlorodiphenylethers must be monitored to confirm their presence or absence in the analysis for TCDFs. This requirement also applies to the other PCDFs and PBDFs.
7.2
Since very low levels of PCDDs and PCDFs must be determined, the elimination of interferences is essential. High purity reagents and solvents must be used, and all equipment must be scrupulously cleaned. All materials, such as PUF, filter solvents, etc., used in the procedures are monitored and analyzed frequently to ensure the absence of contamination. Cleanup procedures must be optimized and performed carefully to minimize the loss of analyte compounds during attempts to increase their concentrations relative to other sample components. The analytical results achieved for the field blank, method blank, and method spike in a "set" of samples is extremely important in evaluating and validating the analytical data achieved for the test samples.

8.
Apparatus


[Note: This method was developed using the PS-1 semi-volatile sampler provided by General Metal Works, Village of Cleves, OH as a guideline. EPA has experience in use of this equipment during various field monitoring programs over the last several years. Other manufacturers' equipment should work as well. However, modifications to these procedures may be necessary if another commercially available sampler is selected.]

8.1 High-Volume Sampler (see Figure 2). Capable of pulling ambient air through the filter/adsorbent cartridge
3

at a flow rate of approximately 8 standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) (0.225 std m \min) to obtain a total sample volume of greater than 325 scm over a 24-hour period. Major manufacturers are:
-Tisch Environmental, Village of Cleves, OH -Andersen Instruments Inc., 500 Technology Ct., Smyrna, GA -Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc., 8 West Forge Parkway, Franklin, MA
8.2 High-Volume Sampler Calibrator. Capable of providing multipoint resistance for the high-volume sampler. Major manufacturers are:
-Tisch Environmental, Village of Cleves, OH -Andersen Instruments Inc., 500 Technology Ct., Smyrna, GA -Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc., 8 West Forge Parkway, Franklin, MA
8.3 High Resolution Gas Chromatograph-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer-Data System (HRGC-HRMS-DS)
8.3.1 The GC should be equipped for temperature programming and all of the required accessories, such as gases and syringes, should be available. The GC injection port should be designed for capillary columns. Splitless injection technique, on-column injections, or moving needle injectors may be used. It is important to use the same technique and injection volume at all times.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-9

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
8.3.2 The HRGC-HRMS interface, if used, should be constructed of fused silica tubing or all glass or glass lined stainless steel and should be able to withstand temperatures up to 340EC. The interface should not degrade the separation of PHDD/PHDF isomers achieved by the capillary column. Active sites or cold spots in the interface can cause peak broadening and peak tailing. The capillary column should be fitted directly into the HRMS ion source to avoid these types of problems. Graphite ferrules can adsorb PHDDs/PHDFs and cause problems. Therefore, Vespel® or equivalent ferrules are recommended.
8.3.3 The HRMS system should be operated in the electron impact ionization mode. The static resolving power of the instrument should be maintained at 10,000 or greater (10% valley definition). The HRMS should be operated in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with a total cycle time of one second or less. At a minimum, the ions listed in Tables 10, 11, and 12 for each of the select ion monitoring (SIM) descriptors should be monitored. It is important to use the same set of ions for both calibration and sample analysis.
8.3.4 The data system should provide for control of mass spectrometer, data acquisition, and data processing. The data system should have the capability to control and switch to different sets of ions (descriptors/mass menus shown in Tables 10, 11, and 12) at different times during the HRGC-HRMS SIM analysis. The SIM traces/displays of ion signals being monitored can be displayed on the terminal in real time and sorted for processing. Quantifications are reported based on computer generated peak areas. The data system should be able to provide hard copies of individual ion chromatograms for selected SIM time intervals, and it should have the capability to allow measurement of noise on the baseline. It should also have the capability to acquire mass-spectral peak profiles and provide hard copies of the peak profiles to demonstrate the required mass resolution.
8.3.5
HRGC columns, such as the DB-5 (28) and SP-2331 fused silica capillary columns, and the operating parameters known to produce acceptable results are shown in Tables 13 and 14. Other types of capillary columns may also be used as long as the performance requirements can be successfully demonstrated.

9.
Equipment And Materials


9.1 Materials for Sample Collection (see Figure 3a)
9.1.1 Quartz fiber filter. 102 millimeter bindless quartz microfiber filter, Whatman International Ltd, QMA-4.
3

9.1.2 Polyurethane foam (PUF) plugs. 3-inch thick sheet stock polyurethane type (density 0.022 g/cm ). The PUF should be of the polyether type used for furniture upholstery, pillows, and mattresses. The PUF cylinders (plugs) should be slightly larger in diameter than the internal diameter of the cartridge. Sources of equipment are Tisch Environmental, Village of Cleves, OH; University Research Glassware, 116 S. Merritt Mill Road, Chapel Hill, NC; Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc., 8 West Forge Parkway, Franklin, MA; Supelco, Supelco Park, Bellefonte, PA; and SKC Inc., 334 Valley View Road, Eighty Four, PA (see Figure 3b).
9.1.3 Teflon® end caps. For sample cartridge. Sources of equipment are Tisch Environmental, Village of Cleves, OH; and University Research Glassware, 116 S. Merritt Mill Road, Chapel Hill, NC (see Figure 3b).
9.1.4 Sample cartridge aluminum shipping containers. For sample cartridge shipping. Sources of equipment are Tisch Environmental, Village of Cleves, OH; and University Research Glassware, 116 S. Merritt Mill Road, Chapel Hill, NC (see Figure 3b).
9.1.5 Glass sample cartridge. For sample collection. Sources of equipment are Tisch Environmental, Village of Cleves, OH; Thermo Environmental Instruments, Inc., 8 West Forge, Parkway, Franklin, MA; and University Research Glassware, 116 S. Merritt Mill Road, Chapel Hill, NC (see Figure 3b).
Page 9A-10 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
9.2 Laboratory Equipment
9.2.1 Laboratory hoods.
9.2.2 Drying oven.

9.2.3 Rotary evaporator. With temperature-controlled water bath.
9.2.4 Balances.

9.2.5 Nitrogen evaporation apparatus.
9.2.6 Pipettes. Disposal Pasteur, 150-mm long x 5-mm i.d.
9.2.7 Soxhlet apparatus. 500-mL.
9.2.8 Glass funnels.
9.2.9 Desiccator.

9.2.10 Solvent reservoir. 125-mL, Kontes, 12.35-cm diameter.
9.2.11 Stainless steel spoons and spatulas.
9.2.12 Glass wool. Extracted with methylene chloride, stored in clean jar.
9.2.13 Laboratory refrigerator.
9.2.14 Chromatographic columns.
9.2.15 Perfluorokerosenes.

9.3 Reagents and Other Materials
9.3.1 Sulfuric acid. Ultrapure, ACS grade, specific gravity 1.84, acid silica.
9.3.2 Sodium hydroxide. Potassium hydroxide, reagent grade, base silica.
9.3.3 Sodium sulfate.

9.3.4 Anhydrous, reagent grade.
9.3.5 Glass wool. Silanized, extracted with methylene chloride and hexane, and dried.
9.3.6 Diethyl ether. High purity, glass distilled.
9.3.7 Isooctane. Burdick and Jackson, glass-distilled.
9.3.8 Hexane. Burdick and Jackson, glass-distilled.
9.3.9 Toluene. Burdick and Jackson, glass-distilled, or equivalent.
9.3.10 Methylene chloride. Burdock and Jackson, chromatographic grade, glass distilled.
9.3.11 Acetone. Burdick and Jackson, high purity, glass distilled.
9.3.12 Tridecane. Aldrich, high purity, glass distilled.
9.3.13 Isooctane. Burdick and Jackson, high purity, glass distilled.
9.3.14 Alumina. Acid, pre-extracted (16-21 hours) and activated.
9.3.15 Silica gel. High purity grade, type 60, 70-230 mesh; extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with methylene chloride (see Section 8.18) for 16-24 hours (minimum of 3 cycles per hour) and activated by heating in a foil-covered glass container for 8 hours at 130EC.
9.3.16 18 percent Carbopack C/Celite 545.
9.3.17 Methanol. Burdick and Jackson, high purity, glass distilled.
9.3.18 Nonane. Aldrich, high purity, glass distilled.
9.3.19 Benzene. High purity, glass distilled.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-11

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
9.4 Calibration Solutions and Solutions of Standards Used in the Method
9.4.1 HRGC-HRMS Calibration Solutions (see Table 3). Solutions containing 13C12-labeled and unlabeled PCDDs and PCDFs at known concentrations are used to calibrate the instrument. These standards can be obtained from various commercial sources such as Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, MA 01810, 508-749-8000.
9.4.2 Sample Fortification Solutions (see Table 4). An isooctane solution (or nonane solution) containing the 13C12-labeled PCDD/PCDF and PBDD/PBDF internal standards at the listed concentrations. The internal standards are spiked to all samples prior to extraction and are used to measure the concentration of the unlabeled native analytes and to determine MDLs.
9.4.3 Recovery Standard Spiking Solution (see Table 5). An isooctane solution containing 13C12-1,2,3,4­TCDD at a concentration of 10 pg/FL. Additional recovery standards may be used if desired.
9.4.4 Sampler Field Fortification Solution (see Table 6). An isooctane solution containing 10 pg/FL 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD.
4

9.4.5 Surrogate Standards Solution (see Table 7). An isooctane solution containing the four 13C12-labeled standards at a concentration of 100 pg/FL.
9.4.6 Matrix/Method Spike Solution (see Table 8). An isooctane solution containing the unlabeled PCDDs/PCDFs and PBDDs/PBDFs at the concentrations listed.
[Note: All PHDD/PHDF solutions listed above should be stored in a refrigerator at less than or equal to 4EC in the dark. Exposure of the solutions to light should be minimized.]
9.4.7 Column Performance Evaluation Solutions (see Table 9). Isooctane solutions of first and last chromatographic eluting isomers for each isomeric group of tetra- through octa-CDDs/CDFs. Also includes a mixture of tetradioxin isomers that elute closest to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.
10. Preparation Of PUF Sampling Cartridge
10.1 Summary of Method
10.1.1 This part of the procedure discusses pertinent information regarding the preparation and cleaning of the filter, adsorbents, and filter/adsorbent cartridge assembly. The separate batches of filters and adsorbents are extracted with the appropriate solvent.
10.1.2 At least one PUF cartridge assembly and one filter from each batch, or 10 percent of the batch, whichever is greater, should be tested and certified before the batch is considered for field use.
10.1.3 Prior to sampling, the cartridges are spiked with surrogate compounds.

10.2 Preparation of Sampling Cartridge
10.2.1 Bake the quartz filters at 400EC for 5 hours before use.
10.2.2 Set aside the filters in a clean container for shipment to the field or prior to combining with the PUF glass cartridge assembly for certification prior to field deployment.
10.2.3 The PUF plugs are 6.0-cm diameter cylindrical plugs cut from 3-inch sheet stock and should fit, with slight compression, in the glass cartridge, supported by the wire screen (see Figure 2). During cutting, rotate the die at high speed (e.g., in a drill press) and continuously lubricate with deionized or distilled water. Pre-cleaned PUF plugs can be obtained from commercial sources (see Section 9.1.2).
Page 9A-12 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
10.2.4 For initial cleanup, place the PUF plugs in a Soxhlet apparatus and extract with acetone for 16 hours at approximately 4 cycles per hour. When cartridges are reused, use diethyl ether/hexane (5 to 10 percent volume/volume [v/v]) as the cleanup solvent.
[Note: A modified PUF cleanup procedure can be used to remove unknown interference components of the PUF blank. This method consists of rinsing 50 times with toluene, acetone, and diethyl ether/hexane (5 to 10 percent v/v), followed by Soxhlet extraction. The extracted PUF is placed in a vacuum oven connected to a water aspirator and dried at room temperature for approximately 2 to 4 hours (until no solvent odor is detected). The extract from the Soxhlet extraction procedure from each batch may be analyzed to determine initial cleanliness prior to certification.]
10.2.5 Fit a nickel or stainless steel screen (mesh size 200/200) to the bottom of a hexane-rinsed glass sampling cartridge to retain the PUF adsorbents, as illustrated in Figure 2. Place the Soxhlet-extracted, vacuum-dried PUF (2.5-cm thick by 6.5-cm diameter) on top of the screen in the glass sampling cartridge using polyester gloves.
10.2.6 Wrap the sampling cartridge with hexane-rinsed aluminum foil, cap with the Teflon® end caps, place in a cleaned labeled aluminum shipping container, and seal with Teflon® tape. Analyze at least 1 PUF plug from each batch of PUF plugs using the procedures described in Section 10.3, before the batch is considered acceptable for field use. A level of 2 to 20 pg for tetra-,penta-, and hexa- and 40 to 150 pg for hepta- and octa-CDDs similar to that occasionally detected in the method blank (background contamination) is considered to be acceptable. Background levels can be reduced further, if necessary. Cartridges are considered clean for up to 30 days from date of certification when stored in their sealed containers.


10.3 Procedure for Certification of PUF Cartridge Assembly
10.3.1 Extract 1 filter and PUF adsorbent cartridge by Soxhlet extraction and concentrate using a Kuderna-Danish (K-D) evaporator for each lot of filters and cartridges sent to the field.
10.3.2 Assemble the Soxhlet apparatus. Charge the Soxhlet apparatus with 300 mL of the extraction solvent (10 percent v/v diethyl ether/hexane) and reflux for 2 hours. Let the apparatus cool, disassemble it, and discard the used extraction solvent. Transfer the filter and PUF glass cartridge to the Soxhlet apparatus (the use of an extraction thimble is optional).
[Note: The filter and adsorbent assembly are tested together in order to reach detection limits, to minimize cost and to prevent misinterpretation of the data. Separate analyses of the filter and PUF would not yield useful information about the physical state of most of the PHDDs and PHDFs at the time of sampling due to evaporative losses from the filter during sampling.]
10.3.3 Add 300 mL of diethyl ether/hexane (10 percent v/v) to the Soxhlet apparatus. Reflux the sample for 18 hours at a rate of at least 3 cycles per hour. Allow to cool; then disassemble the apparatus.
10.3.4 Assemble a K-D concentrator by attaching a 10-mL concentrator tube to a 500-mL evaporative flask.
10.3.5 Transfer the extract by pouring it through a drying column containing about 10 cm of anhydrous granular sodium sulfate and collect the extract in the K-D concentrator. Rinse the Erlenmeyer flask and column with 20 to 30 mL of 10 percent diethylether/hexane to complete the quantitative transfer.
10.3.6 Add 1 or 2 clean boiling chips and attach a 3-ball Snyder column to the evaporative flask. Pre-wet the Snyder column by adding about 1 mL of the extraction solvent to the top of the column. Place the K-D apparatus on a hot water bath (50EC) so that the concentrator tube is partially immersed in the hot water, and the entire lower rounded surface of the flask is bathed with hot vapor. Adjust the vertical position of the apparatus
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-13

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
and the water temperature as required to complete the concentration in one hour. At the proper rate of distillation, the balls of the column will actively chatter but the chambers will not flood with condensed solvent. When the apparent volume of liquid reaches approximately 5 mL, remove the K-D apparatus from the water bath and allow it to drain and cool for at least 5 minutes. Remove the Snyder column and rinse the flask and its lower joint into the concentrator tube with 5 mL of hexane. A 5-mL syringe is recommended for this operation.
10.3.7 Concentrate the extract to 1 mL, cleanup the extract (see Section 12.2.2), and analyze the final extract using HRGC-HRMS.
10.3.8 The level of target compounds must be less than or equal to 2 to 20 pg for tetra-, penta-, and hexa­and 40 to 150 pg for hepta- and octa-CDDs for each pair of filter and adsorbent assembly analyzed is considered to be acceptable.


10.4 Deployment of Cartridges for Field Sampling
10.4.1 Prior to field deployment, add surrogate compounds (i.e., chemically inert compounds not expected to occur in an environmental sample) to the center bed of the PUF cartridge, using a microsyringe. The surrogate compounds (see Table 3) must be added to each cartridge assembly.
10.4.2
Use the recoveries of the surrogate compounds to monitor for unusual matrix effects and gross sampling processing errors. Evaluate surrogate recovery for acceptance by determining whether the measured concentration falls within the acceptance limits.

11.
Assembly, Calibration And Collection Using Sampling System


[Note: This method was developed using the PS-1 semi-volatile sampler provided by General Metal Works, Village of Cleves, OH as a guideline. EPA has experience in use of this equipment during various field monitoring programs over the last several years. Other manufacturers' equipment should work as well. However, modifications to these procedures may be necessary if another commercially available sampler is selected.]

11.1 Description of Sampling Apparatus
The entire sampling system is diagrammed in Figure 1. This apparatus was developed to operate at a rate of 4
3

to 10 scfm (0.114 to 0.285 std m /min) and is used by EPA for high-volume sampling of ambient air. The method write-up presents the use of this device.
The sampling module (see Figure 2) consists of a filter and a glass sampling cartridge containing the PUF utilized to concentrate dioxins/furans from the air. A field portable unit has been developed by EPA (see Figure 4).

11.2 Calibration of Sampling System
Each sampler should be calibrated (1) when new, (2) after major repairs or maintenance, (3) whenever any audit point deviates from the calibration curve by more than 7 percent, (4) before/after each sampling event, and
(5) when a different sample collection media, other than that which the sampler was originally calibrated to, will be used for sampling.
11.2.1 Calibration of Orifice Transfer Standard. Calibrate the modified high volume air sampler in the field using a calibrated orifice flow rate transfer standard. Certify the orifice transfer standard in the laboratory against a positive displacement rootsmeter (see Figure 5). Once certified, the recertification is performed rather
Page 9A-14 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
infrequently if the orifice is protected from damage. Recertify the orifice transfer standard performed once per year utilizing a set of five multiple resistance plates.
[Note: The set of five multihole resistance plates are used to change the flow through the orifice so that several points can be obtained for the orifice calibration curve. The following procedure outlines the steps to calibrate the orifice transfer standard in the laboratory.]
11.2.1.1 Record the room temperature (T1 in EC) and barometric pressure (Pb in mm Hg) on the Orifice Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 6). Calculate the room temperature in K (absolute temperature) and record on Orifice Calibration Data Sheet.
T1 in K = 273E + T1 in EC

11.2.1.2 Set up laboratory orifice calibration equipment as illustrated in Figure 5. Check the oil level of the rootsmeter prior to starting. There are 3 oil level indicators, 1 at the clear plastic end and 2 site glasses, 1 at each end of the measuring chamber.
11.2.1.3 Check for leaks by clamping both manometer lines, blocking the orifice with cellophane tape, turning on the high volume motor, and noting any change in the rootsmeter's reading. If the rootsmeter's reading changes, there is a leak in the system. Eliminate the leak before proceeding. If the rootsmeter's reading remains constant, turn off the hi-vol motor, remove the cellophane tape, and unclamp both manometer lines.
11.2.1.4 Install the 5-hole resistance plate between the orifice and the filter adapter.
11.2.1.5 Turn manometer tubing connectors 1 turn counter-clockwise. Make sure all connectors are open.
11.2.1.6 Adjust both manometer midpoints by sliding their movable scales until the zero point corresponds with the meniscus. Gently shake or tap to remove any air bubbles and/or liquid remaining on tubing connectors. (If additional liquid is required for the water manometer, remove tubing connector and add clean water.)
11.2.1.7 Turn on the high volume motor and let it run for 5 minutes to set the motor brushes. Turn the motor off. Insure manometers are set to zero. Turn the high volume motor on.
11.2.1.8 Record the time, in minutes, required to pass a known volume of air (approximately 200 to 300 ft3 of air for each resistance plate) through the rootsmeter by using the rootsmeter's digital volume dial and a stopwatch.
11.2.1.9 Record both manometer readings-orifice water manometer (ªH) and rootsmeter mercury manometer (ªP) on Orifice Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 6).
[Note: ªH is the sum of the difference from zero (0) of the two column heights.]

11.2.1.10 Turn off the high volume motor.
11.2.1.11 Replace the 5-hole resistance plate with the 7-hole resistance plate.
11.2.1.12 Repeat Sections 11.2.1.3 through 11.2.1.11.
11.2.1.13 Repeat for each resistance plate. Note results on Orifice Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 6). Only a minute is needed for warm-up of the motor. Be sure to tighten the orifice enough to eliminate any leaks. Also check the gaskets for cracks.
[Note: The placement of the orifice prior to the rootsmeter causes the pressure at the inlet of the rootsmeter to be reduced below atmospheric conditions, thus causing the measured volume to be incorrect. The volume measured by the rootsmeter must be corrected.]
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-15

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
11.2.1.14 Correct the measured volumes on the Orifice Calibration Data Sheet: P & ÎP
a Tstd
' V( )()
Vstd m
T
Pstd a

where: Vstd = standard volume, std m3 Vm = actual volume measured by the rootsmeter, m3 Pa = barometric pressure during calibration, mm Hg ªP = differential pressure at inlet to volume meter, mm Hg Pstd = 760 mm Hg Ta = ambient temperature during calibration, K.

11.2.1.15 Record standard volume on Orifice Calibration Data Sheet.
11.2.1.16 The standard flow rate as measured by the rootsmeter can now be calculated using the following formula:
Vstd
Qstd '
2

where:
3

Qstd = standard volumetric flow rate, std m /min 2 = elapsed time, min
3


11.2.1.17 Record the standard flow rates to the nearest 0.01 std m /min.
11.2.1.18 Calculate and record
ÎH (P1 )(298/T1) value for each standard flow rate.
/Pstd

11.2.1.19Plot each
ÎH (P1 )(298/T1) value (y-axis) versus its associated standard flow rate (x­
/Pstd

axis) on arithmetic graph paper and draw a line of best fit between the individual plotted points.
[Note: This graph will be used in the field to determine standard flow rate.]
11.2.2 Calibration of the High Volume Sampling System Utilizing Calibrated Orifice Transfer Standard
For this calibration procedure, the following conditions are assumed in the field:

The sampler is equipped with an valve to control sample flow rate.


The sample flow rate is determined by measuring the orifice pressure differential, using a magnehelic gauge.


33


The sampler is designed to operate at a standardized volumetric flow rate of 8 ft /min (0.225 m /min), with an acceptable flow rate range within 10 percent of this value.


The transfer standard for the flow rate calibration is an orifice device. The flow rate through the orifice is determined by the pressure drop caused by the orifice and is measured using a "U" tube water manometer or equivalent.


The sampler and the orifice transfer standard are calibrated to standard volumetric flow rate units (scfm or scmm).


Page 9A-16 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

An orifice transfer standard with calibration traceable to NIST is used.


A "U" tube water manometer or equivalent, with a 0- to 16-inch range and a maximum scale division of


0.1 inch, will be used to measure the pressure in the orifice transfer standard.

A magnehelic gauge or equivalent, with a 9- to 100-inch range and a minimum scale division of 2 inches for measurements of the differential pressure across the sampler's orifice is used.


A thermometer capable of measuring temperature over the range of 32E to 122EF (0E to 50EC) to ±2EF (±1EC) and referenced annually to a calibrated mercury thermometer is used.


A portable aneroid barometer (or equivalent) capable of measuring ambient barometric pressure between 500 and 800 mm Hg (19.5 and 31.5 in. Hg) to the nearest mm Hg and referenced annually to a barometer of known accuracy is used.


Miscellaneous handtools, calibration data sheets or station log book, and wide duct tape are available.


11.2.2.1 Monitor the airflow through the sampling system with a venturi/Magnehelic assembly, as illustrated in Figure 7. Set up the calibration system as illustrated in Figure 7. Audit the field sampling system once per quarter using a flow rate transfer standard, as described in the EPA High Volume-Sampling Method, 40 CVR 50, Appendix B. Perform a single-point calibration before and after each sample collection, using the procedures described in Section 11.2.3.
11.2.2.2 Prior to initial multi-point calibration, place an empty glass cartridge in the sampling head and activate the sampling motor. Fully open the flow control valve and adjust the voltage variator so that a sample flow rate corresponding to 110 percent of the desired flow rate (typically 0.20 to 0.28 m /min) is indicated on the Magnehelic gauge (based on the previously obtained multipoint calibration curve). Allow the motor to warm up for 10 minutes and then adjust the flow control valve to achieve the desire flow rate. Turn off the sampler. Record the ambient temperature and barometric pressure on the Field Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 8). 

11.2.2.3 Place the orifice transfer standard on the sampling head and attach a manometer to the tap on the transfer standard, as illustrated in Figure 7. Properly align the retaining rings with the filter holder and secure by tightening the three screw clamps. Connect the orifice transfer standard by way of the pressure tap to a manometer using a length of tubing. Set the zero level of the manometer or magnehelic. Attach the magnehelic gauge to the sampler venturi quick release connections. Adjust the zero (if needed) using the zero adjust screw on face of the gauge.
11.2.2.4 To leak test, block the orifice with a rubber stopper, wide duct tape, or other suitable means. Seal the pressure port with a rubber cap or similar device. Turn on the sampler. Caution: Avoid running the sampler from too long a time with the orifice blocked. This precaution will reduce the chance that the motor will be overheated due to the lack of cooling air. Such overheating can shorten the life of the motor.
11.2.2.5 Gently rock the orifice transfer standard and listen for a whistling sound that would indicate a leak in the system. A leak-free system will not produce an upscale response on the sampler's magnehelic. Leaks are usually caused either by damaged or missing gaskets by cross-threading and/or not screwing sample cartridge together tightly. All leaks must be eliminated before proceeding with the calibration. When the sample is determined to be leak-free, turn off the sampler and unblock the orifice. Now remove the rubber stopper or plug from the calibrator orifice.
11.2.2.6 Turn the flow control valve to the fully open position and turn the sampler on. Adjust the flow control valve until a Magnehelic reading of approximately 70 in. is obtained. Allow the Magnehelic and manometer readings to stabilize and record these values on the Field Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 8).
11.2.2.7 Record the manometer reading under Y1 and the Magnehelic reading under Y2 on the Field Calibration Data Sheet. For the first reading, the Magnehelic should still be at 70 inches as set above.
11.2.2.8 Set the magnehelic to 60 inches by using the sampler's flow control valve. Record the manometer (Y1) and Magnehelic (Y2) readings on the Field Calibration Data Sheet.
11.2.2.9 Repeat the above steps using Magnehelic settings of 50, 40, 30, 20, and 10 inches.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-17

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
11.2.2.10 Turn the voltage variator to maximum power, open the flow control valve, and confirm that the Magnehelic reads at least 100 inches. Turn off the sampler and confirm that the magnehelic reads zero.
11.2.2.11 Read and record the following parameters on the Field Calibration Data Sheet. Record the
following on the calibration data sheet: Data, job number, and operator's signature;

Sampler serial number;


Ambient barometric pressure; and


Ambient temperature.


11.2.2.12 Remove the "dummy" cartridge and replace with a sample cartridge.
11.2.2.13 Obtain the Manufacturer High Volume Orifice Calibration Certificate.
11.2.2.14 If not performed by the manufacturer, calculate values for each calibrator orifice static pressure (Column 6, inches of water) on the manufacturer's calibration certificate using the following equation:

ÎH(Pa/760)(298/[Ta % 273])

where: Pa = the barometric pressure (mm Hg) at time of manufacturer calibration, mm Hg Ta = temperature at time of calibration, EC
11.2.2.15 Perform a linear regression analysis using the values in Column 7 of the manufacturer High Volume Orifice Calibration Certificate for flow rate (QSTD) as the "X" values and the calculated values as the Y values. From this relationship, determine the correlation (CC1), intercept (B1), and slope (M1) for the Orifice Transfer Standard.
11.2.2.16 Record these values on the Field Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 8).
11.2.2.17 Using the Field Calibration Data Sheet values (see Figure 8), calculate the Orifice Manometer Calculated Values (Y3) for each orifice manometer reading using the following equation:
Y3 Calculation
Y3 = [Y1(P /760)(298/{Ta + 273})]½
a

11.2.2.18 Record the values obtained in Column Y3 on the Field Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 8).
11.2.2.19 Calculate the Sampler Magnehelic Calculate Values (Y4) using the following equation:
Y4 Calculation
Y4 = [Y2(P /760)(298/{T + 273})]½
aa

11.2.2.20 Record the value obtained in Column Y4 on the Field Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 8).
11.2.2.21 Calculate the Orifice Flow Rate (X1) in scm, using the following equation:
X1 Calculation
Y3 & B1
X1 '
M1

Page 9A-18 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
11.2.2.22 Record the values obtained in Column X1, on the Field Calibration Data Sheet (see Figure 8).
11.2.2.23 Perform a linear regression of the values in Column X1 (as X) and the values in Column Y4 (as Y). Record the relationship for correlation (CC2), intercept (B2), and slope (M2) on the Field Calibration Data Sheet.
11.2.2.24 Using the following equation, calculate a set point (SP) for the manometer to represent a desired flow rate:
Set point (SP) = [(Expected P )/(Expected T )(T /P )][M2 (Desired flow rate) + B2]2
a a std std

where:
P = Expected atmospheric pressure (P ), mm Hg
aa
Ta = Expected atmospheric temperature (T ), EC
a

M2 = Slope of developed relationship B2 = Intercept of developed relationship Tstd = Temperature standard, 25EC Pstd = Pressure standard, 760 mm Hg
11.2.2.25 During monitoring, calculate a flow rate from the observed Magnehelic reading using the following equations:
Y5 = [Average Magnehelic Reading (ªH) (P /T )(Ta std/P )]½
a std
Y5 & B2
X2 '

M2 where:
Y5 = Corrected Magnehelic reading X2 = Instant calculated flow rate, scm
11.2.2.26 The relationship in calibration of a sampling system between Orifice Transfer Standard and flow rate through the sampler is illustrated in Figure 9.
11.2.3 Single-Point Audit of the High Volume Sampling System Utilizing Calibrated Orifice Transfer Standard
Single point calibration checks are required as follows:

Prior to the start of each 24-hour test period.


After each 24-hour test period. The post-test calibration check may serve as the pre-test calibration check for the next sampling period if the sampler is not moved.


Prior to sampling after a sample is moved.


For samplers, perform a calibration check for the operational flow rate before each 24-hour sampling event and when required as outlined in the user quality assurance program. The purpose of this check is to track the sampler's calibration stability. Maintain a control chart presenting the percentage difference between a sampler's indicated and measured flow rates. This chart provides a quick reference of sampler flow-rate drift problems and is useful for tracking the performance of the sampler. Either the sampler log book or a data sheet will be used
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-19

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
to document flowcheck information. This information includes, but is not limited to, sampler and orifice transfer standard serial number, ambient temperature, pressure conditions, and collected flow-check data.
In this subsection, the following is assumed:

The flow rate through a sampler is indicated by the orifice differential pressure;


Samplers are designed to operate at an actual flow rate of 8 scfm, with a maximum acceptable flow-rate fluctuation range of ±10 percent of this value;


The transfer standard will be an orifice device equipped with a pressure tap. The pressure is measured using a manometer; and


The orifice transfer standard's calibration relationship is in terms of standard volumetric flow rate (Qstd).


11.2.3.1 Perform a single point flow audit check before and after each sampling period utilizing the Calibrated Orifice Transfer Standard (see Section 11.2.1).
11.2.3.2 Prior to single point audit, place a "dummy" glass cartridge in the sampling head and activate the sampling motor. Fully open the flow control valve and adjust the voltage variator so that a sample flow rate corresponding to 110 percent of the desired flow rate (typically 0.19 to 0.28 m /min) is indicated on the Magnehelic gauge (based on the previously obtained multipoint calibration curve). Allow the motor to warm up for 10 minutes and then adjust the flow control valve to achieve the desired flow rate. Turn off the sampler. Record the ambient temperature and barometric pressure on a Field Test Data Sheet (see Figure 10). 

11.2.3.3 Place the flow rate transfer standard on the sampling head.
11.2.3.4 Properly align the retaining rings with the filter holder and secure by tightening the 3 screw clamps. Connect the flow rate transfer standard to the manometer using a length of tubing.
11.2.3.5 Using tubing, attach 1 manometer connector to the pressure tap of the transfer standard. Leave the other connector open to the atmosphere.
11.2.3.6 Adjust the manometer midpoint by sliding the movable scale until the zero point corresponds with the water meniscus. Gently shake or tap to remove any air bubbles and/or liquid remaining on tubing connectors. (If additional liquid is required, remove tubing connector and add clean water.)
11.2.3.7 Turn on high-volume motor and let run for 5 minutes.
11.2.3.8 Record the pressure differential indicated, ªH, in inches of water, on the Field Test Data Sheet. Be sure stable ªH has been established.
11.2.3.9 Record the observed Magnahelic gauge reading, in inches of water, on the Field Test Data Sheet. Be sure stable ªM has been established.
11.2.3.10 Using previous established Orifice Transfer Standard curve, calculate Qxs (see Section 11.2.2.23).
11.2.3.11 This flow should be within ±10 percent of the sampler set point, normally, 8 ft3. If not, perform a new multipoint calibration of the sampler.
11.2.3.12 Remove Flow Rate Transfer Standard and dummy adsorbent cartridge.


11.3 Sample Collection
11.3.1 General Requirements
11.3.1.1 The sampler should be located in an unobstructed area, at least 2 meters from any obstacle to air flow. The exhaust hose should be stretched out in the downwind direction to prevent recycling of air into the sample head.
11.3.1.2 All cleaning and sample module loading and unloading should be conducted in a controlled environment, to minimize any chance of potential contamination.
Page 9A-20 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
11.3.1.3 When new or when using the sampler at a different location, all sample contact areas need to be cleared. Use triple rinses of reagent grade hexane or methylene chloride contained in Teflon® rinse bottles. Allow the solvents to evaporate before loading the PUF modules.

11.3.2 Preparing Cartridge for Sampling
11.3.2.1 Detach the lower chamber of the cleaned sample head. While wearing disposable, clean, lint-free nylon, or powder-free surgical gloves, remove a clean glass adsorbent module from its shipping container. Remove the Teflon® end caps. Replace the end caps in the sample container to be reused after the sample has been collected.
11.3.2.2 Insert the glass module into the lower chamber and tightly reattach the lower chambers to the module.
11.3.2.3 Using clean rinsed (with hexane) Teflon-tipped forceps, carefully place a clean conditioned fiber filter atop the filter holder and secure in place by clamping the filter holder ring over the filter. Place the aluminum protective cover on top of the cartridge head. Tighten the 3 screw clamps. Ensure that all module connections are tightly assembled. Place a small piece of aluminum foil on the ball-joint of the sample cartridge to protect from back-diffusion of semi-volatile into the cartridge during transporting to the site.
[Note: Failure to do so could result in air flow leaks at poorly sealed locations which could affect sample representativeness.]
11.3.2.4 Place in a carrying bag to take to the sampler.


11.3.3 Collection

11.3.3.1 After the sampling system has been assembled, perform a single point flow check as described in Sections 11.2.3.
11.3.3.2 With the empty sample module removed from the sampler, rinse all sample contact areas using reagent grade hexane in a Teflon® squeeze bottle. Allow the hexane to evaporate from the module before loading the samples.
11.3.3.3 With the sample cartridge removed from the sampler and the flow control valve fully open, turn the pump on and allow it to warm-up for approximately 5 minutes.
11.3.3.4 Attach a "dummy" sampling cartridge loaded with the exact same type of filter and PUF media to be used for sample collection.
11.3.3.5 Turn the sampler on and adjust the flow control valve to the desired flow as indicated by the Magnehelic gauge reading determined in Section 11.2.2.24. Once the flow is properly adjusted, take extreme care not to inadvertently alter its setting.
11.3.3.6 Turn the sampler off and remove both the "dummy" module. The sampler is now ready for field use.
11.3.3.7 Check the zero reading of the sampler Magnehelic. Record the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, elapsed time meter setting, sampler serial number, filter number, and PUF cartridge number on the Field Test Data Sheet (see Figure 10). Attach the loaded sampler cartridge to the sampler.
11.3.3.8 Place the voltage variator and flow control valve at the settings used in Section 11.3.2, and the power switch. Activate the elapsed time meter and record the start time. Adjust the flow (Magnehelic setting), if necessary, using the flow control valve.
11.3.3.9 Record the Magnehelic reading every 6 hours during the sampling period. Use the calibration factors (see Section 11.2.2.23) to calculate the desired flow rate. Record the ambient temperature, barometric pressure, and Magnehelic reading at the beginning and during sampling period.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-21

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

11.3.4 Sample Recovery

11.3.4.1 At the end of the desired sampling period, turn the power off. Carefully remove the sampling head containing the filter and adsorbent cartridge to a clean area.
11.3.4.2 While wearing disposable lint free nylon or surgical gloves, remove the PUF cartridge from the lower module chamber and lay it on the retained aluminum foil in which the sample was originally wrapped.
11.3.4.3 Carefully remove the glass fiber filter from the upper chamber using clean Teflon®-tipped forceps.
11.3.4.4 Fold the filter in half twice (sample side inward) and place it in the glass cartridge atop the PUF.
11.3.4.5 Wrap the combined samples in the original hexane rinsed aluminum foil, attached Teflon® end caps and place them in their original aluminum sample container. Complete a sample label and affix it to the aluminum shipping container.
o

11.3.4.6 Chain-of-custody should be maintained for all samples. Store the containers at <4 C and protect from light to prevent possibly photo-decomposition of collected analytes. If the time span between sample collection and laboratory analysis is to exceed 24 hours, refrigerate sample.
11.3.4.7 Perform a final calculated sample flow check using the calibration orifice, as described in Section 11.3.2. If calibration deviates by more than 10 percent from the initial reading, mark the flow data for that sample as suspect and inspect and/or remove from service.
11.3.4.8 Return at least 1 field filter/PUF blank to the laboratory with each group of samples. Treat a field blank exactly as the sample except that no air is drawn through the filter/adsorbent cartridge assembly.
o


11.3.4.9 Ship and store samples under ice (<4 C) until receipt at the analytical laboratory, after which it
o

should be refrigerated at less than or equal to 4 C. Extraction must be performed within seven days of sampling and analysis within 40 days after extraction.
12. Sample Preparation
12.1 Extraction Procedure for Quartz Fiber Filters and PUF Plugs
12.1.1 Take the glass sample cartridge containing the PUF plug and quartz fiber filter out of the shipping container and place it in a 43-mm x 123-mm Soxhlet extractor. Add 10 FL of 13C12-labeled sample fortification solution (see Table 4) to the sample. Put the thimble into a 50 mm Soxhlet extractor fitted with a 500 mL boiling flask containing 275 mL of benzene.
[Note: While the procedure specifies benzene as the extraction solution, many laboratories have substituted toluene for benzene because of the carcinogenic nature of benzene (28). The EPA is presently studying the replacement of benzene with toluene.]
12.1.2 Place a small funnel in the top of the Soxhlet extractor, making sure that the top of the funnel is inside the thimble. Rinse the inside of the corresponding glass cylinder into the thimble using approximately 25 mL of benzene. Place the extractor on a heating mantel. Adjust the heat until the benzene drips at a rate of 2 drops per second and allow to flow for 16 hours. Allow the apparatus to cool.
12.1.3 Remove the extractor and place a 3-bulb Snyder column onto the flask containing the benzene extract. Place on a heating mantel and concentrate the benzene to 25 mL (do not let go to dryness). Add 100 ml of hexane and again concentrate to 25 mL. Add a second 100 mL portion of hexane and again concentrate to 25 mL.
12.1.4 Let cool and add 25 mL hexane. The extract is ready for acid/base cleanup at this point.
Page 9A-22 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
12.2 Cleanup Procedures
12.2.1 Acid/Base Cleanup. Transfer the hexane extract to a 250 mL separatory funnel with two 25-mL portions of hexane. Wash the combined hexane with 30 ml of 2 N potassium hydroxide. Allow layers to separate and discard the aqueous layer. Repeat until no color is visible in the aqueous layer, up to a maximum of 4 washes. Partition the extract against 50 ml of 5% sodium chloride solution. Discard the aqueous layer. Carefully add 50 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid. Shake vigorously for 1 minute, allow layers to separate, and discard the acid layer. Repeat the acid wash until no color is visible in the aqueous layer, up to a maximum of 4 washes. Partition the extract against 50 ml of 5% sodium chloride solution. Discard the aqueous layer. Transfer the hexane through a 42-mm x 160-mm filter funnel containing a plug of glass wool and 3-cm of sodium sulfate into a 250-mL Kuderna-Danish (KD) concentrator fitter with a 15-mL catch tube. Rinse the filter funnel with two 25 mL portions of hexane. Place a 3-bulb Snyder column on the KD concentrator and concentrate on a steam bath to 1-2 mL. The extract is ready for the alumina column cleanup at this point, but it can be sealed and stored in the dark, if necessary. An extract that contains obvious contamination, such as yellow or brown color, is subjected to the silica column cleanup prior to the alumina cleanup.
12.2.2 Silica Column Preparation. Gently tamp a plug of glass wool into the bottom of a 5.75-inch (14.6 cm) disposable Pasteur pipette. Pour prewashed 100-200 mesh Bio-Sil®A (silica gel) into the pipette until a height of 3.0 cm of silica gel is packed into the column. Top the silica gel with 0.5 cm of anhydrous granular sodium sulfate. Place columns in an oven set at 220EC. Store columns in the oven until ready for use, at least overnight. Remove only the columns needed and place them in a desiccator until they have equilibrated to room temperature. Use immediately.
12.2.3 Silica Column Cleanup. Position the silica column over the alumina column so the eluent will drip onto the alumina column. Transfer the 2 mL hexane extract from the Acid/Base Cleanup onto the silica column with two separate 0.5-mL portions of hexane. Elute the silica column with an additional 4.0 mL of hexane. Discard the silica column and proceed with the alumina column cleanup at the point where the column is washed with 6.0 mL of carbon tetrachloride.
12.2.4 Alumina Column Preparation. Gently tamp a plug of glass wool into the bottom of a 5.75-inch
(14.6 cm) disposable Pasteur pipette. Pour WOELM neutral alumina into the pipette while tapping the column with a pencil or wooden dowel until a height of 4.5 cm of alumina is packed into the column. Top the alumina with a 0.5 cm of anhydrous granular sodium sulfate. Prewash the column with 3 mL dichloromethane. Allow the dichloromethane to drain from the column; then force the remaining dichloromethane from the column with a stream of dry nitrogen. Place prepared columns in an oven set at 225EC. Store columns in the oven until ready for use, at least overnight. Remove only columns needed and place them in a desiccator over anhydrous calcium sulfate until they have equilibrated to room temperature. Use immediately.
12.2.5 Alumina Column Cleanup. Prewet the alumina column with 1 mL of hexane. Transfer the 2 mL hexane extract from acid/base cleanup into the column. Elute the column with 6.0 mL of carbon tetrachloride and archive. Elute the column with 4.0 mL of dichloromethane and catch the eluate in a 12- mL distillation receiver. Add 3 FL tetradecane, place a micro-Snyder column on the receiver and evaporate the dichloromethane just to dryness by means of a hot water bath. Add 2 mL of hexane to the receiver and evaporate just to dryness. Add another 2-mL portion of hexane and evaporate to 0.5 mL. The extract is ready for the carbon column cleanup at this point.
12.2.6 Carbon Column Preparation. Weigh 9.5 g of Bio-Sil®A (100-200 mesh) silica gel, which has been previously heated to 225EC for 24 hours, into a 50-mL screw cap container. Weigh 0.50 g of Amoco PX-21 carbon onto the silica gel cap and shake vigorously for 1 hour. Just before use, rotate the container by hand for at least 1 minute. Break a glass graduated 2.0-mL disposal pipette at the 1.8 mL mark and fire polish the end. Place a small plug of glass wool in the pipette and pack it at the 0.0 mL mark using two small solid glass rods. Add 0.1 mL of Bio-Sil®A 100-200 mesh silica gel. If more than 1 column is to be made at a time, it is best to
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-23

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
add the silica gel to all the columns and then add the carbon-silica gel mixture to all columns. Add 0.40 mL of the carbon silica gel mixture to the column; the top of the mixture will be at the 0.55-mL mark on the pipette. Top the column with a small plug of glass wool.
12.2.7 Carbon Column Cleanup. Place the column in a suitable clamp with the silica gel plug up. Add approximately 0.5 mL of 50 percent benzene-methylene chloride (v/v) to the top of the column. Fit a 10 mL disposable pipette on the top of the carbon column with a short piece of extruded teflon tubing. Add an additional
9.5 mL of the 50 percent benzene-methylene chloride. When approximately 0.5 mL of this solvent remains, add 10 mL of toluene. After all the toluene has gone into the column, remove the 10-mL reservoir and add at least
2.0 mL of hexane to the column. When approximately 0.1 mL of the hexane is left on the top of the column, transfer the sample extract onto the column with a Pasteur pipette. Rinse the distillation receiver column that contained the extract with two separate 0.2 mL portions of hexane and transfer each rinse onto the column. Allow the top of each transfer layer to enter the glass wool before adding the next one. When the last of the transfer solvent enters the glass wool, add 0.5 mL of methylene chloride, replace the 10-mL reservoir, and add 4.5 mL of methylene chloride to it. When approximately 0.5 mL of this solvent remains, add 10 mL of 50 percent benzene-methylene chloride. When all this solvent has gone onto the column, remove the reservoir, take the column out of the holder and rinse each end with toluene, turn the column over, and put it back in the holder. All previous elution solvents are archived. Place a suitable receiver tube under the column and add 0.5 mL of toluene to the top of the column. Fit the 10 mL reservoir on the column and add 9.5 mL of toluene to it. When all toluene has eluted through the column and has been collected in the receiving tube, add 5 mL of tetradecane and concentrate to 0.5 mL using a stream of nitrogen and water bath maintained at 60EC. Transfer the toluene extract to a 2.0 mL graduated Chromoflex® tube with two 0.5-mL portions of benzene. Add 0.5 ng of 13C12-1,2,3,4­TCDD and store the extracts in the dark at room temperature. Concentrate the extract to 30 FL using a stream of nitrogen at room temperature just prior to analysis or shipping. Transfer the extracts that are to be shipped to a 2 mm i.d. x 75 mm glass tube that has been fire sealed on one end with enough benzene to bring the total volume of the extract to 100 FL. Then fire seal other end of the tube.
12.3 Glassware Cleanup Procedures
In this procedure, take each piece of glassware through the cleaning separately except in the oven baking process. Wash the 100-mL round bottom flasks, the 250 mL separatory funnels, the KD concentrators, etc., that were used in the extraction procedures three times with hot tap water, two times with acetone and two times with hexane. Then bake this glassware in a forced air oven that is vented to the outside for 16 hours at 450EC. Clean the PFTE stopcocks as above except for the oven baking step. Rinse all glassware with acetone and hexane immediately before use.
13. HRGC-HRMS System Performance

 

13.1 Operation of HRGC-HRMS
Operate the HRMS in the electron impact (EI) ionization mode using the selected ion monitoring (SIM) detection technique. Achieve a static mass resolution of 10,000 (10% valley) before analysis of a set of samples is begun. Check the mass resolution at the beginning and at the end of each day. (Corrective actions should be implemented whenever the resolving power does not meet the requirement.) Chromatography time required for PCDDs and PCDFs may exceed the long-term stability of the mass spectrometer because the instrument is operated in the high-resolution mode and the mass drifts of a few ppm (e.g., 5 ppm in mass) can have adverse effects on the analytical results. Therefore, a mass-drift correction may be required. Use a lock-mass ion for the reference
Page 9A-24 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
compound perfluorokerosene (PFK) to tune the mass spectrometer. The selection of the SIM lock-mass ions of PFK shown in the descriptors (see Tables 10, 11 and 12) is dependent on the masses of the ions monitored within each descriptor. An acceptable lock-mass ion at any mass between the lightest and heaviest ion in each descriptor can be used to monitor and correct mass drifts. Adjust the level of the reference compound (PFK) metered inside the ion chamber during HRGC-HRMS analyses so that the amplitude of the most intense selected lock-mass ion signal is kept to a minimum. Under those conditions, sensitivity changes can be more effectively monitored. Excessive use of PFK or any reference substance will cause high background signals and contamination of the ion source, which will result in an increase in "downtime" required for instrument maintenance.
Tune the instrument to a mass resolution of 10,000 (10% valley) at m/z 292.9825 (PFK). By using the peak matching unit (manual or computer simulated) and the PFK reference peak, verify that the exact m/z 392.9761 (PFK) is within 3 parts per million (ppm) of the required value.
Document the instrument resolving power by recording the peak profile of the high mass reference signal (m/z 392.9761) obtained during the above peak matching calibration experiment by using the low mass PFK ion at m/z 292.9825 as a reference. The minimum resolving power of 10,000 should be demonstrated on the high mass ion while it is transmitted at a lower accelerating voltage than the low mass reference ion, which is transmitted at full voltage and full sensitivity. There will be little, if any, loss in sensitivity on the high mass ion if the source parameters are properly tuned and optimized. The format of the peak profile representation should allow for computer calculated and manual determination of the resolution, i.e., the horizontal axis should be a calibrated mass scale (amu or ppm per division). Detailed descriptions for mass resolution adjustments are usually found in the instrument operators manual or instructions.

13.2 Column Performance
After the HRMS parameters are optimized, analyze an aliquot of a column performance solution containing the first and last eluting compounds (see Table 9), or a solution containing all congeners, to determine and confirm SIM parameters, retention time windows, and HRGC resolution of the compounds. Adjustments can be made at this point, if necessary. Some PeCDFs elute in the TCDD retention time window when using the 60 m DB-5 column. The PeCDF masses can be included with the TCDD/TCDF masses in Descriptor 1. Include the PeCDD/PeCDF masses with the TCDD/TCDF masses when using the 60 m SP-2331 polar column. The HRGC­HRMS SIM parameters and retention time windows can be rapidly and efficiently determined and optimized by analysis of a window defining solution of PCDDs/PCDFs using one mass for each isomer for the complete analysis of tetra- through octa- compounds, as illustrated in Figure 11.

13.3 SIM Cycle Time
The total time for each SIM cycle should be 1 second or less for data acquisition, which includes the sum of the mass ion dwell times and ESA voltage reset times.

13.4 Peak Separation
Chromatographic peak separation between 2,3,7,8-TCDD and the co-eluting isomers should be resolved with a valley of 25% or more (see Figure 12).
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-25

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

13.5 Initial Calibration
After the HRGC-HRMS SIM operating conditions are optimized, perform an initial calibration using the 5 calibration solutions shown in Table 3. The quantification relationships of labeled and unlabeled standards are illustrated in Tables 15, 16, 17, and 18. Figures 13 through 22 represent the extracted ion current profiles (EICP) for specific masses for 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and other 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDF/PCDD (along with their labeled standards) through OCDF and OCDD respectively.
[Note: Other solutions containing fewer or different congeners and at different concentrations may also be used for calibration purposes.]
Referring to Tables 10, 11, or 12, calculate (1) the relative response factors (RRFs) for each unlabeled PCDD/PCDF and PBDD/PBDF [RRF (I)] relative to their corresponding 13C12-labeled internal standard and (2)
13 37
the RRFs for the C12-labeled PCDD/PCDF and PBDD/PBDF internal standards [RRF (II)] relative to Cl4­2,3,7,8-TCDD recovery standard using the following formulae:
(Ax×Qis)RRF(I)'
(Q )
x×Ais
(Ais×Q )RRF(II)' rs
×A )
(Qis rs

where: Ax = the sum of the integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions (see Tables 10, 11 or 12) for unlabeled PCDDs/PCDFs, and PBDDs/PBDFs and BCDDs/BCDFs.
Ais = the sum of the integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions for the
13C12-labeled internal standards (see Table 10, 11 or 12).
[Note: Other 13C12-labeled analytes may also be used as the recovery standard(s)]
Ars = the integrated ion abundance for the quantitation ion of the 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD4
recovery standard.
Q = the quantity of the 13C -labeled internal standard injected, pg.
is 12
Qx = the quantity of the unlabeled PCDD/PCDF analyte injected, pg.
Qrs = the quantity of the 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD injected, pg.4
RRF(I) and RRF(II) = dimensionless quantities. The units used to express Qis and Qx must be the same.
[Note: 13C12-1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF is used to determine the response factor for the unlabeled 2,3,7,8-substituted, PeBDD, HxBDF and HxBDD.]
Page 9A-26 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
Calculate the average RRFs for the 5 concentration levels of unlabeled and 13C12-labeled PCDDs/PCDFs and PBDDs/PBDFs for the initial calibration using the following equation:
RRF1%RRF2%RRF3%RRF4%RRF5RRF'

5


13.6 Criteria Required for Initial Calibration
The analytical data must satisfy certain criteria for acceptable calibration. The isotopic ratios must be within the acceptable range (see Tables 19 and 20). The percent relative standard deviation for the response factors should be less than the values presented in Table 21. The signal-to-noise ratio for the 13C12-labeled standards must be
10:1 or more and 5:1 or more for the unlabeled standards.

13.7 Continuing Calibration
Conduct an analysis at the beginning of each day to check and confirm the calibration using an aliquot of the calibration solution. This analysis should meet the isotopic ratios and signal to noise ratios of the criteria stated in Section 13.6 (see Table 21 for daily calibration percent difference criteria). It is good practice to confirm the calibration at the end of the day also. Calculate the daily calibration percent difference using the following equation.
RRF &RRF
%RRF' cc x100
RRF

RRFcc = the relative response factor for a specific analyte in the continuing calibration standard.
14. HRGC-HRMS Analysis And Operating Parameters

14.1 Sample Analysis
Sample Analysis. An aliquot of the sample extract is analyzed with the HRGC-HRMS system using the instrument parameters illustrated in Tables 13 and 14 and the SIM descriptors and masses shown in Tables 10, 11, and 12. A 30-m SE-54 fused silica capillary column is used to determine the concentrations of total tetra-, penta-, hexa-, hepta- and octa-CDDs/CDFs and/or to determine the minimum limits of detections (MLDs) for the compounds. If the tetra-, penta-, and hexa-CDDs/CDFs were detected in a sample and isomer specific analyses are required, then an aliquot of the sample extract is analyzed using the 60 m SP-2331 fused silica capillary column to provide a concentration for each 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF and concentrations for total PCDDs and PCDFs also.
[Note: Other capillary columns such as the DB-5, SE-30, and DB-225 may be used if the performance satisfies the specifications for resolution of PCDDs/PCDFs. The SE-54 column resolves the four HpCDF isomers, two HpCDD isomers, OCDF and OCDD for isomer specific analysis. It does not resolve the tetra-, penta-, and hexa-2,3,7,8-substituted isomers. The SE-54 column is used for the analysis of PBDDs and PBDFs.]
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-27

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
Isomer specificity for all 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs cannot be achieved on a single HRGC capillary column at this time. However, many types of HRGC capillary columns are available and can be used for these analyses after their resolution capabilities are confirmed to be adequate using appropriate standards.
Two HRGC columns shown in Table 13 have been used successfully since 1984 (27, 28). The 60-m DB-5 provides an efficient analysis for total concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs, specific isomers (total tetra-, penta-, hexa-CDDs/CDFs, four HpCDF isomers, two HpCDD isomers, OCDD and OCDF), PBDDs/PBDFs, and/or determination of MDLs. The 60 m SP-2331 column provides demonstrated and confirmed resolution of 2,3,7,8­substituted tetra-, penta-, and hexa-PCDDs/PCDFs (14). The descriptors and masses shown in Tables 10, 11 and 12 must be modified to take into account the elution of some of the PeCDDs and PeCDFs in the tetra retention time window using the SP-2331column.

14.2 Identication Criteria
Criteria used for identification of PCDDs and PCDFs in samples are as follows:

The integrated ion abundance ratio M/(M+2) or (M+2)/(M+4) shall be within 15 percent of the theoretical value. The acceptable ion abundance ranges are shown in Tables 19 and 20.


The ions monitored for a given analyte, shown in Tables 10, 11, and 12, shall reach their maximum within 2 seconds of each other.


The retention time for the 2,3,7,8-substituted analytes must be within 3 seconds of the corresponding 13C12­labeled internal standard, surrogate, or alternate standard.


The identification of 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers that do not have corresponding 13C12-labeled standards is done by comparison to the analysis of a standard that contains the specific congeners. Comparison of the relative retention time (RRT) of the analyte to the nearest internal standard with reference (i.e., within


0.005 RRT time units to the comparable RRTs found in the continuing calibration or literature).

The signal-to-noise ratio for the monitored ions must be greater than 2.5.


The analysis shall show the absence of polychlorinated diphenyl- ethers (PCDPEs). Any PCDPEs that co-elute (± 2 seconds) with peaks in the PCDF channels indicates a positive interference, especially if the intensity of the PCDPE peak is 10 percent or more of the PCDF.


Use the identification criteria in Section 14.2 to identify and quantify the PCDDs and PCDFs in the sample. Figure 23 illustrates a reconstructed EICP for an environmental sample, identifying the presence of 2,3,7,8-TCDF as referenced to the labeled standard.

14.3 Quantification
13 37

The peak areas of ions monitored for C -labeled PCDDs/PCDFs and Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD, unlabeled
12 4

PCDDs/PCDFs, and respective relative response factors are used for quantification. The 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD,
4

spiked to extract prior to final concentration, and respective response factors are used to determine the sample extraction efficiencies achieved for the nine 13C12-labeled internal standards, which are spiked to the sample prior to extraction (% recovery). The 13C12-labeled PCDD/PCDF internal standards and response factors are used for quantification of unlabeled PCDDs/PCDFs and for determination of the minimum limits of detection with but
13 13
one exception: C -OCDD is used for OCDF. Each C -labeled internal standard is used to quantify all of
12 12
the PCDDs/PCDFs in its isomeric group. For example, 13C12-2,3,7,8-TCDD and the 2,3,7,8-TCDD response factor are used to quantify all of the 22 tetra-chlorinated isomers. The quantification relationships of these standards are shown in Tables 15, 16, 17, and 18. The 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD spiked to the filter of the sampler
4

Page 9A-28 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
prior to sample collection is used to determine the sampler retention efficiency, which also indicates the collection efficiency for the sampling period.

14.4 Calculations
14.4.1 Extraction Efficiency. Calculate the extraction efficiencies (percent recovery) of the 9 13C12-labeled PCDD/PCDF or the 3 13C12-labeled PBDD/PBDF internal standards measured in the extract using the formula:
[Ais×Qrs×100] %Ris ' ×A ×RRF(II)]
[Qis rs

where:
%Ris = percent recovery (extraction efficiency). Ais = the sum of the integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions (see Tables 10, 11 or 12) for the 13C12-labeled internal standard. Ars = the sum of the integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions (see Table 10, 11 or 12) for
37 13

the Cl4- or C12-labeled recovery standard; the selection of the recovery standard(s) depends on the type of homologues. Q = quantity of the 13C -labeled internal standard added to the sample before extraction, pg.
is 12 37 13
Q = quantity of the Cl4 - or C -labeled recovery standard added to the sample extract before
rs 12
HRGC-HRMS analysis, pg. RRF(II) = calculated mean relative response factor for the labeled internal standard relative to the appropriate labeled recovery standard.
14.4.2 Calculation of Concentration. Calculate the concentration of each 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF, other isomers or PBDD/PBDF that have met the criteria described in Sections 14.2 using the following formula:
[A ]
x×Qis
C ' x [Ais ×RRF(I)]
×Vstd

where:
Cx = concentration of unlabeled PCDD/PCDF, PBDD/PBDF or BCDD/BCDF congener(s), pg/m3. Ax = the sum of the integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions (see Table 11, 12 or 13) for the unlabeled PCDDs/PCDFs, or PBDDs/PBDFs or BCDFs. Ais = the sum of the integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions (see Table 11, 12 or 13) for the respective 13C12-labeled internal standard. Q = quantity of the 13C -labeled internal standard added to the sample before extraction, pg.
is 12
Vstd = standard volume of air, std m3. RRF(I) = calculated mean relative response factor for an unlabeled 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/PCDF obtained in Section 13.4.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-29

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

14.5 Method Detection Limits (MDLs)
The ambient background levels of total PCDDs/PCDFs are usually found in the range of 0.3 to 2.9 pg/m3. Therefore, the MDLs required to generate meaningful data for ambient air should be in the range of 0.02 to 0.15
33
pg/m for tetra-, penta-, and hexa-CDDs/CDFs. Trace levels, 0.05 to 0.25 pg/m , of HpCDDs and OCDD are usually detected in the method blank (background contamination).
An MDL is defined as the amount of an analyte required to produce a signal with a peak area at least 2.5 x the area of the background signal level measured at the retention time of interest. MDLs are calculated for total PHDDs/PHDFs and for each 2,3,7,8-substituted congener. The calculation method used is dependent upon the type of signal responses present in the analysis. For example:

Absence of response signals of one or both quantitation ion signals at the retention time of the 2,3,7,8­substituted isomer or at the retention time of non 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers. The instrument noise level is measured at the analyte's expected retention time and multiplied by 2.5, inserted into the formula below and calculated and reported as not detected (ND) at the specific MDL.


Response signals at the same retention time as the 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers or the other isomers that have a S/N ratio in excess of 2.5:1 but that do not satisfy the identification criteria described in 14.2 are calculated and reported as ND at the elevated MDL and discussed in the narrative that accompanies the analytical results. Calculate the MDLs using the following formula:


[2.5 xA ]
x x Qis
MDL ' [Ais x RRF]
x Vstd

where: MDL = concentration of unlabeled PHDD/PHDF, pg/m3. Ax = sum of integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions (see Table 10, 11 or 12) for the unlabeled PHDDs/PHDFs which do not meet the identification criteria or 2.5 x area of noise level at the analyte's retention time. Ais = sum of the integrated ion abundances of the quantitation ions (see Table 10, 11, or 12) for the 13C12-labeled internal standards. Qis = quantity of the 13C12-labeled internal standard spiked to the sample prior to extraction, pg. Vstd = standard volume of ambient air sampled, std m3. RRF = mean relative response factor for the unlabeled PHDD/PHDF.

14.6 2,3,7,8-TCDD Toxic Equivalents
Calculate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of PCDDs and PCDFs present in a sample according to the method recommended by EPA and the Center for Disease Control (18). This method assigns a 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalency factor (TEF) for each of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs/PCDFs (see Table 22). The 2,3,7,8-TCDD equivalent of the PCDDs and PCDFs present in the sample is calculated by the respective TEF factors times their concentration for each of the compounds listed in Table 22. The exclusion of the other isomeric groupings (mono-, di-, and tri-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) does not mean that they are non­toxic. Their toxicity, as known at this time, is much less than the toxicity of the compounds listed in Table 22. The above procedure for calculating the 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents is not claimed to be based on a
Page 9A-30 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
thoroughly established scientific foundation. The procedure, rather, represents a "consensus recommendation on science policy." Similar methods are used throughout the world.
15. Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC)
15.1 Certified analytical standards were obtained from Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, 50 Frontage Road, Andover, MA 01810, 508-749-8000.

15.2 Criteria used for HRGC-HRMS initial and continuing calibration are defined in Sections 13.5 and 13.6.
15.3 Analytical criteria used for identification purposes are defined in Section 14.2.
15.4 All test samples, method blanks, field blanks, and laboratory control samples are spiked with 13C12-labeled internal standards prior to extraction.
15.5 Sample preparation and analysis and evaluation of data are performed on a set of 12 samples, which may consist of 9 test samples, field blank, method blank, fortified method blank, or a laboratory control sample.
15.6 Method evaluation studies were performed to determine and evaluate the overall method capabilities (1, 2).
15.7 The 13C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD solution is spiked to filters of all samplers, including field blanks, immediately prior to operation or is spiked to all PUF plugs prior to shipping them to the field for sampling to determine and document the sampling efficiency.

15.8 Minimum equipment calibration and accuracy requirements achieved are illustrated in Table 23.
15.9 QA/QC requirements for data:
Criteria Requirements The data shall satisfy all indicated identification criteria Discussed in Section 14.2 Method efficiency achieved for 13C12-labeled tetra-, penta-, hexa-50 to 120%
CDDs/CDFs and PBDDs/PBDFs Method efficiency achieved for 13C12-labeled HpCDD and OCDD 40 to 120% Accuracy achieved for PHDDs and PHDFs 70 to 130%
in method spike at 0.25 to 2.0 pg/m3 concentration range Precision achieved for duplicate method spikes or QA samples ± 30% Sampler efficiency achieved for 13C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD 50 to 120% Method blank contamination Free of contamination that would
interfere with test sample results. Method detection limit range 0.02 to 0.25 pg/m3 for method blank and field blank (individual isomers)
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-31

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
16. Report Format
The analytical results achieved for a set of 12 samples should be presented in a table such as the one shown in Table 24. The analytical results, analysis, QA/QC criteria, and requirements used to evaluate data are discussed in an accompanying analytical report. The validity of the data in regard to the data quality requirements and any qualification that may apply is explained in a clear and concise manner for the user's information.
Page 9A-32 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
17. References
1.
Harless, R. L. et al., "Evaluation of Methodology for Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Ambient Air," in Proceedings of the 1991 EPA/A&WMA International Symposium on Measurement of Toxic and Related Air Pollutants, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, EPA-600/9-91-018, May 1991.

2.
Harless, R. L., et al., "Evaluation of a Sampling and Analysis Method for Determination of Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Ambient Air," in Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Chlorinated Dioxins and Related Compounds, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, EPA-600/D-91-106; Chemosphere, Vol. 25, (7-10):1317-1322, Oct-Nov 1992.

3.
Smith-Mullen, C., et al., Feasibility of Environmental Monitoring and Exposure Assessment for a Municipal Waste Combustor, Rutland, Vermont Pilot Study, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, EPA-600/8-91-007, March 1991.

4.
Harless, R. L., et al., Sampling and Analysis for Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Ambient Air, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, EPA-600/D-9-172, May 1990.

5.
Harless, R. L. et al., Analytical Procedures and Quality Assurance Plan for the Analysis of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in Tier 3-7 Samples of the U. S. EPA National Dioxin Study, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, EPA-600/3-85-019, May 1986.

6.
Harless, R. L. et al., Analytical Procedures and Quality Assurance Plan for the Analysis of Tetra Through Octa Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Tier 4 Combustion and Incineration Processes,


U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, Addendum to EPA-600/3-85-019, May 1986.
7.
Albro, P.W., et al., "Methods for the Quantitative Determination of Multiple Specific Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofuran Isomers in Human Adipose Tissue in the Parts-Per-Trillion Range. An Interlaboratory Study," Anal. Chem., Vol.57:2717-2725, 1985.

8.
O'Keefe, P. W., et al., "Interlaboratory Validation of PCDD and PCDF Concentrations Found in Municipal Incinerator Emissions," Chemosphere, Vol. 18:185-192, 1989.

9.
Harless, R. L., et al., "Identification of Bromo/Chloro Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Ash Samples," Chemosphere, Vol. 18:201-208, 1989.

10.
Lafleur, L.E., and Dodo, G. H., "An Interlaboratory Comparison of Analytical Procedures for the Measurement of PCDDs/PCDFs in Pulp and Paper Industry Solid Wastes," Chemosphere, Vol. 18:77-84, 1989.

11.
Patterson, D. G. et al., "Levels of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans in Workers Exposed to 2,3,7,8-TCDD," American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Vol. 16:135-146, 1989.


January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-33

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
12.
Lamparski, L. L. and Nestrick, T. J. "Determination of Tetra-, Hexa-, Hepta-and Octa-chlorodibenzo-p­dioxin isomers in Particulate Samples at Parts-Per-Trillion Levels," Anal. Chem., Vol. 52:2045-2054, 1980.

13.
Rappe, C., "Analysis of Polychlorinated Dioxins and Furans," Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 18:78A-90A, 1984.

14.
Rappe, C., et al., "Identification of PCDDs and PCDFs in Urban Air," Chemosphere, Vol. 17:3-20, 1988.

15.
Tondeur, Y., et al., "Method 8290: An Analytical Protocol for the Multimedia Characterization of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans by High Resolution Gas Chromatography/High Resolution Mass Spectrometry," Chemosphere, Vol. 18:119-131, 1989.

16.
"Method 23, Method for Measurement of Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans from Stationary Sources," Federal Register, Vol. 56(30):5758-5770, February 13, 1991.

17.
"Method 1613: Tetra- through Octa-Chlorinated Dioxins and Furans by Isotope Dilution HRGC-HRMS," Federal Register, Vol. 56(26:)5098-5122, February 7, 1991.

18.
Interim Procedures for Estimating Risks Associated with Exposures to Mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo­p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (CDDs/CDFs), U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, EPA-625/3-89-016, March 1989.

19.
Tiernan, T., et al., "PCDD/PCDF in the Ambient Air of a Metropolitan Area in the U.S.," Chemosphere, Vol. 19:541-546, 1989.

20.
Hunt, G., "Measurement of PCDDs/PCDFs in Ambient Air," J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc., Vol. 39:330­331, 1989.

21.
"40 CFR Parts 707 and 766, Polyhalogenated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans: Testing and Reporting Requirements: Final Rule," Federal Register, Vol. 52 (108):21412-21452, June 5, 1987.

22.
Buser, H., "Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans: Thermal reaction products of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants," Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 20:404-408, 1988.

23.
Sovocol, G. W., et al., "Analysis of Municipal Incinerator Fly Ash for Bromo and Bromo/Chloro Dioxins, Dibenzofurans, and Related Compounds," Chemosphere, Vol. 18:193-200, 1989.

24.
Lewis, R. G., et al., Modification and Evaluation of a High-Volume Air Sampler for Pesticides and Semivolatile Industrial Organic Chemicals," Anal. Chem., Vol. 54:592-594, 1982.

25.
Lewis, R. G., et al., "Evaluation of Polyurethane Foam for Sampling Pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polychlorinated Naphthalenes in Ambient Air," Anal. Chem., Vol. 49:1668-1672, 1977.

26.
Winberry, W. T., Jr., et al., Compendium of Methods for the Determination of Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air, Second Supplement, Method TO-9, U. S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711, EPA 600/4-89-018, March 1989.


Page 9A-34 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
27.
"Analysis of Air Samples for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, and PAHs in Support of the Great Lakes Deposition Project," Draft Report, Midwest Research Institute, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO, MRI Project No. 3103-A, April 1990.

28.
Boggess, K.E., "Analysis of Air Samples for PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and PAHs in Support of the Great Lakes Deposition Project," Final Report, Midwest Research Institute, 425 Volker Boulevard, Kansas City, MO, MRI Project No. 3103-A, April 1993.

29.
"Working with Carcinogens," NIOSH, Publication 77-206, August 1977.

30.
"Safety in the Academic Chemistry Laboratories," ACS Committee on Chemical Safety, 1979.


January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-35

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 1. NUMBER OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXIN AND DIBENZOFURAN (PCDD/PCDF) CONGENERS
No. of Chlorine Atoms No. of PCDD Isomers No. of PCDF Isomers
1 2 4
2 10 16
3 14 28
4 22 38
5 14 28
6 10 16
7 2 4
8 1 1
Total 75 135

[Note: This also applies for the polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs).]
TABLE 2. LIST OF 2,3,7,8-CHLORINE SUBSTITUTED PCDD/PCDF CONGENERS
PCDDs PCDFs
2,3,7,8-TCDD 2,3,7,8-TCDF
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF
2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF
2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF
1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-OCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-OCDF

Page 9A-36 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 3. COMPOSITIONS OF THE INITIAL CALIBRATION SOLUTIONS OF LABELED AND UNLABELED PCDDS AND PCDFS
Concentrations (pg/FL)
Compound Solution No. 1 2 3 4 5
Unlabeled Analytes
2,3,7,8-TCDD 0.5 1 5 50 100
2,3,7,8-TCDF 0.5 1 5 50 100
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 2.5 5 25 250 500
2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF 2.5 5 25 250 500
2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDD 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF 2.5 5 25 250 500
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF 2.5 5 25 250 500
OCDD 5.0 10 50 500 1000
OCDF 5.0 10 50 500 1000
Internal Standards
13C -2,3,7,8-TCDD12 100 100 100 100 100
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD12 100 100 100 100 100
13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12 100 100 100 100 100
13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD12 100 100 100 100 100
13C -OCDD12 200 200 200 200 200
13C -2,3,7,8-TCDF12 100 100 100 100 100

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-37

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 3. (continued)

Concentrations (pg/FL)
Compound Solution No. 1 2 3 4 5
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF12 100 100 100 100 100
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12 100 100 100 100 100
13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF12 100 100 100 100 100
Surrogate Standards
13C -2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF12 60 80 100 120 140
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCD12 60 80 100 120 140
13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF12 60 80 100 120 140
13C -1,2,3,6,7,8,9-HpCD12 60 80 100 120 140
Field Standards
37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD4 100 100 100 100 100
13C -1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD12 100 100 100 100 100
Recovery Standard
13C -1,2,3,4-TCDD12 50 50 50 50 50

[Note: Standards specified in EPA Method 1613 can also be used in this method.]
Page 9A-38 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 4. COMPOSITION OF THE SAMPLE FORTIFICATION SOLUTIONS
Analyte Concentration (pg/FL)
Chlorinated Internal Standards
13C -2,3,7,8-TCDD12 100
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD12 100
13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12 100
13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD12 100
13C -OCDD12 100
13C -2,3,7,8-TCDF12 100
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF12 100
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12 100
13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF12 100
Brominated Internal Standards
13Cl -2,3,7,8-TBDD12 0.86
13C -2,3,7,8-TBDF12 0.86
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF12 0.86

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-39

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 5. COMPOSITION OF RECOVERY STANDARD SOLUTION
Analyte Concentration (pg/FL)
Recovery Standard
13C -1,2,3,4-TCDD12 10

TABLE 6. COMPOSITION OF AIR SAMPLER FIELD FORTIFICATION STANDARD SOLUTION
Analyte Concentration (pg/FL)
Field Fortification Standard
37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD 4 10

TABLE 7. COMPOSITION OF SURROGATE STANDARD SOLUTION
Analyte Concentration (pg/FL)
Surrogate Standards
13C12-1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 100
13C12-2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 100
13C12-1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 100
13C12-1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF 100

Page 9A-40 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 8. COMPOSITION OF MATRIX AND METHOD SPIKE AND METHOD SPIKE SOLUTIONS OF PCDDS/PCDFS AND PBDDS/PBDFSa
Analyte Concentration (pg/FL) Analyte Concentration (pg/FL)
Native PCDDs and PCDFs Native PBDDs and PBDFs
2,3,7,8-TCDD 1 2,3,7,8-TBDD 1
2,3,7,8-TCDF 1 2,3,7,8-TBDF 1
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 5 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD 5
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 5 1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF 5
2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 5 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDD 5
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 5 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDF 5
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 5
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 5
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 5
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 5
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF 5
2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF 5
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 5
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF 5
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF 5
OCDD 10
OCDF 10

aSolutions at different concentrations and those containing different congeners may also be used.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-41

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 9. HRGC-HRMS COLUMN PERFORMANCE EVALUATION SOLUTIONS
Congener First Eluted Last Eluted
SE-54 Column GC Retention Time Window Defining Standarda
TCDF 1,3,6,8­ 1,2,8,9­
TCDD 1,3,6,8­ 1,2,8,9­
PeCDF 1,3,4,6,8­ 1,2,3,8,9­
PeCDD 1,2,4,7,9­ 1,2,3,8,9­
HxCDF 1,2,3,4,6,8­ 1,2,3,4,8,9­
HxCDD 1,2,4,6,7,9­ 1,2,3,4,6,7­
HpCDF 1,2,3,4,6,7,8­ 1,2,3,4,7,8,9­
HpCDD 1,2,3,4,6,7,9­ 1,2,3,4,6,7,8­
OCDF OCDF
OCDD OCDD
SE-54 TCDD Isomer Specificity Test Standardb
1,2,3,4-TCDD
1,4,7,8-TCDD 2,3,7,8-TCDD
SP-2331 Column TCDF Isomer Specificity Test Standardc
2,3,4,7-TCDF
2,3,7,8-TCDF
1,2,3,9-TCDF

aA solution containing these congeners and the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners may also be used for these
purposes. bA solution containing the 1,2,3,4,-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDD may also be used for this purpose. cSolution containing all tetra- through octa-congeners may also be used for these purposes.
Page 9A-42 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 10. DESCRIPTORS, MASSES, M/Z TYPES, AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE PCDDS AND PCDFS
Descriptor Number Accurate Mass m/z Type Elemental Composition 2Compound Primary m/z
1 292.9825 Lock C F7 11 PFK
303.9016 M 35C12 H4 Cl O4 TCDF Yes
305.8987 M+2 35 37C12 H4 Cl3 Cl O TCDF
315.9419 M 13 35C12 H4 Cl O4 3TCDF Yes
317.9389 M+2 13 35 37C12 H4 Cl3 Cl O 3TCDF
319.8965 M 35C12 H4 Cl O4 2 TCDD Yes
321.8936 M+2 35 37C12 H4 Cl3 Cl O2 TCDD
327.8847 M 37C12 H4 Cl O4 2 4TCDD
330.9792 QC C F7 13 PFK
331.9368 M 13 35C12 H4 Cl O4 2 3TCDD Yes
333.9339 M+2 13 35 37C12 H4 Cl3 Cl O2 3TCDD
375.8364 M+2 35 37C12 H4 Cl5 Cl O HxCDPE
2 339.8597 M+2 35 37C12 H3 Cl4 Cl O PeCDF Yes
341.8567 M+4 35 37C12 H3 Cl3 Cl O2 PeCDF
351.9000 M+2 13 35 37C12 H3 Cl4 Cl O 3PeCDF Yes
353.8970 M+4 13 35 37C12 H3 Cl3 Cl O2 3PeCDF
354.9792 Lock C F9 13 PFK
355.8546 M+2 35 37C12 H3 Cl4 Cl O2 PeCDD Yes
357.8516 M+4 35 37C12 H3 Cl3 Cl O2 2 PeCDD
367.8949 M+2 13 35 37C12 H3 Cl4 Cl O2 4PeCDD Yes
369.8919 M+4 13 35 37C12 H3 Cl3 Cl O2 2 4PeCDD
409.7974 M+2 35 37C12 H3 Cl6 Cl O HpCDPE

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-43

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 10. (continued)

Descriptor Number Accurate Mass m/z Type Elemental Composition 2Compound Primary m/z
3 373.8208 M+2 35 37C12 H2 Cl5 Cl O HxCDF Yes
375.8178 M+4 35 37C12 H2 Cl4 Cl O2 HxCDF
383.8639 M 13 35C12 H2 Cl O6 3HxCDF Yes
385.8610 M+2 13 35 37C12 H2 Cl5 Cl O 3HxCDF
389.8157 M+2 35 37C12 H2 Cl5 Cl O2 HxCDD Yes
391.8127 M+4 35 37C12 H2 Cl4 Cl O2 2 HxCDD
392.9760 Lock C F9 15 PFK
401.8559 M+2 13 35 37C12 H2 Cl5 Cl O2 3HxCDD Yes
403.8529 M+4 13 35 37C12 H2 Cl4 Cl O2 2 3HxCDD
430.9729 QC C F9 13 PFK
445.7555 M+4 35 37C12 H2 Cl6 Cl O2 OCDPE
4 407.7818 M+2 35C H Cl12 Cl O6 37 H CDF p Yes
409.7789 M+4 35 37C12 H Cl5 Cl O2 HpCDF
417.8253 M 13 35C12 H Cl O7 3HpCDF Yes
419.8220 M+2 13 35 37C12 H Cl6 Cl O 3HpCDF
423.7766 M+2 35 37C12 H Cl6 Cl O2 HpCDD Yes
425.7737 M+4 35 37C12 H Cl5 Cl O2 2 HpCDD
430.9729 Lock C F9 17 PFK
435.8169 M+2 13 35 37C12 H Cl6 Cl O2 3HpCDD Yes
437.8140 M+4 13 35 37C12 H Cl5 Cl O2 2 3HpCDD
479.7165 M+4 35 37C12 H Cl7 Cl O2 NCDPE

Page 9A-44 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 10. (continued)

Descriptor Number Accurate Mass m/z Type Elemental Composition 2Compound Primary m/z
5 441.7428 M+2 35 37C12 Cl7 Cl O OCDF Yes
442.9728 Lock C10 F17 PFK
443.7399 M+4 35 37C12 Cl6 Cl O2 OCDF
457.7377 M+2 35 37C12 Cl7 Cl O2 OCDD Yes
459.7348 M+4 35 37C12 Cl6 Cl O2 2 OCDD
469.7779 M+2 13 35 37C12 Cl7 Cl O2 3OCDD Yes
471.7750 M+4 13 35 37C12 Cl6 Cl O2 2 3OCDD
513.6775 M+4 35 37C12 Cl8 Cl O2 DCDPE

1Nuclidic masses used: H = 1.007825 C = 12.00000 13C = 13.003355 F = 18.9984
35 37
O = 15.994915 Cl = 34.968853 Cl = 36.965903
2Compound abbreviations:

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins Polychlorinated diphenyl ethers TCDD = Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin HxCDPE = Hexachlorodiphenyl ether PeCDD = Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin HpCDPE = Heptachlorodiphenyl ether HxCDD = Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin OCDPE = Octachlorodiphenyl ether HpCDD = Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin NCDPE = Nonachlorodiphenyl ether OCDD = Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin DCDPE = Decachlorodiphenyl ether
Polychlorinated dibenzofurans Lock mass and QC compound TCDF = Tetrachlorodibenzofuran PFK = Perfluorokerosene PeCDF = Pentachlorodibenzofuran HxCDF = Hexachlorodibenzofuran HpCDF = Heptachlorodibenzofuran
3Labeled compound

4There is only one m/z for 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD (recovery standard).
4

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-45

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 11. DESCRIPTORS, M/Z TYPES, EXACT MASSES AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE PBDDS AND PBDFS
Descriptor Number Accurate 1Mass Ion Type Elemental Composition 2Compound
1 327.8847 M 37C12 H4 Cl O4 2 4TCDD
330.9792 QC C F7 13 PFK
331.9368 M 35C12 H4 Cl O4 2 3TCDD
333.9339 M+2 35 37C12 H4 Cl3 Cl O2 3TCDD
2 417.825 M 13 35C12 H Cl O7 3HpCDF
419.822 M+2 13 35 37C12 H Cl6 Cl O 3HpCDF
466.973 QC PFK
481.698 M+2 79 81C12 H4 Br3 BrO TBDF
483.696 M+4 79 81C12 H4 Br2 Br O2 TBDF
485.694 M+6 79 81C12 H4 Br Br O3 TBDF
492.970 LOCK MASS PFK
493.738 M+2 13 79 81C12 H4 Br3 Br O 3TBDF
495.736 M+4 13 79 81C12 H4 Br2 Br O2 3TBDD
497.692 M+2 79 81C12 H4 Br3 Br O2 TBDD
499.690 M+4 79 81C12 H4 Br2 Br O2 2 TBDD
501.689 M+6 79 81C12 H4 Br Br O3 TBDD
509.733 M+2 13 79 81C12 H4 Br3 BrO2 3TBDD
511.731 M+4 13 79 81C12 H4 Br2 Br O2 2 3TBDD
565.620 M+6 79 81C12 H5 Br2 Br O3 PeBDPO
643.530 M+6 79 81C12 H4 Br3 Br O3 HxBDPO

Page 9A-46 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 11. (continued)

Descriptor Number Accurate 1Mass Ion Type Elemental Composition 2Compound
3 469.778 M+2 13 35 37C12 Cl7 Cl O2 3OCDD
471.775 M+4 13 35 37C12 Cl6 Cl O2 3OCDD
559.608 M+2 79 81C12 H3 Br4 Br O PeBDF
561.606 M+4 79 81C12 H3 Br3 Br O2 PeBDF
563.604 M+6 79 81C12 H3 Br2 Br O3 PeBDF
566.966 LOCK MASS PFK
573.646 M+4 13 79 81C12 H3 Br3 Br O2 3PeBDF
575.644 M+6 13 79 81C12 H3 Br2 Br O3 3PeBDF
575.603 M+2 79 81C12 H3 Br4 Br O2 PeBDD
577.601 M+4 79 37C12 H3 Br3 Br O2 2 PeBDD
579.599 M+6 79 81C12 H3 Br2 Br O3 2 PeBDD
589.641 M+4 13 79 37C12 H3 Br3 Br O2 2 3PeBDD
591.639 M+6 13 79 81C12 H3 Br3 Br O2 2 3PeBDD
616.963 QC PFK

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-47

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 11. (continued)

Descriptor Number Accurate 1Mass Ion Type Elemental Composition 2Compound
4 643.530 M+6 79 81C12 H4 Br3 Br O3 HxBDPO
721.441 M+6 79 81C12 H3 Br4 Br O3 HpBDPO
616.963 QC PFK
639.517 M+4 79 81C12 H2 Br4 Br O2 HxBDF
641.514 M+6 79 81C12 H2 Br3 Br O3 HxBDF
643.512 M+8 79 81C12 H2 Br2 Br O4 HxBDF
655.511 M+4 79 81C12 H2 Br4 Br O2 2 HxBDD
657.509 M+6 79 81C12 H2 Br3 Br O3 2 HxBDD
659.507 M+8 79 81C12 H2 Br2 Br O4 2 HxBDD
666.960 LOCK MASS PFK
721.441 M+6 79 81C12 H3 Br4 Br O3 HpBDPO
801.349 M+8 79 81C12 H2 Br4 Br O4 OBDPO

Page 9A-48 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 11. (continued)

Descriptor Number Accurate 1Mass Ion Type Elemental Composition 2Compound
5 717.427 M+4 79 81C12 H Br5 Br O2 HpBDF
719.425 M+6 79 81C12 H Br4 Br O3 HpBDF
721.423 M+8 79 81C12 H Br3 Br O4 HpBDF
733.422 M+4 79 81C12 H Br5 Br O2 2 HpBDD
735.420 M+6 79 81C12 H Br4 Br O3 2 HpBDD
737.418 M+4 79 81C12 H Br3 Br O4 2 HpBDD
754.954 QC PFK
770.960 LOCK MASS ALTERNATE HpTriazine
801.349 M+8 79 81C12 H2 Br4 Br O4 OBDPO
816.951 LOCK MASS PFK
879.260 M+8 79 81C12 H Br5 Br O4 NBDPO
865.958 QC ALTERNATE HpTriazine

1Nuclidic masses used: H = 1.007825 C = 12.000000 13C = 13.003355
79 81

O = 15.994915 Br = 78.91834 Br = 80.91629 19F = 18.9984 2Compound abbreviations:
Polybromoinated dibenzo-p-dioxins Polybromoinated diphenyl ethers TBDD = Tetrabromodibenzo-p-dioxin HxBDPE = Hexabromodiphenyl ether PeBDD = Pentabromodibenzo-p-dioxin HpBDPE = Heptabromodiphenyl ether HxBDD = Hexabromodibenzo-p-dioxin OBDPE = Octabromodiphenyl ether HpBDD = Heptabromodibenzo-p-dioxin NBDPE = Nonabromodiphenyl ether OBDD = Octabromodibenzo-p-dioxin DBDPE = Decabromodiphenyl ether
PFK = Perfluorokerosene

Polybromoinated dibenzofurans HpTriazine = Tris-(perfluoroheptyl)-s-Triazine TBDF = Tetrabromodibenzofuran PeBDF = Pentabromodibenzofuran HxBDF = Hexabromodibenzofuran HpBDF = Heptabromodibenzofuran OBDF = Octabromodibenzofuran
3Labeled Compound 4There is only one m/z for 37Cl -2378-TCDD (recovery standard).
4

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-49

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 12. DESCRIPTORS, MASSES, M/Z TYPES, AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE BCDDS AND BCDFS
Descriptor Number Accurate 1mass m/z Type Elemental Composition 2Compound Primary m/z
1 315.942 M 13 35C12 H4 Cl O4 4TCDF
317.939 M+2 35 37C12 H4 Cl3 Cl O 4TCDF Yes
327.885 M 35C12 H4 Cl O4 2 3TCDD Yes
330.979 Lock C F7 13 PFK
331.937 M 13 35C12 H4 Cl O4 2 4TCDD
333.934 M+2 13 35 37C12 H4 Cl3 Cl O2 4TCDD Yes
347.851 M 35 79C12 H4 Cl3 Br 0 Br Cl DF3
349.849 M+2 35 37 79C12 H4 Cl2 Cl Br O Br Cl DF3 Yes
363.846 M 35 79C12 H4 Cl3 Br O2 Br Cl DD3
365.844 M+2 35 37 79C12 H4 Cl2 Cl Br O2 Br Cl DD3 Yes

Page 9A-50 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 12. (continued)

Descriptor Number Accurate 1mass m/z Type Elemental Composition 2Compound Primary m/z
2 351.900 M+2 13 35C12 H3 Cl O5 PeCDF4
353.897 M+4 13 35 37C12 H3 Cl4 Cl 0 4PeCDF
354.979 Lock C F9 3 PFK
367.895 M+2 13 35C12 H3 Cl O5 2 4PeCDD Yes
369.892 M+4 13 35 37C12 H3 Cl4 Cl O2 4PeCDD
381.812 M 35 79C12 H3 Cl4 Br O Br Cl DF4
383.809 M+2 35 37 79C12 H3 Cl3 Cl Br O Br Cl DF4 Yes
397.807 M 35 79C12 H3 Cl4 Br O2 Br Cl DD4
399.804 M+2 35 37 79C12 H3 Cl3 Cl Br O2 Br Cl DD4 Yes

1Nuclidic masses used: H = 1.007825 C = 12.00000 13C = 13.003355
35 37
O = 15.994915 Cl = 34.968853 Cl = 36.965903
79 81
F = 18.9984 Br = 78.91834 Br = 80.91629 2Compound abbreviations:
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins Brominated/Chlorinated TCDD = Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans PeCDD = Pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin BrCl DD = Bromotrichloro dibenzo-p-dioxin
3

HxCDD = Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin BrCl DD = Bromotetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin
4

HpCDD = Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin BrCl DF = Bromotrichloro dibenzofuran
3

OCDD = Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin BrCl DF = Bromotetrachloro dibenzofuran
4

Polychlorinated dibenzofurans Lock mass and QC compound TCDF = Tetrachlorodibenzofuran PFK = Perfluorokerosene PeCDF = Pentachlorodibenzofuran HxCDF = Hexachlorodibenzofuran HpCDF = Heptachlorodibenzofuran
3There is only one m/z for 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD (recovery standard).
4
4Labeled compound

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-51

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 13. HRGC OPERATING CONDITIONS
Column Type DB-5 SE-54 SP-2331
Length (m) 60 30 60
i.d. (mm) 0.25 0.25 0.25
Film Thickness (Fm) 0.25 0.25 0.20
Carrier Gas Helium Helium Helium
Carrier Gas Flow (mL/min) 1-2 1-2 1-2
Injector temperature (EC) 290 308 308
Injection Mode Splitless <---Moving needle --->
Initial Temperature (EC) 200 170.0 150.0
Initial Time (min) 2 7.0 7.0
Rate 1 (EC/min) 5 8.0 10.0
Temperature (EC) 220
Hold Time (min) 16
Rate 2 (deg. C/min) 5
Temperature (EC) 235
Hold Time (min) 7
Rate 2 (deg. C/min) 5
Final Temperature (EC) 330 300.0 250.0
Hold Time (min) 5

TABLE 14. HRMS OPERATING CONDITIONS
Electron impact ionization 25-70 eV
Mass resolution >10,000 (10% Valley Definition)
Analysis Selected ion monitoring (SIM)
Exact masses monitored Masses shown in Tables 10, 11, 12

Page 9A-52 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 15. UNLABELED AND LABELED ANALYTE QUANTIFICATION RELATIONSHIPS
Analyte Internal Standard Used During Quantification
2,3,7,8-TCDD 13C -2,3,7,8-TCDD12
Other TCDDs 13C -2,3,7,8-TCDD12
37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD 4 13C -2,3,7,8-TCDD12
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD12
Other PeCDDs 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD12
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12
Other HxCDDs 13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD12
Other HpCDDs 13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD12
OCDD 13C -OCDD12
2,3,7,8-TCDF 13C -2,3,7,8-TCDF12
Other TCDFs 13C -2,3,7,8-TCDF12
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF12
2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF12
Other PeCDFs 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF12
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF 13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12
2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF 13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12
Other HxCDFs 13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF 13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF12
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF 13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF12
Other HpCDFs 13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF12
OCDF 13C -OCDD12

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-53

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 16. INTERNAL STANDARDS QUANTIFICATION RELATIONSHIPS
Internal Standard Standard Used During Percent Recovery Determinationa
13C12-2,3,7,8-TCDD 13C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD
13C12-1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 13C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD
13C12-1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 13C12-1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD
13C12-1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 13C12-1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD
13C12-OCDD 13C12-1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD
13C12-2,3,7,8-TCDF 13C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD
13C12-1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 13C12-1,2,3,4-TCDD
13C12-1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 13C12-1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD
13C12-1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF 13C12-1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD

aSurrogate standards shown in Table 7 may also be used.
TABLE 17. SURROGATE/ALTERNATE STANDARDS QUANTIFICATION RELATIONSHIPS
Surrogate Standard Standard Used During Percent Recovery Determination
13C12-2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 13C12-1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF
13C12-1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 13C12-1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD
13C12-1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 13C12-1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF
13C12-1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF 13C12-1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF

[Note: Other surrogate standards may be used instead]
Page 9A-54 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 18. QUANTIFICATION RELATIONSHIPS OF THE CARBON-LABELED STANDARDS AND THE ANALYTES
Analytes Quantification Standard
2,3,7,8-TBDD 13C -2,3,7,8-TBDD12
2,3,7,8-TBDF 13C -2,3,7,8-TBDF12
1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD12
1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF12
2,3,4,7,8-PeBDF 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeBDF12
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxBDD 13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeBDD12
[Note: O.5 ng 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD spiked to the extract prior to final concentration


4

to 60 FL was used to determine the method efficiency (% recovery of the 13C12-labeled PBDDs/PBDFs).

Additional 2,3,7,8-substituted PBDDs/PBDFs are now commercially available.


Retention Index for the PBDDs/PBDFs were published by Sovocool, etal., Chemosphere 16, 221-114, 1987; and Donnelly, et al., Biomedical Environmental Mass Spectrometry, 14, pp. 465-472, 1987.]


TABLE 19. THEORETICAL ION ABUNDANCE RATIOS AND CONTROL LIMITS FOR PCDDS AND PCDFS
No. of Chlorine Atoms m/z's Forming Ratio TheoreticalRatio Lower 1Control Limits Upper
24 M/M+2 0.77 0.65 0.89
5 M+2/M+4 1.55 1.32 1.78
6 M+2/M+4 1.24 1.05 1.43
36 M/M+2 0.51 0.43 0.59
7 M+2/M+4 1.04 0.88 1.20
47 M/M+2 0.44 0.37 0.51
8 M+2/M+4 0.89 0.76 1.02

1Represent ± 15% windows around the theoretical ion abundance ratios. 2Does not apply to 37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD (cleanup standard).
4

3Used for 13C12-HxCDF only. 4Used for 13C12-HpCDF only.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-55

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 20. THEORETICAL ION ABUNDANCE RATIOS AND CONTROL LIMITS FOR PBDDS AND PBDFS
Control Limits
Number of Bromine Atoms Ion Type Theoretical Ratio Lower Upper
4 M+2/M+4 0.68 0.54 0.82
4 M+4/M+6 1.52 1.22 1.82
5 M+2/M+4 0.51 0.41 0.61
5 M+4/M+6 1.02 0.82 1.22
6 M+4/M+6 0.77 0.62 0.92
6 M+6/M+8 1.36 1.09 1.63
7 M+4/M+6 0.61 0.49 0.73
7 M+6/M+8 1.02 0.82 1.22

Page 9A-56 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 21. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS FOR INITIAL AND DAILY CALIBRATION RESPONSE FACTORS
Relative Response Factors
Compound Initial Calibration RSD Daily Calibration % Difference
Unlabeled Analytes
2,3,7,8-TCDD 25 25
2,3,7,8-TCDF 25 25
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 25 25
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 25 25
2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 25 25
1,2,4,5,7,8-HxCDD 25 25
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 25 25
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 25 25
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 25 25
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 25 25
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF 25 25
2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF 25 25
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 25 25
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF 25 25
OCDD 25 25
OCDF 30 30
Internal Standards
C -2,3,7,8-TCDD13 12 25 25
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD12 30 30
13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12 25 25
13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD12 30 30

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-57

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 21. (continued)

Relative Response Factors
Compound Initial Calibration RSD Daily Calibration % Difference
13C -OCDD12 30 30
13C -2,3,7,8-TCDF12 30 30
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF12 30 30
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12 30 30
13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF12 30 30
Surrogate Standards
37Cl -2,3,7,8-TCDD 4 25 25
13C -2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF12 25 25
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD12 25 25
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12 25 25
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF12 25 25

Page 9A-58 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 22. 2,3,7,8-TCDD EQUIVALENT FACTORS (TEFS)1 FOR THE POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZODIOXINS AND POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS
Number Compound TEF
1 2,3,7,8-TCDD 1.00
2 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD 0.50
3 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD 0.1
4 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD 0.1
5 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD 0.1
6 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD 0.01
7 OCDD 0.001
8 2,3,4,7,8-TCDF 0.10
9 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF 0.05
10 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF 0.5
11 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF 0.1
12 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF 0.1
13 1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF 0.1
14 2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF 0.1
15 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF 0.01
16 1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF 0.01
17 OCDF 0.001

1Interim procedures for Estimating Risks associated with Exposures to mixtures of Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Dibenzofurans (CDDs/CDFs), WPA-625/3-89-016, March 1989.
[Note: The same TEFs are assigned to the PBDDs/PBDFs and BCDDs/BCDFs.]
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-59

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 23. MINIMUM SAMPLING EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION AND ACCURACY REQUIREMENTS
Equipment Acceptance limits Frequency and method of measurement Action if require­ments are not met
Sampler Indicated flow rate = true flow rate ±10%. Calibrate with certified transfer standard on receipt, after maintenance on sampler, and any time audits or flow checks deviate more than ±10% from the indicated flow rate or +10% from the design flow rate. Recalibrate
Associated equipment
Sampler on/off timer ±30 min/24 hour Check at purchase and routinely on sample-recovery days Adjust or replace
Elapsed-time meter ±30 min/24 hour Compare with a standard time-piece of known accuracy at receipt and at 6-month intervals Adjust or replace
Flowrate transfer standard (orifice device) Check at receipt for visual damage Recalibrate annually against positive displacement standard volume meter Adopt new calibration curve

Page 9A-60 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
TABLE 24. FORMAT FOR TABLE OF ANALYTICAL RESULTS
IDENTIFICATION
AIR SAMPLER EFFICIENCY (% RECOVERY)
13C -1,2,3,4,-TCDD12
METHOD EFFICIENCY (% RECOVERY)
13C -2,3,7,8-TCDF12
13C -2,3,7,8-TCDD12
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF12
13C -1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD12
13C -1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF12
13C -1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD12
13C -1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD12
13C -OCDD12
3CONCENTRATIONS DETECTED or MDL (pg/m )
TCDDs (TOTAL)1
2,3,7,8-TCDD
PeCDDs (TOTAL)
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD
HxCDDs (TOTAL)
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDD
HpCDDs (TOTAL)
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-61

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
TABLE 24. (continued)

IDENTIFICATION
OCDD
TCDFs (TOTAL)
2,3,7,8-TCDF
PeCDFs (TOTAL)
1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF
2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF
HxCDFs (TOTAL)
1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF
1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDF
1,2,3,7,8,9-HxCDF
2,3,4,6,7,8-HxCDF
HpCDFs (TOTAL)
1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF
1,2,3,4,7,8,9-HpCDF
OCDF

1(TOTAL) = All congeners, including the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners. ND = Not detected at specified minimum detection limit (MDL).
[Note: Please refer to text for discussion and qualification that must accompany the results.]
Page 9A-62 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
9 191

Dibenzo-p-Dioxin Dibenzofuran
Figure 1. Dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran structures.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-63

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Figure 2. Typical dioxins/furan high volume air sampler.
Page 9A-64 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

Figure 3a. Typical absorbent cartridge assembly for sampling dioxin/furans.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-65

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Figure 3b. Typical glass PUF cartridge (1) and shipping container
(2) for use with hi-vol sampling systems.
Page 9A-66 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

Figure 4. Portable high volume air sampler developed by EPA.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-67

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
Figure 5. Positive displacement rootsmeter used to calibrate orifice transfer standard.
Page 9A-68 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
Figure 6. Orifice calibration data sheet.

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-69

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Figure 7. Field calibration configuration of the dioxin/furan sampler.
Page 9A-70 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-9A FIELD CALIBRATION DATA SHEET DIOXIN/FURAN SAMPLER CALIBRATION
Sampler ID: Calibration Orifice ID: Sampler Location: Job No.: High Volume Transfer Orifice Data: Correlation Coefficient (CC1): Slope (M1): (CC2): (M2): Intercept (B1): (B2):
Calibration Date: Time:
Calibration Ambient Temperature: EF EC CALIBRATOR'S SIGNATURE
Calibration Ambient Barometric Pressure: "Hg mm Hg

Calibration set point (SP):
SAMPLER CALIBRATION

Actual values from calibration Calibrated values
Orifice manometer, inches (Y1) Monitor magnehelic, inches (Y2) Orifice manometer (Y3) Monitor magnehelic (Y4) Calculated value orifice flow, scm (X1)
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

Definitions Y1 = Calibration orifice reading, in. H O Y4 = Calculated value for magnehelic
2

Y2 = Monitor magnehelic reading, in. H O = [Y2(Pa/760)(298/{Ta + 273})]½
2

Pa = Barometric pressure actual, mm Hg X1 = Calculated value orifice flow, scm B1 = Manfacturer's Calibration orifice Intercept Y3 - B1
= M1

M1 = Manufacturer's Calibration orifice manometer P = Barometric pressure standard, 760 mm Hg
slope std
T = Temperature actual, EC Y3 = Calculated value for orifice manometer a
Tstd = Temperature standard, 25EC = [Y1(Pa/760)(298/{Ta + 273})]½
Figure 8. Orifice transfer field calibration data sheet.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-71

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Figure 9. Relationship between orifice transfer standard and flow rate through sampler.
Page 9A-72 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A
COMPENDIUM METHOD TO-9A FIELD TEST DATA SHEET GENERAL INFORMATION

C Sampler I.D. No.: C Operator:
C Lab PUF Sample No.: C Other:
C Sample location:

C PUF Cartridge Certification Date: C Date/Time PUF Cartridge Installed: C Elapsed Timer:
Start Stop Diff.

C Sampling
M1 B1 M2 B2
C Comments
Start Stop
C Barometric pressure ("Hg) ________ _______
C Ambient Temperature (EF) ________ _______
C Rain Yes _____ Yes _____
No _____ No _____
C Sampling time
Start
Stop
Diff.

C Audit flow check within ±10 of set point _____ Yes _____ No

TIME TEMP BAROMETRIC PRESSURE MAGNEHELIC READING CALCULATED FLOW RATE (scmm) READ BY

 


Avg.

Figure 10. Field test data sheet.

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-73

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-74 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-75

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-76 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-77

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-78 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-79

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-80 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-81

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-82 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-83

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-84 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-85

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-86 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-87

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans

Page 9A-88 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Dioxins and Furans Method TO-9A

Figure 23. Extracted ion current profiles (EICP) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF and labeled standard in a complex environmental sample showing presence of other TCDF isomers.
January 1999 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants Page 9A-89

Method TO-9A Dioxins and Furans
This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Page 9A-90 Compendium of Methods for Toxic Organic Air Pollutants January 1999

Final Air Quality Monitoring Plan SMUD Station E Substation

APPENDIX G VANTAGE PRO2 WEATHER STATION OPERATIONS MANUAL

 

For Vantage Pro2 ™ and Vantage Pro2 Plus


Contents
Introduction ...........................................................................................1 Included Components and Hardware ....................................................2 Prepare the ISS for Installation..............................................................5 Cabled ISS Assembly ..........................................................................12 Wireless ISS Assembly........................................................................15 Plan the ISS Installation ......................................................................19 Install the ISS.......................................................................................23 Maintenance and Troubleshooting.......................................................31 Contacting Technical Support..............................................................40 Appendix: Specifications.....................................................................41
FCC Part 15 Class B Registration Warning
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful inter­ference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment on and off, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:

Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.


Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.


Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.


Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help. Changes or modification not expressly approved in writing by Davis Instruments may void the warranty and void the user's authority to operate this equipment. FCC ID: IR2DWW6328 IC: 378810-6328


EC EMC Compliance
This product (models 6152, 6153, 6163, 6322, 6323, 6327, 6328, 6820 OV EU UK) complies with the essen­tial protection requirements of the Radio Equipment Directive 2014/53/EU. RoHS compliant. The complete Declaration of Conformity is on our website at https://www.davisnet.com/legal. RoHS Compliant.

Introduction
The Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) collects outside weather data and sends the data to a Vantage Pro2 console. The wireless ISS can also transmit data to wireless Vantage Connect, Vantage Vue console, Envoy8X, or wireless Weather Envoy. The wireless ISS is solar-powered and sends data via radio. The cabled ISS sends data via cable to one cabled Vantage Pro2 console, cabled Weather Envoy, or cabled Vantage Connect and receives power via the console, Envoy or Vantage Connect cable.
Tip: One wireless ISS can transmit to any number of receivers within its range, so you can add additional consoles to use in different rooms.
All Vantage Pro2 ISSes include a rain collector, temperature sensor, humidity sensor and anemometer. Temperature and humidity sensors are mounted in a passive or fan-aspirated radiation shield to minimize the impact of solar radiation on sensor readings. The anemometer measures wind speed and direction and can be installed adjacent to the ISS or apart from it. See “Locating the ISS and Anemometer” on page 19 for siting guidelines.
The transmitter shelter contains the “brain” of the ISS: the sensor interface and the transmitter. It collects outside weather data from the ISS sensors and then transmits the data to your Vantage Pro2 console, Vantage Vue console (wireless only), Weather Envoy, Envoy8X (wireless only), or Vantage Connect.
Other versions of the ISS have additional features:

Wireless Vantage Pro2 with Fan (product number 6153): Includes a 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield.


Wireless and cabled Vantage Pro2 Plus (product numbers 6162 & 6162C):+ Includes a pre-installed solar radiation sensor and an ultra-violet (UV) radiation sensor.


Wireless Vantage Pro2 Plus with Fan (product number 6163): Includes UV and solar sensors, and a 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield.


Wireless Vantage Pro2 with Solar and Daytime Fan (product number 6334): Includes a solar sensor (for ET readings) and a Daytime Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield.


Tip: Separate Solar Sensor (prod. no. 6450), UV Sensor (prod. no. 6490), Sensor Mounting Shelf (prod. no. 6673), and Daytime Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield (prod. no. 7747) are available to upgrade a standard ISS.

Included Components and Hardware
The ISS comes with all the components and hardware shown in the following illustrations. If you purchased your ISS as part of a weather station package containing the Vantage Pro2 console, additional components may be included in the package that are not shown here.
Components
VANTAGE PRO2 ISS with standard radiation shield


Other versions of the ISS have additional features and parts:
VANTAGE PRO2 VANTAGE PRO2 PLUS with 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Shield with Standard Radiation Shield
Antenna (wireless only)
UV and Solar Radiation Sensors
Transmitter Solar Panel
Antenna
(wireless only)
(wireless only)
Transmitter Fan Solar Panel
Solar Panel (wireless only)
24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield
VANTAGE PRO2

with 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Shield with Solar Radiation Sensor and Daytime Fan-Aspirated Shield VANTAGE PRO2 PLUS
UV and Solar Radiation Sensors
Solar Radiation Sensor
Antenna (wireless only) Antenna (wireless only)
Transmitter Solar Panel (wireless only)
Solar Panels
Fan Solar Panel
Battery 24-Hour Pull Tab
Daytime

Fan-Aspirated Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield
Radiation Shield
Note: If the ISS has UV and solar radiation sensors, do not touch the small white diffusers on top of the sensors. Oil from skin reduces their sensitivity. If you are concerned that you have touched the diffusers at any time during the installation, clean the UV diffuser with a soft cloth.
Hardware (Included)
Bird Spikes (15) U-Bolts 1/4" x 3" Lag Screws

1/4" Flat Washers 1/4" Lock Washers 1/4" Hex Nuts

 

 


3-Volt Lithium Battery Backing Plate

(wireless models only)

Cable Ties

 


Some of the hardware is optional based on how the ISS is assembled and installed.
Note: If any of the hardware components are missing or not included, contact Customer Service toll free at 1-800-678-3669 about receiving replacements.
Tools for Setup

Small Phillips head screwdriver (electric if possible)


Adjustable wrench or 7/16" wrench


Compass or local area map


Ballpoint pen or paper clip (or other small pointed object)


Drill and 3/16" (5 mm) drill bit (if using lag bolts)


Small hammer (if installing optional bird spikes)

 

Prepare the ISS for Installation
Follow the steps in the order they are presented as each builds on tasks completed in previous steps. These steps apply to all versions of the ISS, unless otherwise noted.
Tip: Use a well-lit work table or work area to prepare the ISS for installation.
Assemble the Anemometer
The anemometer measures wind direction and speed. The anemometer arm comes partially assembled with the wind vane attached.
Note: Do not remove the vane.
Please locate the following parts to prepare the anemometer:

Anemometer arm (wind vane and cable already attached)


Anemometer base


Wind cups


Allen wrench (0.05")


#4 machine screw, #4 tooth-lock washer, #4 hex nut


Attach the Anemometer Arm to Base
1.
Insert the anemometer arm into the base, sliding the cable through the notch in the base as shown in illustration.

2.
Be sure to line up the small hole in the arm with the holes in the base.

3.
Insert the machine screw through the holes in the base and arm. It may be helpful to use a screwdriver to insert the screw.

4.
Slide the tooth-lock washer and hex nut onto the machine screw. Tighten the hex nut while holding the screw with a Phillips head screwdriver to prevent it from turning.

5.
Press the sensor cable firmly and completely into the zig-zagging channel in the base, starting from the arm and progressing downward to the bottom of the base. This provides strain relief for the cable.

 


Attach the Wind Cups
1. Push the wind cups up onto the anemometer’s stainless steel shaft, sliding them up the shaft as far as possible.

Push cups onto stainless steel shaft
2.
Use the Allen wrench provided to firmly tighten the set screw on the side of the

wind cups. The wind cups should drop slightly when you let go.

3.
Spin the wind cups. If they spin freely, the anemometer is ready and can be set aside while you prepare the rest of the ISS for installation.


Note: If the wind cups don’t spin freely, take them off and repeat the wind cup installation process.

Check Sensor Interface Connections and Connect the Anemometer Cable
The sensor interface is located in the transmitter shelter on the front of the ISS
station. It contains all the connections for the weather sensors of the ISS. Follow the
steps below to check the sensor interface and ensure that all sensors are connected
properly.
Open the Transmitter Shelter
1.
Locate the white box with the solar panel containing the sensor interface on the front of the ISS unit. The cabled model does not have a solar panel.

2.
Locate the white tab at the bottom center of the shelter cover.

3.
Pull the tab away from the box while sliding the cover up.

4.
Look on the side of the shelter. The box cover can be easily removed from the box when the alignment indicator on the cover is lined up with the alignment indicator on the box

5.
Pull the cover off the box, being careful not to stress the solar panel cable when removing the cover.

6.
The sensor interface is visible once the cover has been removed.

 

Note: See “Sensor Interface” on page 42 for information on locating the components and points of interest on the sensor interface.
Optional: Disconnect the solar panel connection wire (wireless versions) and the fan cable (fan versions)
The solar panel on the box cover is connected to the sensor interface by a wire. If your ISS has a fan, the fan cable will also connect the cover to the sensor interface. If the cover cannot be set aside while still connected to the sensor interface safely, those cables can be disconnected.


Check the Factory Installed Sensor Connections
1.
Verify that the rain collector and temperature/humidity sensor cables are plugged into the receptacles labeled RAIN and TEMP/HUM on the sensor interface.

2.
If your ISS includes UV and/or solar radiation sensors, verify that the sensor cables are plugged into the receptacles labeled UV and SUN on the sensor interface.


Connect the Anemometer Cable to the Sensor Interface
Note: The anemometer comes with 40 feet (12 meters) of cable to allow for mounting the anemometer separately from the rain collector and other sensors. The cable is coiled and secured at the factory with enough cable unwound from the coil to allow you to work with it and to allow the anemometer to be mounted on the same pole as the rain collector.
1.
Remove the protective cap from the RJ jack on the anemometer cable.

2.
Pull the foam insert out of cable access port and set the foam insert aside.

3.
Insert the anemometer cable end into the cable access port from beneath the box.

4.
Slide the cable through the cable access port with the connector lever down.

5.
Firmly insert the end of the anemometer cable into the connector labeled WIND. The lever clicks into place.

6.
Firmly insert the foam in between the cables and at


solar cables already attached.
the top of the cable access port, taking care to ensure that the foam seals the access port entirely, leaving no holes or gaps large enough for weather or insects. You may have to stack the cables to allow the foam to fit.

 

Note: If you are assembling a cabled station, wait to reinsert the foam until cable assembly is complete. See “Cabled ISS Assembly” on page 12.

Prepare the Rain Collector
The tipping mechanism is secured at the factory to protect it from damage during shipping.
Note: Be careful not to scratch the silver-colored coating on the tipping spoons under the cone.
1. Remove the rain collector cone from the ISS base by rotating the cone counter-clockwise. When the cone’s latches line up with openings in the base, lift the cone off the ISS base.

Twist off the rain collector cone
Tip: When new, the cone fits tightly in the base and may require extra pressure to remove. Steady the ISS base between your knees when removing the cone.
2.
Carefully cut and remove the plastic tie that holds the tipping spoons in place during shipping (usually yellow or white in color).

3.
If desired, insert Tipping Spoons the Metric Measurement Adapter.See “Optional: Insert the Metric Measurement Adapter” on page 10.

4.
Temporarily reinstall he rain collector cone until you are ready to mount the ISS outside.

 


Cut the plastic tie
Optional: Insert the Metric Measurement Adapter
The rain collector tipping spoon mechanism takes measurements in 0.01'' (US versions) or 0.2 mm (M, EU, UK and OV) increments for each tip of the spoons. If you have a US version and would like to convert it to a metric measurement, you can insert the metric adapter that is included in your hardware kit.
Note: Inserting the metric measurement adapter converts the rain collector to take measurements in 0.2 mm increments for each tip of the spoons. The console must be configured to 0.2 mm as well. See the Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual for more information.
To install the metric adapter:
1.
Find the metric adapter included in the hardware.

2.
Locate the magnet between silver-colored, V-shaped arms of the tipping spoons.

3.
Open the arms slightly

with one hand while pulling the magnet out with the other.

4.
Separate an end cap from one end of the magnet.

5.
Slide the magnet, exposed end of magnet first, into the open slot of the metric adapter.

6.
Insert the metric adapter and magnet between the arms of the spoons, with the top (solid side) of the metric adapter facing up.

 

 

Next Steps

See “Cabled ISS Assembly” on page 12 for assembling a cabled Vantage Pro2 system


See “Wireless ISS Assembly” on page 15 for assembling a wireless Vantage Pro2 system.

 

Cabled ISS Assembly
Apply Power and Verify Communication with the Console
The 100' (30 m) console cable provides power to the ISS and is used to send data from the ISS to the console. The console cable can be extended up to 1000' (305 m) in length with extension cables purchased from Davis Instruments. With the console powered, plugging the console cable into the console powers the ISS and establishes communication between the ISS and the console.
1.
Locate the 100' console cable included with your system.

2.
Pull the foam insert out of cable access port, if it has been reinserted. Insert the console connector cable end into the cable access port from beneath the sensor interface box. Slide the cable through the cable access port with the connector tab down.

3.
On the sensor interface, firmly insert either end of the 4-conductor cable into the modular receptacle labeled COMM.

 

From Cabled Vantage Pro2 Console

4.
If you haven’t powered up the console yet, refer to the installation instructions in the Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual and apply power to the console.

5.
On the bottom of your console, insert the other end of the console cable into the modular receptacle labeled “ISS.”

6.
Firmly insert the foam in between the cables and at the top of the cable access port, taking care to ensure that the foam seals the access port entirely, leaving no holes or gaps for weather or insects. See the graphic on page 8 for more information on inserting the foam insert.

7.
If the console is in Setup Mode, press and hold DONE until the Current Weather screen displays. A flashing "X" in the lower left hand corner indicates that the console is receiving data. Sensor readings from the ISS should display on the screen.

 

Verify Data from the ISS Sensors
1.
Near the center of the screen, look for the outside temperature (TEMP OUT).

2.
Spin the wind cups to check wind speed, pressing WIND if necessary to alternate between speed and direction in the compass rose.

3.
Turn the wind vane and allow five seconds for the wind direction display to stabilize before moving it again.

4.
Approximately one minute after power-up the outside relative humidity (HUM OUT) reading should be displayed on the console.

5.
Check to see if your console is receiving rain readings. On your console screen, look for the DAILY RAIN display. Remove the rain collector cone and tip the spoon, then wait to see if the display registers a rain reading. Each tip indicates 0.01" or 0.2 mm of rain and may take up to a minute to register at the console. If the spoons are tipped too quickly, the number on the console display may not change.

6.
If the ISS contains a UV sensor and/or solar sensor, press 2ND and then press RAIN YR for current ultraviolet readings or press 2ND then press RAIN DAY for solar radiation readings.

The UV reading displays in the center of the console. The solar reading displays in the bottom right corner of the console display. UV and solar readings should be zero or close to zero if the ISS is inside. Zero is a valid reading. Dashes(--) are displayed if no data comes from the sensors.

7.
Current weather data displayed on the console confirms communication.


Once the ISS has been powered and the console has successfully received accurate readings from all the sensors, prepare the ISS for installation. Continue on to “Plan the ISS Installation” on page 19 for more information. If there is a communication problem between the wireless ISS and the console, see below: “Troubleshooting Cabled ISS Communication” on page 14.
To make installation easier at a location, disconnect the console cable from the sensor interface. Remove the foam and slide the cable out through access port. Once a location for both the ISS and the console has been arranged, reinsert the cable through the access port, into the console connector, and reinsert the foam.

Troubleshooting Cabled ISS Communication
If the console is not receiving sensor readings from the ISS, please try the following troubleshooting procedures.
• Check the console to make sure it is being powered with the AC adapter supplied in the Vantage Pro2 package or three C batteries.
Note: The batteries are intended for backup power, or for testing during set up, but they will drain quickly if used to power a cabled console. You should always use the AC adapter to power your system for normal use. The supplied adapter is a 5-volt positive center AC to DC adapter. Other adapters may not work if the voltage or adapter type is different.

Make sure the cable is firmly plugged into the ISS jack on the console.


Make sure that the cable is firmly plugged into the jack labeled COMM on the sensor interface.


Verify that all sensor cables are firmly plugged in.


A green LED indicator light on the sensor interface flashes each time the ISS transmits a packet, which is about once every 2.5 seconds. If the LED remains dark, there is no power to the ISS. Call Technical Support. See “Contacting Technical Support” on page 40.


See “Sensor Interface” on page 42 for information on locating the LED indicator
light. If the console is still not receiving readings, ensure that the console is in Setup Mode and reboot the console by disconnecting the AC power adapter from the console and removing the console batteries for at least 30 seconds. If the console is still not displaying sensor readings from the ISS after powering back up, please contact Davis Technical Support.

Wireless ISS Assembly
The ISS has a wireless connection to a Vantage Pro2 wireless console or other
receiver. Once the anemometer has been installed and the sensor connections have
been checked, the ISS must be powered and a wireless communication channel must
be established between the ISS and the console. Follow these steps:

Apply power to a wireless ISS


Verify communications with the console


Verify data from the ISS sensors


Troubleshoot ISS reception


Applying Power to a Wireless ISS
Insert the included 3-volt lithium battery into the sensor interface, matching the “+” sign on the battery with the “+” sign on the sensor interface. Once powered, the ISS immediately begins transmitting data to the console. Energy from the solar panel is stored for power at night. The battery is an alternative power source the sensor interface uses when it is depleted of energy.
Checking Transmitter ID
A Vantage Pro2 console can receive data from
up to 8 different wireless stations. The default
Transmitter ID for the ISS and console is 1.
In most cases it will not be necessary to change


the Transmitter ID. The console and ISS should
begin communicating automatically when power is applied.
Settings for Transmitter ID 1: DIP Switch 1 = OFF DIP Switch 2 = OFF DIP Switch 3 = OFF

Note: If there is another Davis weather station within range of your console or Vantage Connect, you should change the Transmitter ID. Remember to use the same ID for the ISS and console. See “Optional: Changing ISS Transmitter ID” on page 17.
Verifying Communication with the Console
1.
Power the console if it does not already have power. Refer to the Vantage Pro2

Console User Manual and apply power to the console. The console automatically enters Setup Mode when powered up.

2.
If the console is not in Setup Mode, press and hold DONE then press the down arrow. The message RECEIVING FROM... and STATION NO. followed by the Transmitter IDs that the console detects displays on the console screen.

3.
Look for the ISS Transmitter ID. The number 1 displays unless the Transmitter ID has been changed. If the ISS Transmitter ID is displayed, the ISS is detected.


Note: If the console does not display the number of the ISS Transmitter ID setting, see “Troubleshooting Wireless ISS Reception” on page 16 for more information. It can take several minutes for the console to acquire and display all the available Transmitter IDs.
4. Press and hold DONE to view ISS data once the ISS Transmitter ID displays.

Verifying Data from the ISS Sensors
Use these steps to verify reception of ISS data at the wireless Vantage Pro2 console and to test the operation of the ISS sensors.
1.
If the console is in Setup Mode, press and hold DONE until the Current Weather screen displays. A flashing “X” in the lower right hand corner indicates that the console is receiving data packets. This may take a few minutes.

Sensor readings from the ISS should display on the screen.

2.
Near the center of the screen, look for the outside temperature (TEMP OUT).

3.
Spin the wind cups to check wind speed, pressing WIND if necessary to alternate between speed and direction in the compass rose.

4.
Turn the wind vane, and allow 5 seconds for the wind direction display to stabilize before moving it again.

5.
Approximately one minute after receiving data, the outside relative humidity (HUM OUT) reading should be displayed on the console.

6.
If the ISS contains a UV sensor and/or solar radiation sensor, press 2ND and then press RAIN YR for current ultraviolet readings or press 2ND then press RAIN DAY for solar radiation readings.

7.
The UV reading displays in the center of the console. The solar reading displays in the bottom right corner of the console display. UV and solar readings should be zero or close to zero if the ISS is inside. Zero is a valid reading — dashes are displayed if no data comes from the sensors.

8.
Current weather data displayed on the console confirms successful


communication. Once the ISS has been powered and the console has successfully received accurate readings from all the sensors, prepare the ISS for installation. Continue on to “Plan the ISS Installation” on page 19 for more information. If there is a communication problem between the wireless ISS and the console, see “Troubleshooting Wireless ISS Reception.” below.
Troubleshooting Wireless ISS Reception
If the console isn’t displaying data from the ISS, perform the following steps:
1.
Verify that the console is powered and is not in Setup Mode.

2.
Make sure that all ISS sensor cables are firmly connected to the sensor interface and the ISS battery is properly installed.

3.
Walk around the room with the console, standing for a few moments in various locations, to see if you are picking up signals from the ISS. Look on the screen’s lower right corner. An “X” toggles on and off when the console receives a transmission packet. If an “R” appears, the console is trying to find the signal. If an “L” appears, the console is in “sleep” mode and will not try to find the signal until it “wakes up.” See your Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual for more information.

4.
If you do not see the “X” slowly blinking, no matter where you stand with the console, put your ISS in Test Mode.

 

• The DIP switch #4 on the sensor

Setting for Test Mode

interface is the Test Mode switch. Switch
DIP Switch #4 = ON

it to the ON position, using a ball-point pen or paper clip.
• In test mode, a green LED indicator light on the sensor interface flashes each time the ISS transmits, which is about once every 2.5 seconds.
See “Sensor Interface” on page 42 for information on locating the components and points of interest on the sensor interface.
5.
If the LED remains dark, there is a problem with the ISS transmitter. Call Technical Support. See “Contacting Technical Support” on page 40.

6.
If the LED flashes repeatedly but your console isn’t picking up a signal anywhere in the room, it could be related to one of the following causes:



You changed the ISS Transmitter ID at the ISS or console, but not at both.


Reception is being disrupted by frequency interference from outside sources. Interference has to be strong to prevent the console from receiving a signal while in the same room as the ISS. In high-interference environments, it may be preferable to install the Cabled Vantage Pro2.


There is a problem with the console.


7.
If a problem with receiving the wireless transmission still exists, please contact Technical Support. See “Contacting Technical Support” on page 40.

8.
When you are finished testing wireless transmission, set DIP switch # 4 to OFF to take the sensor interface out of Test Mode.


Note: If the sensor interface is left in Test Mode, the blinking LED will significantly reduce ISS battery life.
Optional: Changing ISS Transmitter ID
Each wireless transmitting station, including the Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS), uses one of eight selectable Transmitter IDs. DIP switches #1, 2 and 3 on the transmitter control the ID — or channel — the station transmits on. DIP switch #4 is used for transmission testing, not for the Transmitter ID.
Note: The transmitter on the ISS and the receiver on the console communicate with each other only when both are set to the same ID.
The default Transmitter ID is 1 for both the ISS and the Vantage Pro2 console, and should work fine for most situations. Change the Transmitter ID if any of the following issues are true:

Another Davis Instruments wireless weather station operating nearby already uses Transmitter ID 1.


You have purchased additional Vantage Pro2 or Vantage Vue wireless transmitting stations and one of the stations has been designated as Station No. 1 instead of this ISS.

 

On the ISS, the Transmitter ID is set using the DIP switches located on the sensor interface. To access the sensor interface, open the transmitter shelter cover. See “Open the Transmitter Shelter” on page 7.

Transmitter ID DIP switches in top-right corner of sensor interface
To change to another ID, use a ballpoint pen or paper clip to toggle DIP switches
#1, 2, and 3. The settings for Transmitter IDs 1 - 8 are shown in the table below. Set the Vantage Pro2 console to the same ID as the transmitters, as described in the Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual.
ID CODE SWITCH 1 SWITCH 2 SWITCH 3
#1 (default) off off off
#2 off off ON
#3 off ON off
#4 off ON ON
#5 ON off off
#6 ON off ON
#7 ON ON off
#8 ON ON ON

Using Multiple Transmitting Stations
This table shows the maximum number of each type of station that can be used with a single Vantage Pro2 console. The console can receive signals from a total of up to eight transmitters (stations).
Station Type Maximum Number
Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) 1
Anemometer Transmitter Kit* 1*
Leaf & Soil Moisture/Temperature Station 2**
Temperature Station 8
Temperature/Humidity Station 8

*Replaces the ISS anemometer. **Two are allowable only if one stations has only leaf wetness and one has only soil moisture sensors. For example, a network can either have both a Leaf Wetness/Temperature station and a Soil Moisture/ Temperature station, or it can have one combined Leaf Wetness and Soil Moisture/Temperature station.

Plan the ISS Installation
Locating the ISS and Anemometer
For the weather station to perform at its best, use these guidelines to select the optimum mounting locations for the ISS and anemometer. Be sure to take into consideration ease of access for maintenance, sensor cable lengths and wireless transmission range when siting the station.
Note: When selecting a location for installing your ISS, especially on a rooftop, make sure it is a location far from power lines. Seek professional help if you uncertain about the safety of your installation.
General ISS Siting Guidelines

Place the ISS away from sources of heat such as chimneys, heaters, air conditioners and exhaust vents.


Place the ISS at least 100' (30 m) away from any asphalt or concrete roadway that readily absorbs and radiates heat in the sun. Avoid installations near fences or sides of buildings that receive a lot of sun during the day.


Ideally, place the radiation shield of the ISS 5' (1.5 m) above the ground in the middle of gently sloping or flat, regularly mowed grassy or naturally landscaped area that drains well when it rains. For areas with average maximum yearly snow depths over 3' (0.9 m), mount the ISS 2' (0.6 m) above this depth.


Never install the ISS where it will be directly sprayed by a sprinkler system because it will adversely affect the readings.


Do not locate the ISS under tree canopies or near the side of buildings that create “rain shadows.” For heavily forested areas, site the ISS in a clearing or meadow.


Site the ISS in a location with good sun exposure throughout the day if the ISS is


wireless or includes solar radiation or UV radiation sensors. For agricultural applications (important for evapotranspiration (ET) calculations):
• Install the ISS and anemometer as a single unit with the radiation shield 5'
(1.5 m) above the ground and in the middle of the farm between similar crop types (i.e. two orchards, two vineyards or two row crops), if possible.

Avoid areas exposed to extensive or frequent applications of agricultural chemicals which can degrade the sensors.


Avoid installing over bare soil. The ET formula works best when the ISS is installed over well-irrigated, regularly mowed grass.


If the last three guidelines cannot be met, install the weather station at the edge of the primary crop of interest.

 

Anemometer Siting Guidelines

For best results, place the anemometer at least 7' (2.1 m) above surrounding obstructions such as trees or buildings that obstruct wind flow.


If mounting on a roof, mount the anemometer at least 7' (2.1 m) above the roof apex. (When using a Davis Mounting Tripod, install the anemometer at the very top of the pole).


If mounting the ISS and the anemometer together, such as on a pole or a wooden post, mount the anemometer so it is at least 12'' (0.3 m) above the top of the rain collector cone for best results.


The standard for meteorological and aviation applications is to place the anemometer 33' (10 m) above the ground. Seek professional help for this type of installation.


The standard for agricultural applications is to place the anemometer 6' (2 m) above the ground. This is important for evapotranspiration (ET) calculations.


Note: For roof mounting, and ease of installation, we recommend using the optional mounting tripod (#7716). For other installations, use the Mounting Pole Kit (#7717).
Note: For more detailed siting suggestions, see Application Note #30: Reporting Quality Observations to NOAA on http://www.davisnet.com/resources.

Optional: Cable Length Considerations

All Vantage Pro2 stations include a 40' (12 m) cable to go between the ISS and the anemometer. This can be extended up to 540' (165 m) using optional extension cables purchased from Davis Instruments. If most of the anemometer cable length is unused, the coiled cable length can be stowed once the anemometer and ISS have been installed on a site. You can secure the cable to the pole using the shorter cable ties. Use the longer cable tie to secure the coil by running it through the holes on the rain collector shelf.

Keep the anemometer cable coiled if possible during the ISS and anemometer assembly so that it is easily stowed once installation is complete.


The Cabled Vantage Pro2 includes a 100' (30 m) cable to go between the console and the ISS. This can be extended up to 1000' (300 m) using optional cables.

 


Optional: Wireless Transmission Considerations
The range of the radio transmission depends on several factors. Try to position the transmitter and the receiver as close as possible for best results. Typical maximum ranges include:

Line of sight: 1000' (300 m).


Under most conditions: 200 - 400' (60 - 120 m). Other range and transmission considerations include:


Range may be reduced by walls, ceilings, trees, foliage, a metal roof or other large metal structures or objects such as aluminum siding, metal ducts, and metal appliances, such as refrigerators, televisions, heaters, or air conditioners.


Transmission between wireless units may be obscured by something unidentifiable, or by some obstacle that can’t be worked around.


For best results, orient the ISS antenna and the console antenna so that the orientation and angles of the antennas are parallel to each other.

 

CAUTION: The ISS and console antennas do not rotate in a complete circle. Avoid forcing the antennas when rotating them.
• Consider using a Wireless Repeater (#7627) or Long-Range Wireless Repeater (#7654) to strengthen the signal or to increase the distance between the ISS and the console.

Testing Wireless Transmission at ISS Location
After a suitable place has been found for the wireless ISS, it is very important to test reception from the installation location before permanently mounting it there.
1.
Set the ISS in the desired installation location.

2.
Set the console in the desired location.

3.
Monitor your screen for data. You should see a flashing "X" in the lower right corner and data should start to appear. This make take a few minutes.

4.
If data does not appear, press and hold TEMP and press HUM to display statistical and reception diagnostics on the console. See your Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual for more information on the diagnostic screens.



It’s a good idea to test the console’s reception anywhere that you might want to use or mount it now or in the future. Take your time. If you aren’t picking up a strong signal where you intend to place your console, try rotating the antenna on the console and ISS or try moving the console and ISS to different positions.


Irregular terrain in the area may interfere with the signal. For example, if the ISS is mounted downhill from the console, the ground may block a large percentage of the transmitted signal.


Press and hold DONE to return to the Current Weather Mode when finished testing.


Note: See the Troubleshooting section of the Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual for information on how to check wireless signal strength and for more information on troubleshooting reception problems.

Install the ISS
The anemometer and the main part of the ISS can be installed either together as a single unit on a pole, or apart from each other. The main part of the ISS includes the rain collector, the temperature and humidity sensors, the radiation shield, and the sensor interface housing. Use the U-bolts to install the ISS and anemometer together or separately on a pole. Use the lag screws to install them separately on a flat, vertical surface.

The anemometer comes with a 40' (12 m) cable for flexibility in positioning the system to monitor wind conditions. For example, the anemometer could be mounted at the highest point of a roof, and the ISS could be mounted on a fence closer to ground level.


If you would like to install your anemometer even farther away from the ISS or without using a cable, use a Davis Anemometer Transmitter Kit, product number 6332.


General ISS Installation Guidelines

Install the ISS as level as possible to ensure accurate rain measurements. Use the built-in bubble level (under the rain collector cone, near the tipping spoons mechanism) or carpenter’s level to make sure the ISS is level.


In the Northern Hemisphere, the solar panel should face south for maximum sun exposure, and the anemometer arm should point north for proper wind direction calibration.


In the Southern Hemisphere, the solar panel should face north for maximum sun exposure. Either install the ISS and anemometer separately, each facing north, or mount them as a single unit with solar panel facing north and the wind vane re-oriented to the South. (See “Orient the Wind Vane” below.)


Optional: Guidelines for Securing Cables

To prevent fraying or cutting of cables, secure them so they will not whip about in the wind.


Secure cable to a metal pole using cable ties or by wrapping tape around both the cables and the pole.


Place clips or ties every 3' – 5' (1 – 1.6 m).


Mounting clips, cable ties or additional hardware not included with your station can be easily obtained at a hardware or electronics store.

 


Note: Do not use metal staples or a staple gun to secure cables. Metal staples — especially when installed with a staple gun — have a tendency to cut the cables.
Orient the Wind Vane
The wind vane rotates 360° to display current and dominant wind directions on the compass rose of the console display. To obtain accurate readings, the vane must be correctly oriented when mounting the anemometer outside. By

default, the wind vane reports the correct wind direction if the anemometer arm
points true north. To ensure correct orientation of the wind vane, mount the anemometer so that the arm points true north.
If your anemometer arm cannot be mounted aiming true north, you will need to calibrate the wind direction on your console to display accurate wind directions. See your Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual.
Installation Options
There are several ways to mount and install the ISS unit. The following installations are recommended. Individual ISS locations and installations may vary.

Installing the ISS and anemometer on a post or flat surface


Installing the ISS and anemometer on a pole, together or separately


Note: All installations require that the rain collector cone be removed for assembly. Use the built-in bubble level to ensure the main part of the ISS is level.
Installing the ISS and Anemometer on a Flat Surface

s


Use the metal backing plate as a guide when marking the holes.
2.
Remove the rain collector cone if it is installed on the ISS mounting base.

3.
Insert the 1/4" x 3" lag screws through the metal backing plate and the holes in the mounting base into the post. Make sure the ISS is level by checking the built-in bubble level.

4.
Tighten the lag screws using an adjustable wrench or 7/16" wrench.


Install the Anemometer
1.
With a 3/16" (5 mm) drill bit, drill two holes approximately 21/8" (54 mm) apart. Use a carpenter’s level to ensure the holes will be level.

2.
Insert the 1/4" x 3" lag screws through the flat washers and the holes in the anemometer mounting base into the post.

3.
Tighten the lag screws using an adjustable wrench or 7/16" wrench.


Note: If your anemometer arm cannot be mounted aiming true north, you will need to calibrate the wind direction on your console to display accurate wind directions. See your Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual.
Installing the ISS and Anemometer on a Pole

When installing the ISS on a pole, the rain collector /radiation shield section of the ISS and the anemometer can be mounted together as a single unit, or the two sections can be mounted separately.

Accessories for Pole Mounting

Use the Mounting Tripod (#7716) for easy roof-mounting.


Use the Mounting Pole Kit (#7717) to raise the installation height of the ISS by up to 37.5" (0.95 m).


General Guidelines for Installing on a Pole

With the supplied U-bolts, the ISS and anemometer can be mounted on a pole having an outside diameter ranging from 11/4" to 13/4" (32 – 44mm).


Larger U-bolts (not supplied) can be used to mount to a pole with a maximum outside diameter of 21/2" (64mm).


To mount on a smaller pole, obtain a U-bolt that fits the ISS base openings but that has a shorter threaded section. If mounting on a smaller pole with the included U-bolts, the bolt interferes with the rain collector cone. The pole must be sturdy enough to be stable. Any movement of the pole will affect wind and rain data.


Use the built-in bubble level to ensure ISS is level.


Guidelines for Installing the ISS on a Pole

When mounting the rain collector base and anemometer together on opposite sides of the pole, remember that whichever side is mounted first, the U-bolt from the opposite side must also be placed around the pole before tightening the U-bolts. (If it is not, there is no way to slide it in later.)


In each side’s mounting base, there is a groove to accommodate the other mounting base’s U-bolt.


Once the two sides of the ISS have been loosely mounted together on the pole, swivel the unit to the correct direction and then tighten the hex nuts. The desired height can also be achieved by sliding the ISS vertically before tightening.


Option 1: Installing ISS and Anemometer Together
Try to install the ISS so the anemometer arm is aiming true north.
Note: If your anemometer arm cannot be mounted aiming true north, you will need to calibrate the wind direction on your console to display accurate wind directions. See your Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual.
1.
Place the U-bolt for the anemometer around the pole so that its round end fits in the top groove on the rain collector mounting base. The groove is right above two large holes.

2.
While holding the mounting base of the rain collector against the pole, place the two ends of the remaining U-bolt around the pole and through the two holes in the base.

3.
Slide the metal backing plate over the bolt ends as they stick out over the rain collector base. Loosely secure the backing plate with a lock washer and hex nut on each of the bolt ends as shown previously.


Note: Leave the hex nuts loose to swivel the ISS base on the pole.

4.
The two ends of the anemometer’s U-bolt should now be pointing away from the mounted rain collector side. Slide the anemometer’s mounting base over the protruding bolt ends. Place a flat washer, a lock washer and a hex nut on each of the bolt ends as shown above. Do not tighten the nuts yet.

5.
Raise the ISS unit to the desired height on the pole and swivel it so the anemometer arm is pointing north.

6.
Using an adjustable wrench or 7/16" wrench, tighten all four hex nuts until the ISS is firmly fastened on the pole.

7.
When installing the ISS as a single unit, we recommend tucking the coil of anemometer cable between the rain collector cone and the ISS base, or securing it to the pole.


Option 2: Installing ISS Only
1.
While holding the mounting base against the pole, place the two ends of a U-bolt around the pole and through the two holes in the base.

2.
Slide the metal backing plate over the bolt ends as they stick out toward the rain collector cone. Secure the backing plate with a washer, a lock washer, and a hex nut on each of the bolt ends. Do not tighten the nuts yet.

3.
For the wireless ISS, swivel the ISS base so the solar panel is facing south (in the Northern Hemisphere), or north (in the Southern Hemisphere). (Not needed for cabled systems.)

4.
Tighten the hex nuts using an adjustable wrench or 7/16" wrench.


Option 3: Installing Anemometer Only
1.
While holding the mounting base against the pole, place a U-bolt around the pole and through the two holes in the base.

2.
Place a flat washer, a lock washer and a hex nut loosely on each of the bolt ends.

3.
Swivel the anemometer until the arm is pointing north.

4.
Tighten the hex nuts using an adjustable wrench or 7/16" wrench.


Note: If your anemometer arm cannot be mounted aiming true north, you will need to calibrate the wind direction on your console to display accurate wind directions. See your Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual.

Finish the Installation Close the Transmitter Shelter
1.
If the solar panel cable (or the optional fan cable) were disconnected during ISS assembly, reconnect them.

2.
Find the two raised alignment indicator lines on both the shelter and the cover. Match these alignment indicators as you place the cover against the box.

3.
Slide the cover down until it snaps securely in place.

 

Re-Attach the Rain Collector
1.
Set the cone back on the base so its latches slide downward into the latch openings on the base. Using the finger grips for a secure hold, rotate the cone clockwise until it locks into place.

2.
Place the debris screen, pointed end up, into the cone over the funnel hole. Align the locking grooves with the locks inside the cone and turn to lock the screen in place.

3.
In some installations, bird droppings can clog the rain collector. To use the bird spikes, insert one spike into each socket around the rim of the cone. The sockets are tapered: push firmly or tap lightly with a hammer for a more secure fit. If you choose not to install the spikes, we rec­ommend that you keep the packet of spikes in case birds become a problem in the future.

4.
If bird nesting is a problem, you can place a spike in the hole on the top of the debris screen.

 

 

Debris Bird Screen
Spikes Locking Grooves
Finger grips


Note: If your ISS has Solar and/or UV sensors, bird spikes around the rim of the rain cone may cast shadows that can affect the accuracy of the sensors and ET readings. For most users, this is less serious than problems caused by birds. To maintain UV and Solar accuracy, remove the spikes near the sensors and use the fewest spikes that will deter the birds. For more details and other options, see Application Note 37: Using Bird Spikes with Solar and/or UV Sensors on www.davisnet.com/resources.

Level the Solar and UV Sensors
If you have an ISS that includes a solar radiation and/or UV sensor, use the bubble
level on the sensors as a guide to verify that the sensors are level. Adjust the level by tightening or loosening the three screws that hold
Solar Radiation Sensor Top should be even with or each sensor onto the shelf. Make above rain cone rim
sure that the sensor diffusers are not
shaded by the rim of the rain cone. For the UV sensor, make sure the entire comb structure is above the rim of the rain cone.
For the Solar Radiation sensor, make sure the top of the sensor body is even with or above the rim of the rain cone.

Note: If you are installing the solar or UV sensors separately, see the Solar Radiation and UV Sensor installation manual for more information.
Start the 24-Hour Fan
If your ISS has a 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield, the batteries are factory installed with plastic tabs between the batteries and the contacts. This prevents batteries from draining during shipping.
The two clear plastic tabs extend out from the largest disk in the radiation shield. Pull them out to start the fan.

Note: The Daytime Fan (as in product number 6334) does not use batteries.
Tip: If the ISS has been in storage for an extended period, the fan batteries may need to charge in sunlight
for a few hours.


Clear Data Collected During Testing and Installation
Now that the ISS is mounted outside, any data that was collected in the Vantage Pro2 console during testing and mounting can be cleared.
1.
On the console, press the WIND so that graph icon appears adjacent to the wind data on the display. Confirm that wind speed is displayed on the compass rose.

2.
Press and release 2ND, then press and hold CLEAR for at least six seconds and until you see “CLEARING NOW” in the console ticker display.


Additional Mounting Options Extending Wireless Transmission Range
Optional repeater stations can be used to extend the wireless transmission range.

Wireless Repeater, AC-Powered (#7626) or Solar-Powered (#7627)


Long-Range Wireless Repeater, Solar-Powered (#7654)


Extending the Console Cable (Cabled ISS Only)
A cabled ISS can be extended up to 1000' (300 m) away from the console by using Davis Instruments extension cables (#7876).
Relocating the Anemometer
Using Extension Cables: The anemometer can be extended further than 40' from the ISS by using Davis Instruments extension cables (#7876).
Note: Not all cables are compatible with your Vantage Pro2 system. To be sure they will work, order Davis extension cables from your dealer or directly from Davis Instruments.
Be aware that the maximum measurable wind speed reading decreases as the total length of cable from the anemometer to the ISS increases.
Note: If the cable length is greater than 540' (165m), the maximum measurable wind speed may be less than 100 MPH (161 km/h).
Using the Anemometer Transmitter Kit (Wireless ISS Only): The Anemometer Trans­mitter Kit (#6332) allows the anemometer to send wind data directly to the console, instead of plugging into the ISS.
Remote Mounting the Solar Radiation and UV Sensors
The solar radiation and UV sensors have a 3' (0.9 m) cable. If you wish to install these sensors away from the ISS, you can extend the length of the sensor cables up to 125' (38
m) with Davis Instruments extension cables (#7876).
Optional Wireless Stations
You may use our optional wireless sensor stations to collect weather measurements, without the inconvenience of routing cables.

Wireless Temperature Station (#6372)


Wireless Temperature/Humidity Station (#6382)


Wireless Leaf & Soil Moisture/Temperature Station (#6345)


For more details, please visit our website or see the most recent Davis Precision Weather Instruments catalog.

Maintenance and Troubleshooting
General Maintenance
You should keep the surfaces of the ISS clean, since the radiation shield and solar panels are less effective when dirty. Remove dust from the solar panel and radiation shield with a damp cloth.
Several times a year, inspect the rain collector and radiation shield and remove any
debris (such as twigs, leaves, webs and nests) obstructing water flow through the
rain collector or air flow through the radiation shield.
At least once a year, or more often in very dusty installations, dismantle and thoroughly clean the radiation shield as described in the following pages.
Note: Do not spray the ISS with insecticides of any kind. Some insecticides can damage the sensors and even damage the radiation shield.
Maintaining UV and Solar Radiation Sensors
The UV and solar radiation sensors have an outer shell or shield, which protects the sensor body from thermal radiation and provides a path for convection cooling of the body, minimizing heating of the sensor interior. It houses the precision-shaped diffuser, exposed through the top of the shield.
Try not to touch the small white diffusers on top of the sensors. Oil from skin reduces their sensitivity. If you are concerned that you have touched the diffusers at any time, clean with a soft cloth.
Due to the sensitivity of ultraviolet and solar radiation sensors it is common practice for manufacturers to recommend re-calibration after a period of time. Users demanding high accuracy typically recalibrate their sensors annually. Here at Davis Instruments, we have seen less than 2% drift per year on the readings from these sensors.
Contact Technical Support about returning your sensor for calibration. See “Contacting Technical Support” on page 40.
Maintaining the Anemometer
The free movement of the wind vane and cups can be inhibited by dust, debris,
insects, and spider webs. With an Allen wrench, remove the cups and vane. Remove
any dust or debris from the shafts and housing. Turn the shafts the cups and vane
rotate on.While the wind direction shaft should have more resistance than the wind
cup shaft, if either feels gritty or stiff, contact Davis Technical Support. Reattach the
cups and van and tighten with the Allen wrench.
Note: Do not lubricate the shaft or bearings in any way. When replacing the cups, make sure they are not rubbing against any part of the anemometer head.

Maintaining the Radiation Shield
The outer plating of the radiation shield should be cleaned when there is excessive dirt and build-up on the plating. Wipe the outer edge of each ring with a damp cloth.
Note: Spraying down or using water excessively to clean the radiation shield can damage the sensitive sensors or alter the data and readings the ISS is transmitting.
Check the radiation shield for debris or insect nests several times a year and clean when necessary. A buildup of material inside the shield reduces its effectiveness and may cause inaccurate temperature and humidity readings.
At least once a year, thoroughly clean your radiation shield. Follow the instructions below for the correct version of your ISS’s radiation shield.
Tip: This also a good time to inspect and clean any debris or dust from the temp-hum sensor assembly which is located inside the radiation shield.
Maintaining a Standard (Passive) Radiation Shield
1.
Remove the rain collector cone.

2.
Open the transmitter shelter and unplug the temp-humidity cable from the sensor interface.

3.
Using a Phillips head screwdriver, loosen the three 4'' (~100mm) screws holding the radiation shield plates together.

4.
Taking care to maintain the order in which the five plates are assembled, separate the plates as shown and remove all debris from inside the shield.

5.
Reassemble the plates in the same order in which they were disassembled, and fasten them together using a Phillips head screwdriver to tighten the 4" screws.

 

Note: For some models of the ISS, the order in which the five radiation shield plates are assembled may be slightly different than the order shown in the figure. For this reason, ensure that you always reassemble the plates in the same order in which they were disassembled.

Maintaining a 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield
The cross-section diagram shows how the 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield draws outside air up through the sensor chamber and between the three walls surrounding the sensor chamber, while the shield stack prevents radiation heating of the outer wall.
To clean it, disassemble the shield and clean interior surfaces as necessary to prevent dirt build up. Check to make sure the fan is running by listening for it, or by holding a piece of tissue paper under the shield. See “24-Hour and Day Time Fans: Replacing the Fan Motor and Batteries” on page 38.
To thoroughly clean the 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation shield:
Tools and supplies needed:

Medium Phillips head screwdriver (and a small Phillips head screwdriver if you are also replacing the batteries)


Adjustable wrench


Soft, damp cloth


Soft brush (such as a toothbrush) You will not need to remove the rain collector base from the pole or post on which it


is mounted. You will be able to remove the entire radiation shield so that you can clean it and access the temperature/humidity sensor, the fan, and the fan batteries.
1. Open the transmitter shelter, remove the foam insert and unplug the temperature-humidity cable from the sensor interface. Pull the cable down through the access hole and out of the shelter.


Tip: You can also remove the transmitter shelter door by unplugging the solar panel cable. Then you can use the transmitter shelter door to store screws, washers, and spacers as you remove them.

2.
Remove the rain collector cone.

3.
Using a Phillips head screwdriver, remove the three screws connecting the rain collector base to the threaded spacers.

4.
While removing the screws, support the radiation shield from the bottom. When the screws are removed, it will drop.


Bracket

5.
Take note of the cable placement and routing so you can replace it correctly.

6.
Unscrew the three threaded spacers holding the solar bracket and radiation shield Solar Panel


Bracket

together and lift off the solar bracket.
7. Remove the two cap plates.
Closed Cap Plate
Open Cap Plate (hole in center)
Stand-offs
1-1/4" Screw
Lock Washer Flat Washer
Rain Collector Base
Threaded Spacer
Threaded Spacer Lock Washer Flat Washer
Solar Panel Cable (Plugged into Junction Board)
Temp/Humidity Cable
Junction Board
Fan Plate
Plates
Screen

8.
Remove the white junction board cover and unplug the fan power cable from the junction board.

9.
Lift out the fan and fan and the fan deflector.


10.Pull our the temperature/humidity sensor up and out.
11.Use a soft brush to clean the white plastic and gold mesh of the sensor.
12.Remove all debris from inside the shield and fan and wipe the interior surfaces with a damp cloth.
13.Remove the screen from the bottom of the radiation shield. Wipe it clean, as well as up into the interior of the radiation shield. Replace the screen.
14.Replace the temperature/humidity sensor. It fits one way, into the slots on the side. Route the cable up through the channel and replace the fan deflector with the cable channels correctly aligned with the sensor cable. If a new fan and batteries are needed, See “24­
Hour and Day Time Fans: Replacing the Fan Motor and Batteries” on page 38.

 


15.Replace the fan and plug the fan power cable back into the junction board. The
fan should start to rotate. Replace the junction board cover.
16.Replace the two cap plates. (Note that the closed plate goes on top.) Replace the solar bracket and the threaded spacers, with lock washers and flat washers.
17.Align the threaded spacers with the screws in the rain collector base. Note that cables should exit from the radiation shield toward the mounting pole or post. Screw the screws into the threaded spacers.
18.Route the temperature/humidity cable over the solar bracket and back into the transmitter shelter. Plug it back in, then replace the

foam insert snugly. Check other sensor cables to make sure they are plugged in tightly. If you disconnected the door’s solar panel cable, plug it back in. 19.Replace the door.

Daytime Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield
The Daytime Fan-Aspirated radiation shield has a fan that is powered by a solar panel. It differs from the 24-Hour Fan in that it has no batteries. This causes it operate during the daytime when solar radiation effects are of the greatest concern, and to stop at night.
Tip: You can add a Daytime Fan Radiation Shield to a standard Vantage Pro2 or Vantage Pro2 Plus. Order product number 7747.
To clean the Daytime Fan Aspirated Radiation Shield
1. Remove the rain collector
cone. Insert front screw first
2. Open the transmitter #8-32 x3-1/4" Screws (3)
shelter and unplug the temp-humidity cable and #8 Lock Washers
the fan power cable from
the sensor interface.
3. Using a Phillips head
screwdriver, loosen the Transmitter
three screws connecting Shelter
the rain collector base to
the threaded spacers.
4. Lift the rain collector base
off the closed and open fan plates. Take note of the Rain Collector Base
cable placement and
routing so you can replace it correctly. For easier re-assembly, mark the Temperature/ Humidity Cable Closed Cap Plate
holes used by the rain collector base and the Power Cable Assembly Open Cap Plate (hole in center)
holes used by the radiation
shield.

Fan Plate

5.
Unscrew the three threaded

spacers.

6.
Remove the three screws from the bottom of the radiation shielding and separate the shield stack, taking care to maintain the order in which the plates are assembled.

7.
Remove all debris from inside the shield and wipe the interior surfaces.

8.
Plug the fan power cable back into the sensor interface. Expose the solar panel to the sun and make sure the fan rotates. Replace the fan motor as needed. (See below).

9.
Reassemble the radiation shield, routing cables as observed earlier, and plug the temp/humidity cable back into the sensor interface via the access port in the bottom of the shelter. Replace the foam insert and close the transmitter shelter.

 

 

24-Hour and Day Time Fans: Replacing the Fan Motor and Batteries
To replace the fan motor and batteries in the 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shields, use product no. 7758B: Standard Motor Kit for Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield with Batteries. To replace the motor in a Daytime Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield, use product no. 7758: Standard Motor Kit for Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield.
1.
Unplug the old motor and lift it from the radiation shield.

2.
Install the new motor/fan assembly and plug its cable into the junction board. Fan Power Cable


3. 24-Hour Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield only: Remove the battery cover with a Phillips-head screwdriver and remove the old fan batteries. Install new batteries (NiMH C-cells, included with product number 7758B). Be sure the match the “+” sign on the battery with the “+” sign in the battery compartment.

 


Junction Board


Maintaining the Rain Collector Cone
To maintain accuracy, thoroughly clean the rain collector several times a year.
Note: Cleaning the rain collector and tipping spoons may cause false rain readings. Unplug the rain sensor from the sensor interface before cleaning so that no inaccurate readings are logged, or clear the weather data that was logged on the Vantage Pro2 console after cleaning is complete. See your Vantage Pro2 Console User Manual for instructions on clearing weather data.
1.
Separate the cone from the base by turning it counter-clockwise.

2.
Remove and clean the debris screen.

3.
Use a soft, damp cloth to remove any debris from the cone and tipping spoons. Be careful not to scratch the silver-colored coating on the tipping spoons.

4.
Use pipe cleaners to clear the funnel hole in the cone and drain screens in the base.

5.
Re-attach the cone and replace the debris screen. (If you unplugged the rain sensor from the sensor interface, be sure to plug it back in.)


Troubleshooting Sensor Functions Intermittently
Carefully check all connections from the sensor to the ISS. See “Check the Factory
Installed Sensor Connections” on page 8. Loose connections account for a large portion of potential problems. Connections should be firmly seated in receptacles and plugged in straight. To check for a faulty connection, try jiggling the cable while looking at the display. If a reading displays intermittently on the console as the cable is jiggled, the connection is faulty. Try removing and then re-installing the cable to correct the faulty connection. If the sensor still functions intermittently contact Technical Support. See “Contacting Technical Support” on page 40.
Readings Are Not What You Expect
Comparing data from your ISS to measurements from the Internet, TV, radio, newspapers, or a neighbor is NOT a valid method of verifying your readings. Readings can vary considerably over short distances. How you site the ISS and anemometer can also make a big difference. If you have questions, contact Technical Support.
Rain Collector Problem
If the rain collector seems to be under-reporting rainfall, remove the rain collector cone to clean the tipping spoon and clear out any debris. Make sure the cable tie around the tipping spoons has been cut and removed.
Anemometer Problems
“The wind cups are spinning but my console displays 0 mph.”
The signal from the wind cups may not be making it back to the display. Check your cables for visible nicks and cuts. Look for corrosion in the WIND connector on the sensor interface and on splices in the cable. If using an extension cable, remove it and test using only the anemometer cable. Contact Technical Support and ask for a wind test cable if the problem has not been resolved.

Note: If the anemometer is not sending data, the wind display indicates 0 speed and “--” for direction.
“The wind direction is stuck on north, or displays dashes.”
It is likely that there is a short somewhere between the wind vane and the display. Check the cables for visible nicks and cuts. Look for corrosion in the “WIND” jack on the sensor interface and on splices in the cable (if any). If possible, remove any extensions and try it with the anemometer cable only. If none of these steps get the wind direction working, contact Technical Support and ask for a wind test cable.
“The wind cups don’t spin or don’t spin as fast as they should.”
The anemometer may be located where wind is blocked by something, or there may be friction interfering with the cups’ rotation. Remove the wind cups (loosen the set screw) and clear out any insects or debris. Turn the shaft the cups rotate on. If it feels gritty or stiff, contact Davis Technical Support.
Note: Do not lubricate the shaft or bearings in any way. When replacing the cups, make sure they are not rubbing against any part of the anemometer head.
Contacting Technical Support
For questions about the ISS or Vantage Pro2 system, please contact Davis Technical Support. We’ll be glad to help.
Note: Please do not return items to the factory for repair before calling to get a Return Materials Authorization number.
Online www.davisnet.com/resources Find copies of user manuals, product specifications, application notes, software updates, and more.
E-Mail support@davisnet.com
Telephone (510) 732-7814 Monday - Friday, 7:00 A.M.- 5:30 P.M., Pacific Time


Appendix
Specifications
Complete specifications for the ISS and other products are available in the Weather Support section of our website at www.davisnet.com.
Cabled ISS
Temperature range: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40 to 150° Fahrenheit (-40 to 65° Celsius) Power input: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Console cable from Vantage Pro2 console Optional Vantage Pro2 AC power adapter
Wireless ISS
Temperature range: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40 to 150° Fahrenheit (-40 to 65° Celsius) Transmission frequency: North America. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902 - 928 MHz FHSS, power output less than 10 mw EU, UK and OV models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868.0 -868.6 MHz FHSS, power output less than
10 mw Transmitter ID codes: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 user-selectable License: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Low power (less than 8 mW), no license required Primary power: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Solar power – Davis solar charger Backup power: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CR-123A 3-volt lithium battery (8 months without
sunlight- greater than 2 years depending on solar charging)
ISS Weather Variable Update Intervals (Transmitter ID Dependent)
Wind speed: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.5 to 3 seconds Wind direction: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.5 to 3 seconds Accumulated rainfall: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 to 24 seconds Rain rate: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 to 24 seconds Outside temperature: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 to 12 seconds Outside humidity: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 seconds to 1 minute Ultraviolet radiation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 seconds to 1 minute Solar radiation: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 seconds to 1 minute
Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield
24-Hour Fan
Aspiration Rate Solar-powered, full sun . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 ft./min. (0.96m/s) Battery only. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 feet/min (0.4 m/s)
Radiation Induced Temperature Error . . . . 0.5°F (0.3°C) [At solar noon, insolation = 1040 W/m2] (Reference: RM Young model 43408)
Battery Charge/Operating Temperature . . . 32° to +113°F (0° to +45°C) Battery Discharge/Storage Temperature . . -4° to +140°F (-20° to +60°C) Fan Primary Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Solar panel Fan Secondary Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 or 2 1.2 Volt NiMH C-cells
Daytime Fan
Radiation Induced Temperature Error . . . . 1°F (0.5°C) [At solar noon, insolation = 1040 W/m2] (Reference: RM Young model 43408)
Operating Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -40° to +150°F (-40° to +65°C) Non-operating Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . -50° to +158°F (-45° to +70°C) Fan Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Solar panel

Sensor Interface

 

Solar Panel Connector
Test DIP Switch (wireless only)
AC Adapter Socket
Temperature/Humidity Sensor Connector
Battery Socket (wireless only)


Wind Sensor Connector


Test LED
Rain Sensor Connector


Cabled Connection
Solar Radiation Sensor Connector
Transmitter ID DIP Switch
UV Sensor Connector

Vantage Pro2 Integrated Sensor Suite Installation Manual
Document Part Number: 7395.333 Rev D (7/10/17) For Vantage Pro2 and Vantage Pro2 Plus Weather Stations #6322, 6322C, 6323, 6327, 6327C, 6328, 6152, 6152C, 6162, 6162C, 6153, 6163, 6334
Vantage Pro2™, Weather Envoy™, Envoy8X™, Vantage Vue® and Vantage Connect® are trademarks of
Davis Instruments Corporation, Hayward, CA. Copyright © 2017 Davis Instruments Corp. All rights reserved. Information in this document subject to change without notice. Davis Instruments Quality Management System is ISO 9001 certified.

3465 Diablo Avenue, Hayward, CA 94545-2778 U.S.A. 510-732-9229 • Fax: 510-732-9188 E-mail: info@davisnet.com • www.davisnet.com

USER MANUAL

™™
For Vantage Pro2 and Vantage Pro2 Plus Weather Stations


FCC Part 15 Class B Registration Warning
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a residential installation. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy and, if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation. If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment on and off, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following measures:

Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.


Increase the separation between the equipment and receiver.


Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is connected.


Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help. Changes or modification not expressly approved in writing by Davis Instruments may void the warranty and void the user's authority to operate this equipment. FCC ID: IR2DWW6312 IC: 378810-6312


EC EMC Compliance
This product complies with the essential protection requirements of the EC EMC Directive 2004/108/EC; Low Volt­age Directive 2006/95/EC; and Eco-Design Directive 2005/32EC > .05 watt no-load adaptor.
Vantage Pro2 Console Manual
Document Part Number: 07395.234 Rev. M, 6/5/15For Vantage Pro2 Consoles # 6312 & 6312CAnd Vantage Pro2 Weather Stations # 6152, 6152C, 6153, 6162, 6162C, 6163
Vantage Pro®, Vantage Pro2™, and WeatherLink® are trademarks of Davis Instruments Corp., Hayward, CA. Windows® is a trademark of Microsoft Corporation in the US and other countries. Macintosh® is a trademark of Apple, Inc. in the US and other countries.
© Davis Instruments Corp. 2015. All rights reserved. Information in this document subject to change without notice. Davis Instruments Quality Management System is ISO 9001 certified.

Table of Contents
Welcome to Vantage Pro2................................................................................1 Console Features ..........................................................................................2 Vantage Pro2 Options ..................................................................................3
Installing the Console ......................................................................................5 Powering the Console ..................................................................................5 Installing the AC Power Adapter .................................................................5 Installing Batteries .......................................................................................6 Connecting Cabled Stations .........................................................................7 Console Location .........................................................................................7
Using Your Weather Station ........................................................................11 Setup Mode ................................................................................................11 Screens 1 & 2: Active Transmitters & Configuring Transmitter IDs.................. 12 Screen 3: Retransmit............................................................................................ 13 Screens 4, 5 & 6: Time & Date; Latitude & Longitude....................................... 14 Screen 7: Time Zone............................................................................................ 15 Screens 8 & 9: Daylight Saving Time Settings & Status .................................... 16 Screen 10: Elevation............................................................................................ 16 Screens 11 & 12: Wind Cup Size & Rain Collector............................................ 17 Screens 13 & 14: Rain Season & Serial Baud Rate............................................. 18 Current Weather Mode ...............................................................................20 Selecting Units of Measure ........................................................................20 Displaying the Forecast .............................................................................26 Calibrating, Setting, and Clearing Variables .............................................26 Highs and Lows Mode ...............................................................................29 Alarm Mode ...............................................................................................30 Graph Mode ...............................................................................................33
Troubleshooting and Maintenance ..............................................................36 Vantage Pro2 Troubleshooting Guide .......................................................36 Console Diagnostic Mode ..........................................................................38 Console Maintenance .................................................................................42 One Year Limited Warranty ......................................................................42
Appendix A: Weather Data ..........................................................................43 Appendix B: Specifications ...........................................................................49
Console Specifications ...........................................................................49 Wireless Communication Specifications ...............................................49 Console Data Display Specifications .....................................................50 Weather Data Specifications ..................................................................51
Appendix C: Wireless Repeater Configuration ..........................................53
Vantage Pro2 Console Icons .........................................................Back Cover Contacting Davis Technical Support ...........................................Back Cover

Vantage Pro2 Console Display Features

Display Features
1.
Compass Rose 8. Barometric Trend Arrow

2.
Graph & Hi/Low Mode Settings 9. Graph Icon

3.
Forecast Icons 10. Current Rain Icon

4.
Moon Phase Indicator 11. Station Number Indicator

5.
Time/Sunrise Time 12. Weather Ticker

6.
Date/Sunset Date 13. Graph Field

7.
2ND Button Indicator 14. Alarm Icon

 

Chapter 1 Welcome to Vantage Pro2TM
Your Vantage Pro2 Weather Station console displays and records your station’s weather data, provides graph and alarm functions, and interfaces to a computer using our optional WeatherLink® software. Vantage Pro2 stations are available in two basic versions: cabled and wireless. A cabled Vantage Pro2 station transmits outside sensor data from the Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) to the console using a straight-through four-conductor cable. A wireless Vantage Pro2 station transmits outside sensor data from the ISS to the console via a low-power radio.

Wireless consoles have an antenna that rotates 180° forward. It is important that you do not over rotate the antenna by forcing it backward beyond the up or down positions. (If your console is part of a cabled system, there is no antenna.)
Note: Wireless consoles can also collect data from optional Vantage Pro2 sensors or a Davis Vantage Vue ISS, and can also retransmit data to other Vantage Pro2 or Vantage Vue consoles or a Davis Weather Envoy. You can have an unlimited number of consoles - one in each room!
The Vantage Pro2 Quick Reference Guide included with your station provides an easy to use reference for most console functions.

Console Features
Console Features Keyboard & Display
The keyboard lets you view current and historical data, set and clear alarms, change station models, enter calibration numbers, set up and view graphs, select sensors, and read the forecast. The keyboard consists of 12 command keys located next to the screen display and four navigation keys located below the command keys. A weather variable or console command is printed on each command
CHILL

key. Just press a key to select the variable or function printed on that key. Each command key also has a secondary function which is printed above the key on the console case. To select the secondary function, press and release 2ND (on the front of the console, upper right corner) and then immediately press the key for that function. After pressing 2ND, the 2ND icon displays above the barometer reading on the screen for three seconds. All secondary key functions are enabled during this time. Keys resume normal operation after the icon disappears. The+ and - navigation keys, along with < and > navigation keys are used to select command options, adjust values, and to provide additional functions when used in combination with a command key.


Console Modes


The console operates in five basic modes: Setup, Current Weather, Highs and Lows, Alarm, and Graph. Each mode lets you access a different set of console functions or display a different aspect of your weather data.

Vantage Pro2 Options

Vantage Pro2 Options Optional Sensors & Transmitting Stations
Vantage Pro2 stations are extremely flexible. Use the following optional sensors and wireless stations to enhance the weather monitoring capabilities of your Vantage Pro2. See our web site for complete details: www.davisnet.com.
Optional Sensor and Stations Description
Anemometer/Sensor TransmitterKit (#6332) Provides more flexible anemometer placement for wirelessstations. With Envoy8X, allows additional solar radiation,UV, temperature, rain or 3rd party (reporting 0-3 volt) sensors.
Vantage Connect (#6620) Transmits data from remote ISS to WeatherLink.com via cellular connection.
Wireless Leaf & Soil Moisture/Temperature Station (#6345) Measures and transmits leaf wetness, soil moisture and temperature data. Also for use with GLOBE.
Wireless Temperature Station(#6372) Measures and transmits temperature data.
Wireless Temperature/HumidityStation (#6382) Measures and transmits air temperature and humiditydata.
Solar Radiation Sensor (#6450) Measures solar radiation. Required for calculatingevapotranspiration (ET). Available for cabled and wirelessstations. Requires Sensor Mounting Shelf (#6673).
Ultraviolet (UV) Radiation Sensor(#6490) Measures UV radiation. Required for calculating the UVdose. Available for Cabled and Wireless stations. RequiresSensor Mounting Shelf (#6673).

Note: Optional wireless stations can only be used with Wireless Vantage Pro2 Stations.
Optional WeatherLink® Software
The WeatherLink software and data logger connect your Vantage Pro2 station directly to a computer, providing enhanced weather monitoring capabilities, a continuous preserved data record, and powerful Internet features. The WeatherLink data logger fits neatly on the console and stores weather data even when the computer is turned off.
WeatherLink Option Description
WeatherLink for Windows, USB connection (#6510USB) Includes WeatherLink software and USB data logger. Allows youto save and view your weather data on your PC.
WeatherLink for Windows, serial connection (#6510SER) Includes WeatherLink software and serial data logger. Allowsyou to save and view your weather data on your PC.
WeatherLink for Macintosh OS X, USB connection (#6520) Includes WeatherLink software and USB data logger. Allows youto save and view your weather data on your Mac.
WeatherLinkIP for Windows XP/Vista/7 (#6555) Requires a broadband router with available Ethernet port. Allowsyou to post your weather data directly to your personal web pageon WeatherLink.com without a PC. Among other features, allowsyou to receive e-mail alerts of current weather conditions orsimple alarm conditions.
WeatherLink for APRS, Windows version, with streaming data logger, serialconnection (#6540) Includes WeatherLink software and streaming serial data logger.Allows real-time display of current weather conditions for usewith APRS (Automatic Position Reporting System), for HAMradio users.


Vantage Pro2 Options
WeatherLink Option Description
WeatherLink for Alarm Output,for Windows, with streamingdata logger, serial connection(#6544) Includes WeatherLink software and streaming serial data logger.Gives you the ability to control external devices based on variouscombinations of weather trends and events.
WeatherLink for EmergencyResponse teams, Windowsversion, with streaming datalogger, serial connection(#6550) Includes WeatherLink software and streaming serial data logger.Allows real-time display of current weather conditions for use by emergency response teams.
WeatherLink for IrrigationControl, Windows version, with streaming data logger, serialconnection (#6560) Includes WeatherLink software and streaming serial data logger.Allows intelligent and efficient control of popular automatedirrigation systems using weather data.

Optional Accessories
Available from your dealer or ordered directly from Davis Instruments:
Envoys: Wireless Weather Envoy (#6316,) Envoy8X (#6318)
Performs many of the same functions as a Vantage Pro2 console, but without a display. Use an Envoy to interface your wireless station to a computer, freeing the display for use elsewhere. Weather Envoy can receive the same number and combinations of stations as a Vantage Pro2 console; Envoy8X can receive up to 8 stations in any combination and create a large database.
Sensor Mounting Shelf (#6673)
Required for mounting the optional Solar Radiation and/or UV sensors.
Additional Vantage Pro2 (#6312) or Vantage Vue Console (#6351)

Enjoy weather information in several rooms.
USB-to-Serial (DB-9) Cable (#8434)
Allows the Serial version of WeatherLink (#6510SER, 6540, 6544, 6550, 6560) to connect to a USB port on your computer.
Telephone Modem Adapter (#6533)
Required when connecting station to an external phone modem.
Extension Cables (#7876)
Allows you to place the Cabled Vantage Pro2 ISS further away from the console using the extension cable provided by Davis Instruments. Maximum cable length is 1000’ (300 m). Avail able in 40’ (12m), 100’ (30 m) or 200’ (61m).

Chapter 2 Installing the Console
The Vantage Pro2 console is designed to give extremely accurate readings. As with any precision instrument, use care in its assembly and handling. Although installing the console is relatively simple, following the steps outlined in this chapter and assembling the Vantage Pro2 correctly from the start will help ensure that you enjoy all of its features with a minimum of time and effort.
Powering the Console Cabled Vantage Pro2 Stations
Cabled Vantage Pro2 consoles supply power to the Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) through the console cable. Because of the added power consumption of the ISS, the cabled console requires an AC power adapter used as the main power supply. The console batteries provide backup power for up to four to six weeks.
Wireless Vantage Pro2 Stations
Wireless Vantage Pro2 consoles do not require the use of an AC adapter. You may use the included adapter if you wish, but the three C-cell batteries should power a wireless console for up to nine months.
Note: When using an AC Power adapter, be sure to use the power adapter supplied with your Vantage Pro2 Console. Your console may be damaged by connecting the wrong power adapter. The console does not recharge the batteries. Because of this, and because NiCad batteries do not power the console as long as alkaline batteries, use alkaline batteries in the console.
Installing the AC Power Adapter
1.
Remove the battery cover located on the back of the console by pressing down on the two latches at the top of the cover.

2.
Find the power jack located on the bottom of the console case.


Power Plug
Wrap Cord Around Pins

3.
Insert the power adapter plug into the console power jack, then plug the other end of the adapter into an appropriate power outlet.

4.
Check to make sure the console runs through a brief self-test procedure successfully. On power up, the console displays all the LCD segments and


Installing Batteries
beeps twice. A message displays in the ticker banner at the bottom of the console, followed by the first screen that displays during Setup Mode. Press and hold DONE to skip the message and enter into Setup Mode. Setup Mode guides you through steps required to configure the station. See “Setup Mode” on page 11 for more information.
Installing Batteries
1.
Remove the battery cover located on the back of the console by pressing down on the two latches at the top of the cover.

2.
Insert three C batteries into the battery channel, negative (or flat) terminal first.

3.
Replace the battery cover.


Connecting Cabled Stations

Connecting Cabled Stations
Cabled Vantage Pro2 stations come with 100 feet (30m) of cable. This cable is used for connecting the console to the ISS. Maximum cable length from ISS to the console using Davis Instruments cables is 1000 feet. To connect the console to the ISS:
1. Firmly insert the console end of the straight-through four-conductor wire into the console receptacle marked “ISS” until it clicks into place. Do not force the connector into the receptacle.
To ISS

2. Ensure that the ISS cable is not twisted through the access port.
Note: The ISS must be assembled and connected to the console so that it is receiving power before the console connection can be tested.
Once the console and ISS are both powered up, cable connection should be tested and established. Once the console is powered, it automatically enters Setup Mode. You can step through the Setup Mode options, or exit the Setup Mode to test the connection and sensor readings in Current Weather Mode. See “Setup Mode” on page 11 for Setup Mode options. See “Current Weather Mode” on page 20 for viewing and verifying current weather data coming from the cabled console. To verify that the console is receiving data from the ISS through the console connection, see “Cabled ISS Assembly” in the Integrated Sensor Suite Installation Manual.
Console Location
Place the console in a location where the keyboard is easily accessible and the display is easy to read. For more accurate readings:

Avoid placing the console in direct sunlight. This may cause erroneous inside temperature and humidity readings and may damage the unit.


Avoid placing the console near radiators or heating/air conditioning ducts.


If you are mounting the console on a wall, choose an interior wall. Avoid exterior walls that tend to heat up or cool down depending on the weather.


If you have a wireless console, be aware of possible interference from cordless phones or other devices. To prevent interference, maintain a distance of 10 feet between the Vantage Pro2 console and a cordless phone (handset and base).


Avoid positioning a wireless console near large metallic appliances such as refrigerators, televisions, heaters, or air conditioners.


The console antenna does not rotate in a complete circle. Avoid forcing the console antenna when rotating it.


Console Location
Table & Shelf Placement
The console kickstand can be set to three different angles allowing five different display angles.
1.
Install the two round rubber feet on the bottom of the console. The rubber feet help prevent damage to furniture and surfaces.

2.
Lean the kickstand out by pulling on its top edge. You’ll see the indentation for your finger at the top edge of the console.

3.
Slide the catch to rest the kickstand in the appropriate angle. Choose low angles for display on a coffee table or other low area. Choose higher angles for display on a desk or shelf.

4.
Install the two rubber channel feet on the kickstand.


Console Location


If necessary, pull up on the stand to close it. It will be a little tight, so it’s okay to push hard enough to get it to slide.

Console Location
Wall Mounting
The console mounts to the wall using two keyholes located on the back of the case. To mount the console on a wall:
1. Use a ruler to mark two mounting hole positions on the wall 8 inches (203 mm) apart.

8" (203mm)
Drill two 3/32" or 7/64" (2.4 to 2.8mm) holes 8" (203mm) apart for the #6 x 1" mounting screws.


This is a representation for the mounting hole positions. This template is not true to size.
If installing a cabled Vantage Pro2 console with sensor cable running inside the wall, mount the console over an empty switch box.
2.
Use a drill and a 3/32 or 7/64''(2.5 mm) drill bit to drill two pilot holes for the screws.

3.
Using a screwdriver, drive the two #6 x 1'' pan head self-threading screws into the wall. Leave at least 1/8'' (3 mm) between the wall and the heads of the screws.

4.
If the kickstand has been pulled out from the case, push it back into its upright and locked position.

5.
Guide the two keyholes on the back of the console over the two screws.

 


Chapter 3 Using Your Weather Station
The console LCD screen and keyboard provide easy access to your weather information. The large LCD display shows current and past environmental conditions as well as a forecast of future conditions. The keyboard controls console functions for viewing current and historical weather information, setting and clearing alarms, changing stations types, viewing and/or changing station settings, setting up and viewing graphs, selecting sensors, getting the forecast, and so on.
Console Modes
The Vantage Pro2 console operates in five different modes:
Mode Description
Setup Use Setup Mode to enter the time, date, and other information required tocalculate and display weather data.
Current Weather Use Current Weather Mode to read the current weather information, change measurement units, and to set, clear or calibrate weather readings.
High/Low High/Low Mode displays the daily, monthly or yearly high and low readings.
Alarm Alarm Mode allows you to set, clear, and review alarm settings.
Graph Graph Mode displays your weather data using over 100 different graphs.

Setup Mode
Setup Mode provides access to the station configuration settings that control how the station operates. Setup Mode consists of a series of screens for selecting console and weather station options. The screens that display in Setup Mode vary depending on the weather station type (cabled or wireless), or if the console has a WeatherLink connection already established. (See the WeatherLink Getting Started Guide for more information on connecting your console to your computer.)
Setup Mode Commands
Setup Mode displays when the console is first powered. This mode can be displayed at any time to change any of the console/weather station options. Use the following commands to enter, exit and navigate Setup Mode:
• Enter Setup Mode by pressing DONE and the - key at the same time.
Note: The console automatically enters Setup Mode when first powered.

Press DONE to move to the next screen in the Setup Mode.


Press BAR to display the previous screen in the Setup Mode.


Exit Setup Mode by pressing and holding DONE until the Current Weather screen displays.

 

Setup Mode
Screen 1: Active Transmitters
Screen 1 displays the message “Receiving from...” and shows the transmitters being received by the console. In addition, an “X” blinks in the lower right-hand corner of the screen every time the console receives a data packet from a station. The rest of the LCD screen is blank. If you have a cabled station, or if your wireless ISS uses the factory settings and you are receiving the signal, the screen displays “Receiving from station No. 1.” Any optional stations that have been installed should also display.
STATION NO. 1 4


Screen 1: Active Transmitters
Note: An ISS or optional station must be powered for the console to recognize it. Refer to the Integrated Sensor Suite Installation Manual or optional station installation instructions for more information. It make take several minutes for the console to acquire and display a Transmitter ID.
1. Make a note of the station number(s) listed on the screen.
Note: If a Vantage Pro2 or Vantage Vue ISS has been installed in your area, its ID number may also be displayed.
2. Press DONE to move to the next screen. The console can receive signals from up to eight transmitters total, but there is a limit on the number of certain types of transmitters. The table below lists the maximum number of stations allowable for a receiver:
Station Type Maximum Number
Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS) 1
Anemometer Transmitter Kit (replacesISS anemometer) 1
Leaf & Soil Moisture/Temperature Station 2*
Temperature Station 8
Temperature/Humidity Station 8

Maximum Number of Transmitters in a Network with One Receiver *Two are allowable only if both stations are only partially populated. For example, A network can either have both a Leaf Wetness/Temperature station and a Soil Moisture/Temperature station, or it can have one combined Leaf Wetness and Soil Moisture/Temperature station.
Note: Listening to more than one transmitter may reduce battery life significantly.
Screen 2: Configuring Transmitter IDs — Wireless Only
(If you have a cabled station, press DONE and continue on to “Screen 4: Time & Date” on page 14.) Setup screen 2 allows you to change the ISS transmitter ID and to add or remove optional transmitter stations. The default transmitter ID setting is “1” (ISS), which works fine for most installations.

Setup Mode


Screen 2: Transmitter ID configuration
If you have a cabled station, or if you have a wireless station and are using the default transmitter ID setting, press DONE to move to the next screen.
Note: Typically, you can use the default transmitter ID setting of 1 unless you are installing one of the optional transmitter stations. However, if you are having trouble receiving your station, there may be another ISS with ID 1 operating nearby. Try changing the ID of both the console and ISS to another ID number.
1. Press the < and > keys to select the transmitter ID.
1.
When you select a transmitter ID, the ID number is displayed on the screen as well as the current configuration.

2.
Press the + and - keys to toggle console reception of signals from transmitters using that ID on and off.

3.
Press GRAPH to change the type of station assigned to each transmitter. Scroll through the station types - ISS, TEMP, HUM, TEMP HUM, WIND, RAIN, LEAF, SOIL, and LEAF/SOIL - until the correct type appears.

4.
Press DONE to move to the next screen.


Note: This screen contains functionality for enabling repeaters. If the word “Repeater” displays in the right corner of the screen and you are not using repeaters as part of your network, see “Clearing Repeater ID” on page 54. If you are using repeaters as part of your network see “Wireless Repeater Configuration” (Appendix C) on page 53 for configuring repeaters on the console.
Screen 3: Retransmit — Wireless Only
If you have a cabled station, press DONE and go to “Screen 4: Time & Date” on page 14. The console can retransmit the data it receives from the ISS to other Vantage Pro2 or Vantage Vue consoles using the retransmit feature. By toggling the feature on, the console becomes another transmitter that requires its own unique ID to transmit the data received from the ISS.

Screen 3: Retransmit
1. Press the + or - keys to turn the retransmit function on and off. The first available transmitter ID not used by the ISS or any optional sensor is automatically assigned. Data from the ISS is the only data that can be retransmitted by the console.
When retransmit has already been enabled, pressing the < and > keys changes the Transmitter ID used for retransmit.

Setup Mode
2.
Use the > key to scroll through the list of available transmitter IDs and select the ID for your console.

3.
Press DONE to move to the next screen.


Note: Make a note of the ID selected for retransmit. The console that receives the data from the console you have selected to retransmit should be configured to receive the transmitter ID you selected. See “Screen 2: Configuring Transmitter IDs — Wireless Only” on page 12 for more information.
Screen 4: Time & Date
The first time you power-up the console, enter the correct date and local time.

Screen 4: Time & Date
To change the time and date:
1.
Press the < and > keys to select the hour, minute, month, day or year. The selected time or date setting blinks on and off.

2.
To change a setting, press the + and - keys to adjust the value up or down. To choose a 12-hour (default in US models) or 24-hour clock (default in EU and


UK models), first select either the hour or minute setting, then press 2ND and immediately press UNITS. This toggles the clock setting between the two types. To choose between a MM/DD (default in US models) or DD.MM (default in
EU and UK models) display for the date, first select either the day or month setting, then press 2ND and immediately press UNITS. This switches the console from one date display to the other.
3. Press DONE to move to the next screen.
Screen 5 and Screen 6: Latitude and Longitude
The console uses latitude and longitude to determine your location, allowing it to adjust the forecast and calculate the times for sunset and sunrise.

Latitude measures distance north or south of the equator.


Longitude measures distance east or west of the Prime Meridian, an imaginary line running north and south through Greenwich, England.


Note: You can find your latitude and longitude by searching the internet (for example: googlemaps.com, earth.google.com or earthtools.org). Many atlases and maps

Setup Mode

include latitude and longitude lines. You can also talk to the reference department of your local library, call your local airport, or search on the Internet.

Screen 5: Latitude
1.
Press the < and > keys to move between fields.

2.
Press the + and - keys to change the settings up or down.

3.
To select between SOUTH or NORTH, press 2ND and then UNITS.

4.
Press DONE to move to the Longitude screen.

 

Screen 6: Longitude
1.
Press the < and > keys to move between fields.

2.
Press the + and - keys to change the settings up or down.

3.
To select the East or West Hemisphere, press 2ND, then UNITS.

4.
Press DONE to move to the next screen.


Screen 7: Time Zone
The console is pre-programmed with a combination of US time zones and the names of major cities representing time zones around the world. You can also configure your time zone using the Universal Time Coordinate (UTC) offset.

Screen 7: Time Zone
Note: UTC offset measures the difference between the time in any time zone and a standard time, set by convention as the time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England. Hayward, California, the home of Davis Instruments, observes Pacific Standard Time. The UTC offset for Pacific Standard Time is -8:00, or eight hours behind Universal Time (UTC). When it’s 7:00 pm (1900 hours) UTC, it’s 19 - 8 = 1100 hours, or 11:00 am in Hayward in winter. When daylight saving time is observed, an hour is added to the offset time automatically. Use this function in correlation with Screen 8, Daylight Saving Settings.
1.
Press the + and - keys to cycle through time zones.

2.
If your time zone is not shown, press 2ND then press the + and - keys to set your UTC offset.

 

Setup Mode
3. Press DONE to select the time zone or UTC offset shown on the screen and move to the next screen.
Screen 8: Daylight Saving Settings
In most of North America (except Saskatchewan, Arizona, Hawaii, and the Mexican State of Sonora); and Europe use the AUTO daylight saving setting. The console is pre-programmed to use the correct starting and stopping dates for daylight saving time in these areas, based on the time zone setting in screen 7. Stations located outside North America and Europe, or in areas that do not observe daylight saving time should use the MANUAL setting.

Screen 8: Daylight Saving Settings
1.
Press the + and - keys to choose Auto or Manual.

2.
Press DONE to move to the next screen.


Screen 9: Daylight Saving Status
Use this screen to either verify the correct automatic daylight saving status or to set daylight saving manually.

Screen 9: Daylight Saving Status
1.
If Daylight Saving setting is MANUAL, you will have to set the time correctly when it changes. However, to maintain accurate calculations, you also need to use the + and - keys to turn daylight saving time on or off on the appropriate days of the year. If you have an AUTO daylight saving setting, the console displays the appropriate setting based on the current time and date.

2.
Press DONE to move to the next screen.


Screen 10: Elevation
Meteorologists standardize barometric pressure data to sea level so that surface readings are comparable, whether they’re taken on a mountainside or by the ocean. To make this same standardization and ensure consistent readings, enter your elevation in this screen.

Screen 10: Elevation
Note: If you do not know your elevation, there are several ways to find out. Many atlases and almanacs include elevation for cities and towns. You can also check with the

Setup Mode

reference department of your local library, or refer to internet resources. (See “Screen 5 and Screen 6: Latitude and Longitude” for a list of web sites.) The more accurate you are, the better; but a reasonable estimate works too.
1.
Press the < and > keys to move from one numeral to another.

2.
Press the + and - keys to adjust a numeral up or down.

3.
To switch between feet and meters, press 2ND then press UNITS.

4.
If you are below sea level, like in Death Valley or the Salton Sea, first enter the elevation as a positive number. Then, select the “0” immediately to the left of the leftmost non-zero digit (the second zero from the left in 0026, for example, or the first zero from the left in 0207) and press the + and - keys to switch from a positive to negative elevation.


Note: You can only set the elevation to negative after you have entered a non-zero digit and when the zero in the position immediately to the left of the left-most non-zero digit has been selected.
5. Press DONE to move to the next screen.
Screen 11: Wind Cup Size
Vantage Pro2 stations come standard with large wind cups. Switch this setting to SMALL CUP if you have separately purchased and installed small wind cups. Switch to OTHER if you are receiving from a Vantage Vue ISS or are using a third-party anemometer.

Screen 11: Wind Cup Size
1.
Press the + and - keys to switch between the LARGE CUP, SMALL CUP, and OTHER wind cup settings.

2.
Press DONE to move to the next screen.


Screen 12: Rain Collector
The tipping bucket in the Vantage Pro2 rain collector has been calibrated at the factory to measure 0.01''of rain with each tip for US models, or 0.2 mm of rain with each tip for UK and EU models. The typical user will not need to change this screen. However, some US users may want to install a metric adapter on their ISS so that it takes 0.2 mm readings for every tip of the bucket. If a metric adapter has been installed on your ISS, you should also calibrate your console for metric measurements using this screen.

Screen 12: Rain Collector Settings
Note: See the Integrated Sensor Suite Installation Manual for instructions on installing the metric rain adapter. The 0.1mm setting does not provide correct rain measurements Setup Mode

with either the standard measurement or the metric adapter installed in the rain bucket and should not be used.
To calibrate your console for 0.2 mm measurements:
1.
Press the + and - keys to display the 0.2 mm setting.

2.
Press DONE to use the selected setting and move to the next screen.


If you calibrate your console for metric rain data in screen 12 of the Setup Mode, you will also need to set up your Current Weather Mode to display the metric readings. To display metric rain readings in the Current Weather Mode, once you have completed or exited the Setup Mode:
To Display Rain in Metric Units on the Console
1.
Press RAINYR to display the current rain rate.

Selecting Metric units for one rain variable also sets all the other rain variables to Metric units.

2.
Press and release 2ND and press UNITS once.

 


The units used to display rain data toggle between inches and millimeters each time you repeat this key sequence.
To Display Rain in Metric Units in WeatherLink
Refer to the WeatherLink Online Help for instructions to set the rain collector to
0.2 mm and to select millimeters as the unit for rain.
Screen 13: Rain Season
Because rainy seasons begin and end at different times in different parts of the
world, you must specify the month you wish your yearly rain data to begin. January 1st is the default. The date the rain season begins affects yearly rain rate highs and lows.

 

Screen 13: Rain Season
1.
Press the + and - keys to select the month for the start of the rainy season.

2.
Press DONE to move to the next screen.


Note: This setting determines when the yearly rain total is reset to zero. Davis Instruments recommends a January rain season setting (the default), unless you reside in the west coast of the United States, the Mediterranean coast, experience dry winters in the Southern Hemisphere. If so, change the rain season setting to July 1st. If you are performing hydrology studies in any of these climates in the Northern Hemisphere, change the rain season setting to October 1st.
Screen 14: Serial Baud Rate
The Baud Rate screen displays only if the console detects that a WeatherLink data logger installed on the console. The console uses a serial or USB port to communicate with a computer. If you are connecting the console directly to your computer via USB or Ethernet, leave the

Setup Mode

setting at 19200, the highest rate for the port. If you’re using a modem, use the highest setting your modem can handle. The console must be equipped with a WeatherLink data logger to communicate with a computer or modem.

Screen 14: Baud Rate
Note: The baud rate setting on your console must match the baud rate of the software you are using. If you are using WeatherLink for Vantage Pro2, refer to WeatherLink help for instructions on setting the serial port baud rate on your computer.
1.
Press the + and - keys to select the baud rate.

Your Vantage Pro2 console supports baud rates of 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 14400, and 19200.

2.
You have completed the console setup. To exit Setup Mode, press and hold DONE until the current weather screen appears.


Clear All Command
After you have completed the above setup procedures and have exited the Setup Mode, please use the Clear All command before putting your weather station into service. The Clear All command clears all stored high and low weather data including monthly and yearly highs and lows and clears the alarm settings. The command is recommended to properly clear the console of any erroneous data before first putting the station into use.
1.
Make sure wind speed is showing in the wind compass. If wind direction is showing, press WIND on the console until wind speed appears.

2.
Press 2ND, then press and hold CLEAR for at least six seconds.

3.
Release CLEAR when you see “CLEARING NOW” displayed at the bottom of the console’s screen.

 

Current Weather Mode
Current Weather Mode
In the Current Weather Mode you can display the current data readings from your station, select units of measure, and calibrate, set, or clear weather variables. You can see up to ten weather variables on the screen at the same time, as well as the time and date, the moon and forecast icons, a forecast or special message from your station, and a graph of the currently selected variable. A few variables are always visible on the console screen while most variables share their location with one or more variables. You can select any variable not currently on the screen to display it.
Selecting Weather Variables
Select a weather variable to display its data on the screen if it isn’t already visible or to graph the data available for that variable. Weather variables are selected via the console command keys:

If the variable is printed on a key, just press the key to select the variable.


If the variable is printed on the console housing, first press and release 2ND, then quickly press the key below the variable to select it.

 


Note: After pressing 2ND, the 2ND icon displays on the screen for three seconds. Command key secondary functions are enabled during this time. The keys return to normal operation after the icon disappears.

Select a variable and press GRAPH to graph the variable in the Current Weather Mode screen. The console places a graph icon on the screen next to the selected variable or value you want to view to indicate the currently selected variable.


You can also select any variable currently displayed on the LCD screen using the navigation keys. Push up (+) to move up the screen. Press down (-) to move down the screen. Push left (<) to move left and push right (>) to move right.

 

 

Selecting Units of Measure
Most weather variables may be displayed in at least two different measurement units, including imperial (US) and metric systems, although some variables feature more possibilities. Barometric pressure, for example, may be displayed in millibars, millimeters, inches, or hectoPascals. Note that you can set each variable’s units independently, and at any time, as you like. To change units:
1.
Select the weather variable. See “Selecting Weather Variables” on page 20.

2.
Press and release 2ND then press UNITS. The selected variable’s units change. Repeat steps 1 and 2 until the desired units appear.


For example, to change the barometric pressure units, first select barometric pressure by pressing BAR. Next, press and release 2ND, then press UNITS.

 

Selecting Units of Measure

Repeating these steps cycles through the units available for barometric pressure: millibars, millimeters, inches, and hectoPascals.


BAROMETER
BAROMETER


BAROMETER

 

Displaying Units: Barometric Pressure Units: millibars (mb), millimeters (mm) and

Wind Direction, Outside and Inside Temperature
Wind Speed and Direction
1.
Press WIND to select wind speed.

2.
Wind speed may be displayed in miles per hour (m.p.h.), kilometers per hour (km/h), meters per second (m/s), and knots (knots). The 10 minute average wind speed will be displayed in the ticker.

A solid arrow within the compass rose indicates the current wind direction. Arrow caps indicate up to six different 10-minute dominant wind directions to provide a history of the dominant wind directions for the past hour.

3. Press WIND a second time to display the wind
360N direction in degrees instead of the wind speed. When displayed in degrees, Due North displays as 360º for


90E

consoles with firmware dated May 2005 or later. 270W
Previous releases marked Due North at 0º. Each additional WIND key press toggles the display between wind speed and wind direction in degrees.
Note: If your anemometer arm is not pointing true north, you should recalibrate the wind direction reading on your console. See “Calibrate Wind Direction Reading” on page 27 for more information.
Outside and Inside Temperature
1. Press TEMP to select outside temperature.

Selecting Units of Measure
Temperature may be displayed in degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) or Celsius (ºC). Temperatures can also be displayed in degrees or in tenths of a degree.


2. Press TEMP again to select inside temperature. Each consecutive press of TEMP displays temperature readings for any optional temperature, temperature/humidity, soil temperature, soil moisture stations also connected to your console. The order of the optional sensors readings display
depends on your station configuration. Temperatures for temperature stations display, with soil temperature and moisture stations displaying consecutively.

Humidity
Press HUM to select outside humidity. Pressing HUM a second time selects inside humidity. Humidity is displayed in percent relative humidity. Each consecutive press of HUM displays humidity readings for any optional humidity, leaf wetness, and leaf temperature stations also connected to your console. The order of the optional sensors readings display depends on your station configuration. Humidity readings for humidity stations display, with leaf wetness and leaf temperature readings displaying consecutively.
Wind Chill
Press 2ND then press CHILL to select Wind Chill. Wind Chill is displayed in either Fahrenheit (ºF) or Celsius (ºC) in whole degrees. The console uses the ten-minute average wind speed to calculate wind chill.
Dew Point
Press 2ND then press DEW to select Dew Point. Dew Point is displayed in either Fahrenheit (ºF) or Celsius (ºC) in whole degrees.

 

 

Selecting Units of Measure

Barometric Pressure


Press BAR to select barometric pressure. Barometric pressure may be displayed in inches (in), millimeters (mm), millibars (mb) or hectoPascals (hPa).
Pressure Trend
The pressure trend arrow indicates the current barometric trend, measured over the last three hours. The pressure trend is updated every 15 minutes. The pressure trend requires three hours of data in order to be calculated so it won’t display right away on a new station. The pressure trend is indicated on the console screen, as long as the required data is available.

 

UV, Heat, and THSW Index
UV (Ultraviolet Radiation)
Press 2ND and UV to display the current UV index. The current UV index is the amount of ultraviolet radiation the sensor is currently reading. Press 2ND and UV again to display the accumulated UV index for the day. The accumulated UV index is the total ultraviolet radiation that the sensor has read throughout the day. The accumulated UV index for the day is reset to zero every night.


Note: Requires a UV sensor. See “Optional Sensors & Transmitting Stations” on page 3.
Heat Index
Press 2ND then press HEAT to display the Heat Index.
THSW Index
After you have selected the Heat Index, press 2ND then press HEAT again to select the Temperature Humidity Sun Wind (THSW) Index. The THSW Index is only available on stations equipped with a solar radiation sensor. The Heat Index and the THSW Index display in the same place on the screen and are displayed in degrees Fahrenheit (ºF) or Celsius (ºC).

 

Selecting Units of Measure

Daily Rain, Rain Storm, Rain Year, Rain Month, & Rain Rate
Rain Rate
Press RAINYR to display the current rain rate. Rain Rate may be
UV

displayed as either inches per hour (in/hr.) or millimeters per hour (mm/ hr.). Rain Rate will show zero and the umbrella icon does not appear until two tips of the rain bucket within a 15–minute period.


Month–to–date precipitation
Press RAINYR again to select the month–to–date precipitation record. Monthly rain displays the precipitation accumulated since the calendar month began. Month–to–date precipitation is displayed in inches or millimeters (mm).
Year–to–date precipitation
Press RAINYR a third time to display the year–to–date precipitation record. Yearly rain displays the precipitation accumulated since the 1st of the month you’ve chosen as the beginning of your rain season in Setup Mode (See “Screen
13: Rain Season” on page 18). Year–to–date precipitation is displayed in inches (in) or millimeters (mm).
Daily Rain
Press RAINDAY to display the rain accumulated since 12 midnight. Any rain accumulated in the last 24 hours displays in the ticker at the bottom of the screen.


Rain Storm
Rain Storm displays the rain total of the last rain event. It takes two tips of the rain bucket to begin a storm event and 24 hours without rain to end a storm event. Press RAINDAY to toggle between the daily rain total and the Rain Storm total. Rain accumulation may be displayed as either millimeters (mm) or inches (in).

Selecting Units of Measure


Solar Radiation, Current ET, ET Month & ET Year
Solar Radiation
Press and release 2ND then press SOLAR to display the current solar radiation reading. Solar radiation is displayed as Watts per square meter (W/m2).
Current Evapotranspiration (ET)
Press and release 2ND then press ET to display the current evapotranspiration reading.
Monthly Evapotranspiration (ET)
Press 2ND then press ET, then repeat the key sequence to display Monthly ET.
Yearly Evapotranspiration (ET)
Press 2ND then press ET, then repeat this key sequence two more times to display the ET reading since January 1st of the current year.

 

Note: A solar radiation sensor is required to take readings listed above. See “Optional Sensors & Transmitting Stations” on page 3.
Lamps
Press 2ND then press LAMPS to turn on the backlight for the screen
LAMPS

display. Press 2ND then LAMPS again to turn the backlight off. Use the backlight when the LCD is not clearly visible. When the console is battery operated, the backlight remains on as long as keys are pressed or a ticker tape message is scrolling across the screen. If no keys are pressed, the backlight automatically turns off about fifteen seconds after it is turned on. If any key is pressed while it is turned on, it will stay illuminated for 60 seconds from the last key press. When battery power is low, the backlight does not light.


Note: When the console receives power from the AC adapter, the backlight remains on until it is toggled off. Leaving the backlight on raises the inside temperature reading and lowers the inside humidity reading.

Displaying the Forecast
Displaying the Forecast
Your console generates a weather forecast based on the barometric reading & trend, wind speed & direction, rainfall, temperature, humidity, latitude & longitude, and time of year. Included in the forecast is a prediction of the sky condition (sunny, cloudy, etc.) and changes in precipitation, temperature, wind direction or wind speed. Press FORECAST to display the forecast. The forecast ticker message at the bottom of the screen predicts the weather up to 48 hours in advance. The forecast is updated once an hour, on the hour. Predictions are made for cloud cover, temperature trends, the likelihood of precipitation, timing, severity and windy conditions.


Forecast Icons
The forecast icons show the predicted weather for the next 12 hours. If rain and/or snow is possible but not necessarily likely, the partly cloudy icon along with the rain or snow icon displays. When both the rain and snow icons display together, a chance of rain, freezing rain, sleet and/or snow is likely.

Mostly Clear Partly Cloudy Mostly Cloudy Rain Snow
Displaying Time & Date or Sunrise & Sunset
Your console shows the sunrise and sunset time in the same place on the screen used by the current time and date. Press 2ND and then press TIME to toggle the screen between the current time and date or the sunrise and sunset times for the current day.
Note: See “Screen 4: Time & Date” on page 14 to change the console time and date or to select a 12- or 24-hour clock.
Calibrating, Setting, and Clearing Variables
To fine-tune your station, you can calibrate most of the weather variables. For example, if your outside temperature seems consistently too high or too low, you can enter an offset to correct the deviation.
Calibrating Temperature And Humidity
You can calibrate inside & outside temperature, inside & outside humidity, as well as any extra temperature/humidity sensor readings you have transmitting to your Vantage Pro2.
1. Select a variable to be calibrated. See “Selecting Weather Variables” on page 20.

Calibrating, Setting, and Clearing Variables


2.
Press and release 2ND, then press and hold SET. After a moment, the variable you’ve selected begins to

blink. Keep holding SET until the Calibration Offset message displays in the ticker. The ticker displays the current calibration offset.

3.
Press the+ and - keys to add or subtract from the temperature offset value. Inside and outside temperature are calibrated in 0.1° F or 0.1° C increments, up to a maximum offset of +12.7 (°F or °C) and a minimum offset of -12.8 (°F

or °C). The variable will change value and the ticker will show the offset you’ve entered.

4.
Press DONE to exit calibration.


Calibrate Wind Direction Reading
If the anemometer arm cannot be mounted pointing to true north, use this procedure to correct the wind direction console reading.
1.
Check the current direction of the wind vane on the anemometer. Compare it to the wind direction reading on the console.

2.
Press WIND as necessary to display the wind direction in degrees.

3.
Press and release 2ND, then press and hold SET.

4.
The wind direction variable will begin to blink.

5.
Continue holding the key until the CAL message appears in the ticker. The ticker displays the current wind direction calibration value.

6.
Press the < and > keys to select digits in the anemometer’s current reading.

7.
Press the + and - keys to add/subtract from the anemometer reading.

8.
Repeat steps 6 and 7 until you have entered the offset value from Step 1.

9.
Press DONE to exit calibration.


Calibrating Barometric Pressure
Before calibrating the barometric pressure, be sure the station is set to the correct elevation. See “Screen 10: Elevation” on page 16 for more information.
1.
Press BAR to select barometric pressure.

2.
Press and release 2ND, then press and hold SET. The pressure variable blinks.

3.
Continue holding the key until the ticker reads “set barometer . . . ”.

4.
Press the < and > keys to select digits in the variable.

5.
Press + and - keys to add to or subtract from the digit’s value.

6.
Press DONE to exit calibration.


Setting Weather Variables
You can set values for the following weather variables:

Daily Rain—Sets the daily rain total. Monthly and yearly rain totals are updated.


Monthly Rain—Sets the current months total rain. Does not affect yearly rain total.

 

Calibrating, Setting, and Clearing Variables

Yearly Rain—Sets the current year’s rain total.


Daily ET (Evapotranspiration)—Sets the daily ET total. Monthly and yearly ET totals are updated.


Monthly ET—Sets the current month’s ET. Does not affect yearly total.


Yearly ET—Sets the current year’s total ET. To set a weather variable’s value:


1.
Select the variable you wish to change.

2.
Press and release 2ND, then press and hold SET. The variable blinks.

3.
Keep holding SET until all digits are lit and only one digit is blinking.

4.
Press the < or > keys to select digits in the value.

5.
Press the + and - keys to add to or subtract from the selected digit.

6.
When you are finished, press DONE to exit.


Clearing Weather Variables
The following weather variables can be cleared:

Barometer—Clears any pressure offset used to calibrate the station, and the elevation entry.


Wind—Clears the wind direction calibration.


Daily rain—Clearing the daily rain value is reflected in the daily rain total, the last 15 minutes of rain, the last three hours of rain sent to the forecast algorithm, the umbrella icon, and the monthly and yearly rain totals. Clear the daily rain total if the station accidentally recorded rain when the ISS was installed.


Monthly rain—Clears the monthly rain total. Does not affect the yearly rain total.


Yearly rain—Clears the yearly rain total.


Daily ET—Clears daily ET and subtracts the old daily ET total from the monthly and yearly ET totals.


Monthly ET—Clears the current monthly ET total. Does not affect the yearly ET total.


Yearly ET—Clears the current yearly ET total. To clear a single weather variable:


1.
Select the weather variable. See “Selecting Weather Variables” on page 20.

2.
Press and release 2ND, then press and hold CLEAR. The variable you’ve chosen blinks. Keep holding the key until the value


changes to zero or, in the case of the barometer, the raw barometer value. Clearing the barometer value also clears the elevation setting.
Clear All Command
This command clears all stored high and low weather data including monthly and yearly highs and lows and clears alarm settings all at once.
1.
Make sure wind speed is showing in the wind compass. If wind direction is showing, press WIND on the console until wind speed appears.

2.
Press 2ND then press and hold CLEAR for at least six seconds.

 

Highs and Lows Mode

3. Release CLEAR when “CLEARING NOW” displays at the bottom of the console’s screen.
Highs and Lows Mode
The Vantage Pro2 records highs and lows for many weather conditions over three different periods: days, months, and years. Except for Yearly Rainfall, all high and low registers are cleared automatically at the end of each period. For example, daily highs are cleared at midnight, monthly highs are cleared at month–end midnight, yearly highs are cleared at year–end midnight. You may enter the month that you would like the Yearly Rainfall accumulation to clear. The Yearly Rainfall clears on the first day of the month you chosen. The Yearly High Rain rate clears using the same setting. The following table lists the high and low modes for all the weather variables:
Weather Variable High Low Day,Time & Date Month Year Additional Information
Outside Temperature Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Inside Temperature Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes*
Outside Humidity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes*
Inside Humidity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes*
Barometer Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes*
Heat Index Yes Yes Yes Yes*
Temp/Hum/Wind/Sun(THSW) Index Yes Yes Yes Yes* requires solar radiation sensor
Wind Chill Yes Yes Yes Yes*
Wind Speed Yes Yes Yes Yes Includes direction
Rainfall Rate Yes Yes Yes Yes
Daily Rain Total Total Total
UV Index Yes Yes Yes** Yes* requires UV sensor
Solar Radiation Yes Yes Yes** Yes* requires solar radiation sensor
Dew Point Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes*
Evapotranspiration Total Total Total requires solar radiation sensor
Soil Moisture Yes Yes Yes Yes** Yes* requires soil moisture sensor
Leaf Wetness Yes Yes Yes No Yes* requires leaf wetness sensor

* Only stores the yearly high for the current year.** Only stores monthly high for the current month.
Weather Data Highs and Lows
Viewing Highs and Lows
1.
Press HI/LOW to enter the Highs and Lows mode.

The DAY and HIGHS icons light up and the station displays the highs for all visible fields.

2.
Press the + and - keys to scroll between Day Highs, Day Lows, Month Highs, Month Lows, Year Highs and Year Lows.

 

Alarm Mode
The HIGH or LOW icon, as well the DAY, MONTH or YEAR icon lights to
display which High/Low screen you’ve selected.
3.
Press the < and > keys to scroll back and forth through the last 24 values. Pressing the < key displays the previous day’s highs. Each time you press the < key, the date moves back another day. The 24 dots in the graph field also represent each of the last 24 days, months, or years; the right-most dot is the

present. As you move backward and forward the flashing dot changes to show what value you’re looking at.

4.
Use the console keys to select a different weather variable. The console’s time displays time of the selected variable’s high or low.

5.
Press DONE to exit the Highs and Lows mode. The console screen switches to the Current Weather mode.


Alarm Mode
The Vantage Pro2 features more than 30 alarms that can be programmed to sound whenever a reading exceeds or drops below a set value. With the exception of barometric pressure and time, all alarms sound when a reading reaches the alarm threshold. For example, if the high outside temperature alarm is set at 65º F, the alarm sounds when the temperature rises to 65.0º F. When an alarm condition exists, the audible alarm sounds, the alarm icon blinks repeatedly, and an alarm description appears in the ticker at the bottom of the screen. The alarm sounds for a maximum of two minutes if the console is battery-powered, but the icon continues to blink and the message stays in the ticker until you clear the alarm or the condition clears. If you’re using the AC adapter, the alarm will continue sounding as long as the condition exists. The alarm will sound again for each new alarm. If more than one alarm is active, the description for each active alarm cycles onto the screen every four seconds. A “+” symbol appears at the end of the alarm text if more than one alarm is tripped. Low alarms work the same way. For example, if the wind chill threshold is set for 30ºF, the alarm condition begins when the wind chill drops to 30º and will continue until the wind chill rises above 30º.
Four Special Alarms
ET (Evapotranspiration)
ET is updated only once an hour, on the hour. If during a given hour the ET Value exceeds the alarm threshold, the ET alarm sounds at the end of that hour. This is true for daily, monthly, and yearly ET alarms. You must have the optional Solar Radiation Sensor to use this alarm. See “Evapotranspiration (ET)” on page 48. for a description of this variable.
Barometric Pressure
The Vantage Pro2 allows you to set two barometric pressure alarms: a “rise” alarm and a “fall” alarm. You may select any rate of change per three hours between 0.00 and 0.25 inches (6.35 mm) Hg, (8.5 mb, hPa); the alarm will sound if the rate of

Alarm Mode

change (in either direction) exceeds the threshold you set. This alarm is updated every 15 minutes.
Time
The time alarm is a standard “alarm clock” alarm. It sounds for one minute at the set time. Make sure you choose AM or PM, if you’re in 12-hour mode.
UV Dose
The UV dose alarm sounds when the accumulated UV dose has exceeded the dose you set. The UV dose alarm does not arm unless the initial UV dose for the day has been reset. Once the UV dose alarm value is set, clear the accumulated UV dose. See “Clearing Weather Variables” on page 28.
Setting Alarms
1.
Press ALARM to enter the Alarm Mode to view or set the high alarm thresholds. The screen displays the current high alarm thresholds. The ALARM and HIGHS icons also appear.

2.
Press the < and > keys to select one of the variables displayed on the screen or use the console keys to select any weather variable. Also, press HI/LOW to display the toggle between the high and low alarm threshold settings.

3.
Press 2ND then press ALARM to activate the currently selected weather variable.

4.
Press the < and > keys to select digits in the threshold value.

5.
Press the + and - keys to change the digit’s value up and down.

6.
Press DONE to finish changing the alarm setting.

7.
Repeat steps 3 through 6 to change additional alarm settings.

8.
Press DONE to exit Alarm Mode.

 

Alarm Mode
Vantage Pro2 Station AlarmsVantage Pro2 Station Alarms
Variable Alarms
Barometric Pressure Trend Storm Warning - uses trend value falling rateStorm Clearing - uses trend value rising rate
Evapotranspiration ET Alarm - uses total ET for the day
Humidity, Inside High and Low
Humidity, Outside High and Low
Dew Point High and Low
Leaf Wetness High and Low
Rain Flash Flood Alarm - uses current 15 minute rainfall total 24 Hour Rain Alarm - uses current 24 hour rainfall total
Storm Storm Alarm - uses current storm rainfall total
Rain Rate High
Soil Moisture High and Low
Solar Radiation High
Inside Temperature High and Low
Outside Temperature High and Low
Extra Temperature High and Low
Heat Index Temperature High
THSW Index Temperature High
Wind Chill Temperature Low
UV Radiation Index High
UV Radiation MED High - uses the current total if variable has been reset
Wind Speed High
Time & Date Yes - the alarm sounds for 1 minute.


Graph Mode

Setting the Time Alarm
1.
Press ALARM to enter alarm mode. The ALARM and HIGHS icons appear.

2.
Press 2ND, then press TIME, then press 2ND again, and then press ALARM. The time field begins blinking.

3.
Press the < and > keys to select hours, minutes, or AM/PM.

4.
Press + and - keys to change the digit’s value up and down.

5.
Press DONE to exit Alarm Mode.


Clearing Alarm Settings
1.
Press ALARM to enter alarm mode. The ALARM and HIGHS icons appear.

2.
Select the alarm setting you wish to clear.

3.
Press 2ND, then press and hold CLEAR until the setting changes to all dashes. You have cleared the alarm setting.

4.
Press DONE to exit Alarm Mode.


Note: To clear all alarms, enter Alarm mode (press and release the ALARM key), then press and hold the ALARM key until all the fields become dashed.
Silencing Alarms
1. Press DONE to silence an alarm when it sounds.
Graph Mode
The Vantage Pro2 console includes a powerful Graph Mode that allows you to view over 100 graphs of different kinds right on the screen, all without connecting to a personal computer.
Viewing Graphs
Although the graphs available may vary for each weather variable, you display the graphs in the same way.
1.
Select a variable to graph. Only the date, graph, graph icon, and selected variable are

visible. The rest of the screen is blank.

2.
Press GRAPH to enter Graph

Mode. Values for the each of the last 24 hours are displayed in the graph, each hour represented by a dot. The dot at right end of the graph is the value for the current hour. You’ll notice that the dot is blinking.

3.
Press the < key and the second dot from the right starts to blink.

 


Graph Mode

The screen displays the new dot’s value. The time display shows what hour of the last 24 is being viewed.
4.
Press the < and > keys to view the variable’s values for each of the last 24 hours. The console also displays the maximum and minimum temperatures recorded in the last 24 hours.

5.
Press the + and - keys to shift the graph’s time span. If you press the - key the graph shifts from the last 24 hours to the last 24 days. Now each dot represents the high recorded on the day shown in the date field. To see the lows recorded in the last 24 days, press HI/LOW. Press the < and > keys to move between days. By pressing the -key again, the graph shifts to show the highs of the last 24


months. As before, use the < and > keys to move between months. Press HI/LOW to shift between the highs and lows. By pressing the -key again, the graph shifts one more time to show the highs of
the last 24 years. Press HI/LOW to shift between highs and lows. The console beeps when you’ve reached the first or last possible value or time span for the graph. Since the console only graphs data collected by the station, the graphs can only show data collected since the station was first installed. View graphs of all other variables the same way.
1.
Select the variable you want to view.

2.
Press GRAPH.

3.
Use the < and > keys to select different variables.

4.
Press the + key to shorten the time range.

5.
Press the - key to lengthen the time range.

6.
Press HI/LOW to shift between highs and lows.

7.
Press DONE to exit.

 

Graph Mode

Vantage Pro2 Console Graphs
Weather Variable Available Graphs*
Current 1 Min 10 Min 15 Min Hourly Daily Monthly Yearly
Barometric Pressure C C C H, L H, L
Evapotranspiration (ET)** T T T T T
Humidity, Inside C C H, L H, L
Humidity, Outside C C H, L H, L
Dew Point C C H, L H, L
Leaf Wetness*** C C H, L
Rain T T T T T T
Storm****
Rain Rate H H H H H H
Soil Moisture C C H, L
Solar Radiation** A A H
Inside Temperature C C H, L H, L
Outside Temperature C C H, L H, L H, L
Heat Index Temperature C C H H
Temp/Hum/Sun/Wind (THSW) Index** C C H H
Wind Chill Temperature L L L L
UV Radiation Index***** A A H C
UV Radiation MED (Minimal ErythermalDose)***** T T T
Wind Speed A A A, H H H H
Direction of High Wind Speed Y Y Y Y
Dominant Wind Direction A A A A

* A = Average, H = Highs, L = Lows, T =Totals, Y = Yes, C = Current reading at the end of eachperiod ** Requires solar radiation sensor, *****Requires UV sensor
*** Requires Wireless Leaf & Soil Moisture Temperature station **** Graphs the last 24 storm events and doesn’t follow the same graph conventions as othervariables.

Chapter 4 Troubleshooting and Maintenance
Vantage Pro2 Troubleshooting Guide
While your Vantage Pro2 weather station is designed to provide years of trouble-free operation, occasional problems may arise. If you are having a problem with your station, please consult this troubleshooting guide before calling Davis technical support. You may be able to quickly solve the problem yourself. Please see “Contacting Davis Technical Support” on the back cover.
Note: Refer to the ISS Installation Manual for additional troubleshooting information. Vantage Pro2 Troubleshooting Guide
TABLE 4-1: TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

Problem Solution
Display Display shows only“RECEIVING FROM.....” Indicates that console has rebooted. Hold the DONE key to re­turn to Current Weather Mode. (Check time setting if power waslost.)
Display is blank Unit is not receiving power. Check the power adapter connec­tions and/or replace batteries.
Display shows dashes inplace of weather data • ISS not plugged in (cabled station). See ISS manual.• Sensors not transmitting (wireless station). See ISS (or oth­
er transmitter) manual.• Console not receiving (wireless station) - See “Trouble­
shooting Reception Problems” on page 38.• A reading has exceeded the limits indicated in thespecifications table.• Calibration numbers may be causing readings to exceeddisplay limits. Check calibration number and adjust if nec­
essary.
Display shows “LowBattery Console” Replace the console’s C-cell batteries.
Display shows “LowBattery Stn 1” Indicates that the Nicad battery in the transmitting station (IDnumber shown) is low and should be replaced.
Console is sluggish or doesnot work at low tempera­tures The console and display may not work below 32º F (0º C). Usean External Temperature sensor in low-temperature locations orinstall the console indoors.
Display shows “odd” valuesor missing values. You may have synchronized with another weather station near­by. Change the transmission and reception IDs to a different ID.
Display “locks up” Reset the console by removing AC and battery power then re­storing power. If this occurs frequently in an AC-powered con­sole, plug the AC power-adapter into a surge suppressor.
Humidity Inside humidity seems toohigh or too low Make sure the console is not near a humidifier or de-humidifier. Check calibration number and adjust if necessary. If inside hu­midity is low, and inside temperature is too high, see “insidetemp” below. Also make sure the console backlight is not on.


TABLE 4-1: TROUBLESHOOTING GUIDE

Problem Solution
Wind Speed Wind speed reading seemstoo high or too low. For low readings, remove wind cups and check for frictionsources. Check the anemometer location. Is it sheltered from the wind? See ISS manual for additional wind speedtroubleshooting information.
Wind speed reads 0 eitherall the time or intermittently The problem may be with the anemometer. Test anemometerby spinning wind cups. Check reed switch fields on diagnosticscreen (see page 39) and call technical support.
Dew Dew Point reading seemstoo high or too low Check calibration numbers for temperature. Dew point dependson temperature and outside humidity. Make sure they’re work­ing.
Temperature Outside temperature sen­sor reading seems too high Check to see if ISS is near mechanical or radiant heat source. Check calibration number and adjust if necessary. ISS or tempsensor may need to be relocated. See ISS or other transmittermanual.
Inside temperature sensorreading seems too high Move the console out of direct sunlight. Make sure that the con­sole or sensor is not in contact with an exterior wall that heats up in sunlight or when outside temperature rises. Make sure theconsole or sensor is not near a heater or other internal heat source (lamps, appliances, etc.). Also make sure the consolebacklight is not on. Check calibration number and adjust if nec­essary.
Outside temperatureseems too low Check calibration number and adjust if necessary. Sprinklersmay be hitting the ISS radiation shield. Relocate. See ISS man­ual.
Inside temperature sensorreading seems too low Make sure the console or other temperature sensor is not incontact with an exterior wall that cools down when outside tem­perature drops. Make sure the console or other temperaturesensor is not near an air conditioning vent. Check calibrationnumber and adjust if necessary.
Wind Direction Wind direction reading isdashed out • Wireless model - check reception. See Reception Prob­lems below. • Cabled model - cable may be faulty.If these steps do not reveal the problem, the anemometer maybe faulty. Call technical support.
Wind direction always saysnorth Usually a problem in the ISS, either with the transmitter or ane­mometer cable. See the ISS manual for troubleshooting infor­mation.
Chill Wind chill reading seemstoo high or too low Check calibration numbers for temperature. Wind chill dependson temperature and wind speed. Make sure they’re working.
Heat Heat Index reading seemstoo high or too low Check calibration numbers for temperature. The heat index de­pends on temperature and outside humidity. Make sure the sen­sors are working.
Rain No rain readings Make sure cable-tie is removed from inside the rain collector. See the ISS manual.
UV/Solar Readings are too high Can be caused by high thin cirrus clouds.
Time Incorrect times for sunrise and sunset Check your latitude, longitude, time zone, and daylight savingstime settings. Sunrise and sunset times are calculated from theconsole using all of these settings.


Console Diagnostic Mode
Troubleshooting Reception Problems
While we have tested the Wireless Vantage Pro2 radio extensively, each site and each installation presents its own issues and challenges. Obstructions, particularly metallic ones, often cut down your station’s reception distance. Be sure to test reception between the console and ISS, in the locations you intend to install them, before permanently mounting your ISS or other transmitter(s).
The console’s reception status displays at the lower right corner of the screen.

An “X” flashes for every data packet received by the console.


An “R” displays when the console is trying to re-establish a lost connection. The console tries for 10 minutes to re-establish a connection before going into L Mode.When no data packets have been received for 10 minutes, the console dashes-out any missing sensor readings.


An “L” displays when the signal is lost (and the console is “asleep.”) The console stays in this mode for 15 minutes until returned to “R” mode. To force the console into “R” mode (“wake up” the console), enter and exit Setup Mode.


Check Console Reception
Enter Setup mode by pressing and holding DONE, then pressing the - key at the same time. Wait a few minutes while the console lists all the stations transmitting within range (See “Screen 1: Active Transmitters” on page 12 for more information). If the console does not detect your transmitter, check the following:

Adjust the console and ISS antennas so that they are in line of sight with each other.


Reduce the distance between the ISS and the console.


If the console is directly beneath the ISS, the antennas should be horizontal.


Try distancing your console from your ISS, at least 10 feet apart.


Change the Transmitter ID (on both the console and the ISS) to a number other


than 1. Refer to the ISS Installation Manual or other station manual for instructions on how to check the station for potential transmission problems.
Console Diagnostic Mode
In addition to logging weather data, the console continuously monitors the station’s radio reception. You may find this information very helpful, especially when you are choosing locations for your console and ISS.
The Console Diagnostics Mode consists of two screens, the Statistical Diagnostic Screen and the Reception Diagnostic Screen. The Statistical Diagnostic screen applies for both cabled and wireless weather stations. The Reception Diagnostic screen applies only to wireless weather stations and is not accessible to a cabled weather station.
Note: Radio transmission data used by the diagnostic screens clears each day at midnight. Console Diagnostic Mode

Diagnostic Screen Commands

Press and hold TEMP, then press HUM to display the Statistical Diagnostic screen.


Press the > key to display signal statistics for the next installed transmitter ID.


Press 2ND and then press CHILL to toggle between the Statistical and Reception Diagnostic screens.


A degree (°) sign displays in right corner of value 1 of the Reception Diagnostic screen (screen 2) to differentiate which screen is currently displayed.


Press DONE to exit the diagnostic screen.


Screen 1: Statistical Diagnostic Screen
The Statistical Diagnostic displays information about how data is being received from the weather station to the console. The information that is displayed in this screen includes:

Screen 1: Statistical Diagnostics Screen
Note: All values with a * mark the value as being for Davis Instruments Internal use. All values with a
‡ mark values that are the same on both the Statistical and Reception Diagnostic screens.
1.
Time of day or number of times the anemometer switch was seen closed*. The switch closes once each revolution of the anemometer wind cups. Press WIND to toggle between these two values.

2.
Date or the number of times the anemometer switch was seen open*. Press WIND to toggle between these two values.


Note: The time and date displays can be toggled in both statistical and reception diagnostic screens.
3. Number of packets containing CRC errors received. The system runs a CRC check on data packets. Any data packets that don’t pass this check are

Console Diagnostic Mode
considered to contain errors and are discarded. These are considered bad packets.
4.
The total number of bad data packets including missed packets and CRC errors. Missed packets are described as when a data packet is expected, but is not recognized as a data packet by the console.

5.
Percentage of good packets received.

6.
Total number of good packets received.

7.
Number of times the console resynchronized with the transmitter. The console will attempt to resynchronize with the station after 20 consecutive bad packets.

8.
Maximum number of bad packets in a row without resynchronization.

9.
Current streak of consecutive bad packets. The counter increments when the console is synchronized but the packet is bad. This value is reset to zero when a good packet is received.

10.
Longest streak of consecutive good packets received.

11.
Current streak of consecutive good packets received.

12.
Graph of the daily percentage of good data packets received over the last 24 days.

13.
Background noise level. This refers to the undesirable signal level the console hears while it is in the process of acquiring a signal from a station. The range displayed is from 5 to 60. When the noise level is high, try to move the console closer to the station to get a stronger signal. Small background noise level does not always guarantee good reception. The signal strength between the station and the console needs to be stronger than the background noise level in order for the console to receive clearly. If there are reception problems while a small background noise level is still being displayed, make sure the console is within reasonable range of the station.


If the console currently has acquired all the station signals it is set to receive, the background noise level displayed is the last noise level measurement taken before acquisition finished.
14.
Current console battery voltage. Ignore this value if using the AC Adapter only to power the console.

15.
Repeater ID currently communicating with the console. If a repeater or group of repeaters is used to relay station information to the console, the Repeater ID displayed is the repeater that the console is set to receive. If the console is not listening to repeaters, this section remains blank. Please see Application Note 25 available on the Davis Instruments Support web page for more information on using repeaters.


Note: The Repeater ID does not display in the ticker banner in firmware versions earlier than May 2005, or Version 1.6. If you want your console to support repeater communication, upgrade your console to the most recent console firmware version.
16. The console’s reception status. See “Troubleshooting Reception Problems” on page 38 for information on the status types.

Console Diagnostic Mode

Screen 2: Reception Diagnostic Screen
The Reception Diagnostic screen displays information pertinent to the console’s wireless reception. To view this screen from the Statistical Diagnostic screen, press 2ND and then press CHILL. The degree sign displaying in the upper left corner next to value 1 verifies that the Reception Diagnostic screen is currently displayed.
The information that is displayed in this screen includes:

Screen 2: Reception Diagnostics Screen
1.
8-bit timer value of next reception.*

2.
Radio frequency error of the last packet received successfully. In normal operation, this value is +1, -1, or 0. This value affects the value of #5 on the next page.

3.
Percentage of good data packets.‡

4.
Signal strength of the last packet received. The values displayed in this field should generally be between 20 and 60. If a packet is not received successfully, the signal strength field is dashed out (--).

5.
Current frequency correction factor. Shows the Automatic Frequency Control setting.

6.
Frequency index of the next packet to be received.*

7.
Current number of consecutive bad packets.‡

8.
The number of times that the Phase Lock Loop did not lock.*

9.
Current streak of consecutive good packets received.‡


Console Firmware Versions
In some cases, the problem may be that your console firmware doesn’t support what you are trying to do. Use this command to determine the firmware revision level in your console. You can find more information on Vantage Pro2 console firmware versions and changes in the Weather Software Support section of our website. - for information.
Press and hold DONE then press the + key at the same time to display the console firmware version in the ticker at the bottom of the screen.

Console Maintenance
Console Maintenance Changing Batteries
Use this procedure to change console batteries without losing any stored weather data or console configuration settings.
1. Plug in the AC adapter or, if the AC adapter is not present, enter Setup Mode by pressing DONE and then the - key.
Note: If you cannot plug in the AC Adapter, entering Setup Mode makes sure the station isn’t writing any data to memory when power is removed and avoids data loss.
2.
Remove the battery cover located on the back of the console by pressing down on the two latches at the top of the cover.

3.
Place the console face down on a flat, firm surface.

4.
Insert a fingertip between the two exposed batteries then press the middle battery down toward the notch (toward the “hidden” battery). This will relieve tension on the first battery and allow you to remove it.

5.
Remove the old batteries and install the new batteries.

6.
Replace the battery cover and remove the AC power adapter, if used.

7.
Check and set date and time if power was lost.


One Year Limited Warranty
For details on our warranty policy, please refer to the Maintenance, Service, and Repair Information brochure included with your station.

Appendix A Weather Data
Refer to this appendix to learn more about the weather variables that are measured, displayed, and logged by your Vantage Pro2 Station. Some weather variables require optional sensors. See “Optional Sensors & Transmitting Stations” starting on page 3.
Wind
The anemometer measures wind speed and direction, and is part of the Integrated Sensor Suite (ISS). The console calculates a 10-minute average wind speed and 10-minute dominant wind direction. The 10-minute average wind speed is displayed in the console ticker whenever wind has been selected on the console. The last six 10-minute dominant wind directions are included in the compass rose wind display.
Temperature
The ISS houses the outside temperature sensor in a vented and shielded enclosure that minimizes the solar radiation induced temperature error. The console houses the inside temperature sensor. Additional temperature sensors are available for wireless stations and can measure up to eight locations.
Apparent Temperatures
Vantage Pro2 calculates three apparent temperature readings: Wind Chill, Heat Index, and the Temperature/Humidity/Sun/Wind (THSW) Index. Apparent temperatures use additional weather data to calculate what a human body perceives the temperature to be in those conditions.
Wind chill
Wind chill takes into account how the speed of the wind affects our perception of the air temperature. Our bodies warm the surrounding air molecules by transferring heat from the skin. If there’s no air movement, this insulating layer of warm air molecules stays next to the body and offers some protection from cooler air molecules. However, wind sweeps that warm air surrounding the body away. The faster the wind blows, the faster heat is carried away and the colder you feel. Wind has a warming effect at higher temperatures.
Note: Wind chill is not calculated above 92° F (33° C).
Heat Index
The Heat Index uses temperature and the relative humidity to determine how hot the air actually “feels.” When humidity is low, the apparent temperature will be lower than the air temperature, since perspiration evaporates rapidly to cool the body. However, when humidity is high (i.e., the air is more saturated with water vapor) the apparent temperature “feels” higher than the actual air temperature, because perspiration evaporates more slowly.

Note: Heat Index is equal to the air temperature at or below 0° F (-18° C).
Temperature/Humidity/Sun/Wind (THSW) Index
The THSW Index uses humidity and temperature like for the Heat Index, but also includes the heating effects of sunshine and the cooling effects of wind (like wind chill) to calculate an apparent temperature of what it “feels” like out in the sun. The THSW Index requires a solar radiation sensor.
Humidity
Humidity itself simply refers to the amount of water vapor in the air. However, the total amount of water vapor that the air can contain varies with air temperature and pressure. Relative humidity takes into account these factors and offers a humidity reading which reflects the amount of water vapor in the air as a percentage of the amount the air is capable of holding. Relative humidity, therefore, is not actually a measure of the amount of water vapor in the air, but a ratio of the air’s water vapor content to its capacity. When we use the term humidity in the manual and on the screen, we mean relative humidity.
It is important to realize that relative humidity changes with temperature, pressure, and water vapor content. A parcel of air with a capacity for 10 g of water vapor which contains 4 g of water vapor, the relative humidity would be 40%. Adding 2 g more water vapor (for a total of 6 g) would change the humidity to 60%. If that same parcel of air is then warmed so that it has a capacity for 20 g of water vapor, the relative humidity drops to 30% even though water vapor content does not change.
Relative humidity is an important factor in determining the amount of evaporation from plants and wet surfaces since warm air with low humidity has a large capacity to absorb extra water vapor.
Dew Point
Dew point is the temperature to which air must be cooled for saturation (100% relative humidity) to occur, providing there is no change in water vapor content. The dew point is an important measurement used to predict the formation of dew, frost, and fog. If dew point and temperature are close together in the late afternoon when the air begins to turn colder, fog is likely during the night. Dew point is also a good indicator of the air’s actual water vapor content, unlike relative humidity, which takes the air’s temperature into account. High dew point indicates high water vapor content; low dew point indicates low water vapor content. In addition a high dew point indicates a better chance of rain, severe thunderstorms, and tornados.
You can also use dew point to predict the minimum overnight temperature. Provided no new fronts are expected overnight and the afternoon relative humidity is greater than or equal to 50%, the afternoon’s dew point gives you an idea of what minimum temperature to expect overnight, since the air can never get colder than the dew point. Dew point is equal to air temperature when humidity = 100%.

Rain
Vantage Pro2 incorporates a tipping-bucket rain collector in the ISS that measures 0.01'' for each tip of the bucket. A metric adapter can be installed to measure 0.2 mm for each tip of the bucket.Your station logs rain data in the same units it is measured in and converts the logged totals into the selected display units (inches or millimeters) at the time it is displayed. Converting at display time reduces possible compounded rounding errors over time.
Four separate variables track rain totals: “rain storm,” “daily rain,” “monthly rain,” and “yearly rain.” Rain rate calculations are based on the interval of time between each bucket tip, which is each 0.01'' rainfall increment or 0.2 mm.
Barometric Pressure
The weight of the air that makes up our atmosphere exerts a pressure on the surface of the earth. This pressure is known as atmospheric pressure. Generally, the more air above an area, the higher the atmospheric pressure, this means that atmospheric pressure changes with altitude. For example, atmospheric pressure is greater at sea level than on a mountaintop. To compensate for this difference and facilitate comparison between locations with different altitudes, atmospheric pressure is generally adjusted to the equivalent sea level pressure. This adjusted pressure is known as barometric pressure. In reality, the Vantage Pro2 measures atmospheric pressure. When you enter your location’s altitude in Setup Mode, the Vantage Pro2 stores the necessary offset value to consistently translate atmospheric pressure into barometric pressure.
Barometric pressure also changes with local weather conditions, making barometric pressure an extremely important and useful weather forecasting tool. High pressure zones are generally associated with fair weather while low pressure zones are generally associated with poor weather. For forecasting purposes, however, the absolute barometric pressure value is generally less important than the change in barometric pressure. In general, rising pressure indicates improving weather conditions while falling pressure indicates deteriorating weather conditions.
Solar Radiation
What we call “current solar radiation” is technically known as Global Solar Radiation, a measure of the intensity of the sun’s radiation reaching a horizontal surface. This irradiance includes both the direct component from the sun and the reflected component from the rest of the sky. The solar radiation reading gives a measure of the amount of solar radiation hitting the solar radiation sensor at any
given time, expressed in Watts/sq. meter (W/m2). Solar radiation requires the solar radiation sensor.

UV (Ultra Violet) Radiation
Energy from the sun reaches the earth as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet (UV) rays. Exposure to UV rays can cause numerous health problems, such as sunburn, skin cancer, skin aging, cataracts, and can suppress the immune system. The Vantage Pro2 helps analyze the changing levels of UV radiation and can advise of situations where exposure is particularly unacceptable. UV radiation requires the UV radiation sensor. The Vantage Pro2 displays UV readings in two scales: MEDs and UV Index.
Note: Your station’s UV readings do not take into account UV reflected off snow, sand, or water, which can significantly increase your exposure. Nor do your UV readings take into account the dangers of prolonged UV exposure. The readings do not suggest that any amount of exposure is safe or healthful. Do not use the Vantage Pro2 to determine the amount of UV radiation to which you expose yourself. Scientific evidence suggests that UV exposure should be avoided and that even low UV doses can be harmful.
UV MEDs
MED (Minimum Erythemal Dose) is defined as the amount of sunlight exposure necessary to induce a barely perceptible redness of the skin within 24 hours after sun exposure. In other words, exposure to 1 MED will result in a reddening of the skin. Because different skin types burn at different rates, 1 MED for persons with very dark skin is different from 1 MED for persons with very light skin.
Both the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Environment Canada have developed skin type categories correlating characteristics of skin with rates of sunburn.
TABLE A-1: EPA SKIN PHOTOTYPES

Skin Phototype Skin Color Tanning & Sunburn history
1 - Never tans, always burns Pale or milky white; alabaster Develops red sunburn; painful swelling, skin peels
2 - Sometimes tans, usually burns Very light brown; sometimes freckles Usually burns, pinkish or red coloring appears; can gradually develop light brown tan
3 - Usually tans, sometimes burns Light tan; brown, or olive; distinctly pigmented Rarely burns; shows moderately rapid tanning response
4 - Always tans; rarely burns Brown, dark brown, or black Rarely burns; shows very rapid tanning response


TABLE A-2: ENVIRONMENT CANADA SKIN TYPES AND REACTION TO THE SUNA

Skin Type Skin Color History of Tanning & Sunburning
I White Always burns easily, never tans
II White Always burns easily, tans minimally
III Light Brown Burns moderately, tans gradually
IV Moderate Brown Burns minimally, tans well
V Dark Brown Burns rarely, tans profusely
VI Black Never burns, deep pigmentation

a. Developed by T. B. Fitzpatrick of the Harvard Medical School. More about the Fitzpatrick Skin Types is available in: Fitzpatrick TB. Editorial: the validity and practicality of sun-reactive skin types I through VI. Arch Dermatol 1988; 124:869-871

1234 56 UV Dose (MEDs)
UV Dose and Sunburn - Use this plot to estimate the MED dose leading to sunburn. A person with Type II (Environment Canada) skin type might choose
0.75 MED as the maximum for the day; in contrast, a person with Type V (Environment Canada) Skin Type might consider 2.5 MEDs a reasonable dose for the day. NOTE: the Vantage Pro2 assumes a Fitzpatrick (Environ­ment Canada) Skin Type of II.
UV Index
Vantage Pro2 can also display UV Index, an intensity measurement first defined by Environment Canada and since been adopted by the World Meteorological Organization. UV Index assigns a number between 0 and 16 to the current UV intensity. The US EPA categorizes the Index values as shown in table A-3. The lower the number, the lower the danger of sunburn. The Index value published by the U.S. National Weather Service is a forecast of the next day’s noontime UV intensity. The index values displayed by the Vantage Pro2 are real-time measurements.

TABLE A-3: UV INDEX

Index Values Exposure Category
0 - 2 Low
3 - 5 Moderate
6 - 7 High
8 - 10 Very High
11+ Extreme

Evapotranspiration (ET)
Evapotranspiration (ET) is a measurement of the amount of water vapor returned to the air in a given area. It combines the amount of water vapor returned through evaporation (from wet surfaces) with the amount of water vapor returned through transpiration (exhaling of moisture through plant stomata) to arrive at a total. Effectively, ET is the opposite of rainfall, and it is expressed in the same units of measure (inches, millimeters).
The Vantage Pro2 uses air temperature, relative humidity, average wind speed, and solar radiation data to estimate ET, which is calculated once an hour on the hour. ET requires the optional solar radiation sensor.
Leaf Wetness
Leaf wetness (see “Optional Sensors & Transmitting Stations” on page 3) provides an indication of whether the surface of foliage in the area is wet or dry by indicating how wet the surface of the sensor is. The leaf wetness reading ranges from 0 (dry) to 15. Leaf wetness requires an optional Leaf & Soil Moisture/ Temperature Station and is only available for Wireless Vantage Pro2 Stations.
Soil Moisture
Soil Moisture, as the name suggests, is a measure of the moisture content of the soil. Soil moisture is measured on a scale of 0 to 200 centibars, and can help choose times to water crops. The soil moisture sensor measures the vacuum created in the soil by the lack of moisture. A high soil moisture reading indicates dryer soil; a lower soil moisture reading means wetter soil. Soil Moisture requires an optional Leaf & Soil Moisture/Temperature Station or Soil Moisture Station and is only available for Wireless Vantage Pro2 Stations.
Time
The console has a built-in clock and calendar track the time and date. It automatically adjusts for daylight saving time in most of North America and Europe (and allows manual adjustment elsewhere) and for leap years, providing you have entered the correct year, latitude and longitude, and daylight saving settings in the Setup Mode.

Appendix B Specifications
See complete specifications for your Vantage Pro2 Station at our website: www.davisnet.com.
Console Specifications
Console Operating Temperature . . . . . . . . +32° to +140°F (0° to +60°C) Non-operating Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . +14° to +158°F (-10° to +70°C) Console Current Draw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireless: 0.9 mA average, 30 mA
peak, (add 120 mA for display lamps, add 0.125 mA for each optional transmitter station received by console) at 4 to 6 VDC Cabled: 10 mA (average), 15 mA (peak) (+80 mA for illuminated display) at 4 to 6 VDC

Power Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 VDC, 300 mA, regulated Battery Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 C-cells Battery Life (no AC power) . . . . . . . . . . . . Wireless: up to 9 months; (Cabled:
approximately 1 month)

Connectors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Modular RJ-11
Housing Material. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UV-resistant ABS plastic
Console Display Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LCD Transflective
Display Backlight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LEDs
Dimensions:
Console (with antenna) . . . . . . . . . . . 10.625" x 6.125" x 1.625" (270 mm x 156 mm x 41 mm) Console (no antenna) . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.625" x 6.125" x 1.625" (244 mm x
156 mm x 41 mm) Display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.94" x 3.375" (151 mm x 86 mm) Weight (with batteries) . . . . . . . . . . . 1.88 lbs. (.85 kg)
Wireless Communication Specifications
Transmit/Receive Frequency US Models: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902 - 928 MHz FHSS Overseas Models:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 868.0 - 868.6 MHz FHSS
ID Codes Available. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Output Power. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902 -928 MHz FHSS: FCC-certified low power, less than 8 mW, no license required
868.0 -868.6 MHz: CE-certified, less than 8 mW, no license required

Range Line of Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . up to 1000 feet (300 m) Through Walls. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 to 400 feet (75 to 120 m) Console Data Display Specifications

Console Data Display Specifications
Historical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Includes the past 24 values listed unless otherwise noted; all can be cleared and all totals reset.
Daily Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Includes the earliest time of occurrence of highs and lows; period begins/ends at 12:00 am.
Monthly Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Period begins/ends at 12:00 am on the first of every month.
Yearly Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Period begins/ends at 12:00 am on January 1st unless otherwise noted.
Current Graph Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current data appears in the right most column in the console graph and represents the latest value within the last period of the graph; totals can be set or reset.
Graph Time Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 min., 10 min., 15 min., 1 hour, 1 day, 1 month, 1 year (user-selectable, availability depends upon variable selected).
Graph Time Span . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Intervals + Current Interval (see Graph Intervals to determine time span).
Graph Variable Span (Vertical Scale) . . . . Automatic (varies depending upon data range); maximum and minimum value in range appear in ticker.
Alarm Indication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms sound for 2 minutes (time alarm is 1 minute) if operating on battery power. Alarm message displays in ticker as long as threshold is met or exceeded. Alarms can be silenced, but not cleared, by pressing DONE.
Transmission Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Varies with transmitter ID code -from 2.25 seconds (ID1 = shortest) to 3 seconds (ID8 = longest).
Update Interval. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Varies with sensor - see individual sensor specs.
Forecast:
Variables Used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Barometric reading & trend, wind speed & direction, rainfall, temperature, humidity, latitude & longitude, time of year.
Update Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 hour Display Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Icons on top center of display; detailed message in ticker at bottom.
Variables Predicted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sky condition, precipitation, temperature changes, wind direction and speed changes.

Weather Data Specifications

Weather Data Specifications
Note: These specifications include optional sensors that may not be installed in your Vantage Pro2 Station.
Weather Data Specifications
Variable RequiredSensors Resolution Range Nominal Accuracy (+/-)
Barometric Pressure* Included in Console 0.01'' Hg; 0.1 mm;0.1 hPa; 0.1 mb 16'' to 32.5'' Hg 410 to 820 mm 540 to 1100 hPa 540 to 1100 mb** 0.03'' Hg0.8 mm Hg1.0 hPa 1.0 mb
Barometric Trend (3 hour) Change RatesRapidly: ..06'' Hg1.5 mm Hg2 hPa, 2 mb; Slowly: ..02'' Hg0.5 mm Hg0.7 hPa, 0.7 mb 5 Arrow Positions: Rising RapidlyRising SlowlySteadyFalling SlowlyFalling Rapidly
Evapotranspiration (ET) ISS or Temp/ Hum Station & Solar Radiation sensor 0.01''; 0.1 mm Daily to 32.67”;832.1 mm Monthly & Yearlyto 199.99”; 1999.9 mm greater of 5% or0.01''; 0.25 mm
Inside Humidity Included in Console 1% 1 to 100% 3% RH; 4% above 90%
Outside Humidity ISS or Temp/ Hum Station 1% 1 to 100% 3% RH; 4% above 90%
Extra Humidity ISS or Temp/ Hum Station 1% 1 to 100% 3% RH; 4% above 90%
Dew Point (overall) ISS or Temp/ Hum Station 1.F; 1.C -105. to +130.F; -76. to +54.C 3.F; 1.5.C
Leaf Wetness Leaf & Soil Station 1 0 to 15 0.5
Soil Moisture Leaf & Soil Station or Soil Moisture Station 1 cb 0 to 200 cb
Daily & Storm Rainfall Rain Collector 0.01''; 0.2 mm to 99.99''; 999.8 mm greater of 4% or1 tip,
Monthly & Yearly Rainfall 0.01''; 0.2 mm (1mm at totals over2000 mm) to 199.99''; 6553 mm greater of 4% or1 tip
Rain Rate 0.01”; 0.1 mm to 96''/hr.;2438 mm/hr. greater of 5% or0.04”/hr.;1 mm/hr.

*Barometric pressure readings are standardized to sea level. Elevation Range: -999’ to +15,000’;
-600 to + 4570 m. Note: The console screen limits display of lower elevation to -999’ when using feet as elevation unit. For elevations lower than -999’, use meters.

Weather Data Specifications
Weather Data Specifications

Solar Radiation Solar sensor 1 W/m2 0 to 1800 W/m2 5% of full scale
Inside Temperature Included in Console 0.1.F; 0.1.C +32. to +140.F; 0 to +60.C 1.F; 0.5.C
Outside Temperature*** ISS, Temp Station or Temp Hum Station 0.1.F; 0.1.C -40. to +150.F; -40. to +65.C 1.F; 0.5.C
Extra Temperature ISS, Temp Station, Temp Hum Station, Leaf Soil Station or Soil Station 1.F; 1.C -40. to +150.F -40. to +65.C 1.F; 0.5.C
Heat Index ISS or Temp/ Hum Station 1.F; 1.C -40..to +165.F; -40. to +74. C 3.F (1.5.C)
Temp-Hum-Sun-Wind index (THSW) ISS & Solar Radiation 1.F; 1.C -90. to +165.F; -68. to +74. C 4.F (2.C)
Time Included in Console 1 min 24 hours 8 sec./mon.
Date 1 day month/day 8 sec./mon.
UV Index UV Radiation 0.1 Index 0 to 16 5% of full scale
UV Dose 0.1 MED < 20, 1 MED > 20 0 to 199 MEDs 5%
Wind Direction Anemometer 1. 0 to 360. 3.
Compass Rose 22.5. 16 compass pts 0.3 compass pt
Wind Speed 1 mph; 1 kt; 0.4 m/s; 1 km/h 2 to 200 mph;2 to 173 kts 3 to 322 km/h,1 to 809m/s greater of2 mph/kts;1 m/s; 3 km/hor 5%
Wind Chill ISS 1.F; 1.C -110. to +135.F -79. to +57.C 2.F;1.C

***Outside temperature accuracy is based on the temperature sensor itself and not on the sensor and the passive shielding together. The solar radiation induced error for standard ration shield: +4.F (2.C) at solar noon; for fan aspirated radiation shield: +0.6.F (0.3.C) at solar noon (insolation = 1040 W/m2, avg. wind speed.. 2 mph (1 m/s), reference: RM Young Model 43408 Fan-Aspirated Radiation Shield).

Appendix C Wireless Repeater Configuration
A Vantage Pro2 Wireless Repeater (#7626, #7627) or Long-Range Wireless Repeater (#7653, #7654) increase transmission distances or improve transmission quality between a station and a console. A repeater receives information transmitted from a Vantage Pro2 station and retransmits it to a console. Depending on transmission distance, one repeater or several repeaters can be used to collect and retransmit weather data.
All consoles communicating with repeaters must be set up with the correct Transmitter ID and Repeater ID before the console can correctly receive station information.
To set Repeater ID on the console:
1.
Press DONE and the - keys to enter Setup Mode.

2.
If Setup Mode has previously been completed, press DONE to display Screen


2: Configuring Transmitter IDs.
3.
See “Screen 2: Configuring Transmitter IDs — Wireless Only” on page 12 for more information on configuring Transmitter IDs.

4.
Press 2ND and then press WIND to enter Repeater Setup Mode and to select a Repeater ID. Pressing 2ND and WIND sets the console to receive the signal from a repeater instead of directly from a station. Once the console is in the repeater setup mode, subsequent pressing of WIND continue to cycle through the all the repeater IDs.

5.
Press WIND repeatedly to cycle through all eight repeater IDs possible or to clear the repeater ID in the right hand corner. When no repeater ID is shown, the console is configured to listen directly to a station and not to a repeater.


In the example below, the console is set up to receive an ISS station on transmitter ID 1 from repeater A.

1

6.
For each station using a repeater, select the station and turn on the repeater function and select the correct repeater ID.

7.
Press DONE to continue to the other screens in the Setup Mode, or press and hold DONE to return to the Current Weather Mode.

 

Verifying Setup
To verify that you have successfully set up your console to receive a repeater in the console’s Current Weather Mode:
1. View the transmitter information displaying at the bottom of the console screen. If the transmitter ID being repeated is displayed and an “X” flashes in the bottom right corner of the ticker tape, the transmitter is being repeated and received by the console successfully.
The repeater’s information also displays at the bottom of the console’s diagnostics screens.
Clearing Repeater ID
If a repeater ID is being displayed in Screen 2 and you are not using a repeater with the selected station, you must turn off the repeater function to receive station information successfully.
In Setup Screen 2: Press 2ND and then press WIND repeatedly so that the console cycles through the list of repeater IDs (Repeaters A-H) until the section where the repeater ID was displayed is blank. Press DONE to continue to the next screen or press and hold DONE to return to the Current Weather Mode.


Vantage Pro2 Console Icons
Console icons indicate weather conditions and special functions.
Forecast

Mostly Clear Partly Cloudy Mostly Cloudy Rain Snow
Indicates the weather forecast for the next 12 hours.
Moon Phase

New Moon First Quarter Full Moon Last Quarter New Moon
Shows the current moon phase. Sequence shown for Northern Hemisphere. The sequence of the icons is reversed in the Southern Hemisphere.
Alarm Bell
Flashes when an alarm is triggered. Also indicates when the console is in Alarm Mode.
Graph
Appears next to the currently selected weather variable. Also indicates the graphed variable on most screens. 

Second Function
Appears when you press 2ND key. Indicates that console key secondary functions are enabled.
Rain
Appears when the console is currently detecting rain.
Barometric Pressure Trend
Arrows show direction of pressure change for last three hours.


Contacting Davis Technical Support
For questions about installing or operating your Vantage Pro2 weather station, please contact Davis Technical Support. We’ll be glad to help.
(510)
732-7814 — Monday - Friday, 7:00 a.m. - 5:30 p.m. Pacific Time. We are unable to accept collect calls.

(510)
670-0589 — Technical Support Fax. support@davisnet.com — E-mail to Technical Support. info@davisnet.com — General e-mail. www.davisnet.com — Davis Instruments web site. See the Weather Support sec­tion for copies of user manuals, product specifications, application notes, and infor­mation on software updates. Watch for FAQs and other updates.

 

 

 

 

Complete the form below to download this document now.
Fill out the form to get access to the complete article.