University of NM Path and Paving Solutions Increasing Farmstead Accessibility - Natl Training Workshop

Carla Wilhite
2019-03-26
University of New Mexico

PATH AND PAVING SOLUTIONS: INCREASING FARMSTEAD ACCESSIBILITY

 

CARLA WILHITE, OTD, OTR/L

UNIVERSITY OF NEW MEXICO-NEW MEXICO AGRABILITY PROJECT PARTNER NATIONAL TRAINING WORKSHOP

TUESDAY, MARCH 26, 2019

LINCOLN, NEBRASKA

 

 

 

 

SESSION LEARNING OBJECTIVES:

  • Session participants will identify the most recent path and paving materials available to increase farmstead accessibility.
  • Session participants will be familiar with basic terminology to describe terrain and construction.
  • Session participants will view product solutions for paths and paving
  • Session participants will discuss cost estimates and justification for environmental modifications to pathways and walkways.

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THE PROBLEM

 

Farms and ranches have variable terrain features that make accessibility difficult

  • Mud
  • Standing water
  • Sandy conditions
  • Inclines/declines
  • Large stones, stumps
  • Ruts left by vehicles and machinery
  • Etc.

 

 

 

 

TERMINOLOGY

  • Accessibility: design of products, devices, services, or environments for people with disabilities that ensures “direct access” (i.e. unassisted) and “indirect access” (i.e. compatibility with person’s assistive technology.                        (Wikipedia,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accessibility)
  • Usability: the extent to which a product (device, service, or environment) can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use.

 

 

 

 

TERMINOLOGY

 

  • Universal Design: Universal design is the design of buildings, products or environments to make them accessible to all people, regardless of age, disability or other factors.
  • Built environment: Human-surroundings that provide a setting for human activity

 

 

 

 

DEFINITION OF TERRAIN

 

 

 

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  • Terrain/Relief: vertical and horizontal dimensions of land surface
  • Defined: Physically, terrain is the “lay of the land”. Usually expressed in terms of elevation, slope, and orientation of terrain features. Affected by surface water distribution and flow of water.

 

TERRAIN TERMINOLOGY

  • Depressions: sunken or depressed area below the surrounding area; form by various mechanisms
  • Blowouts (erosion)
  • Subsidence (erosion/settling)
  • Sinkholes (collapse)
    • Elevations: a height above or below a fixed point
  • Hills
  • Mounds
  • Rise
    • Expansive soils- earth that swells and contracts depending on the amount of water that is present
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  • Slope/gradient: a line that describes the direction and steepness of a line
  • Calculated by finding the ratio of the "vertical change" to the "horizontal change" between (any) two distinct points on a line
  • Aka: Rise/run
    • SLOPE=RUN/RISE=ΔXΔY
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CONSTRUCTION TERMS

 

  • Aggregate- A mixture of sand and stone and a major component of concrete.
  • Abovegrade-
  • Backfill- the replacement of excavated earth into a trench around or against a basement /crawl space foundation wall
  • Board foot- A unit of measure for lumber equal to 1 inch thick by 12 inches wide by 12 inches long
  • Cement- the gray powder that is the "glue" in concrete. Portland cement.
  • Concrete- the mixture of Portland cement, sand, gravel, and water.
  • Cubic yard/foot-measure of length, width, and depth of a rectangle
  • Egress- A means of exiting a building
  • Exposed aggregate finish- A method of finishing concrete which washes the cement/sand mixture off the top layer of the aggregate - usually gravel
  • Drain- 3" or 4" perforated plastic pipe that goes around the perimeter (either inside or outside) of a foundation wall (before backfill) and collects and diverts ground water away
  • Faced concrete- to finish the front and all vertical sides of a concrete porch, step(s), or patio.
  • Field measure- to take measurements in the place itself instead of using the blueprint/topo/landscape design
  • Flatwork- common word for concrete floors, driveways, basements, and sidewalks
  • Form- temporary structure erected to contain concrete during placing and initial hardening
  • Frost line- the depth of frost penetration in soil and/or the depth at which the earth will freeze and swell.
  • Grade- ground level, or the elevation at any given point. Also the work of leveling dirt.
  • Level- true horizontal.

CONSTRUCTION TERMS

  • Pressure-treated wood- lumber that has been saturated with a preservative. Aka: treated lumber
  • Lumens- unit of measure for total light output. The amount of light falling on a surface of one square foot.
  • Manufacturer's specifications- the written installation and/or maintenance instructions which are developed by the manufacturer of a product and which may have to be followed in order to maintain the product warrantee.
  • Masonry- stone, brick, concrete, hollow-tile, concrete block, or other similar building units or materials; joined with mortar
  • Nosing- the projecting edge of a molding or drip or the front edge of a stair tread.
  • Paver, paving- materials—commonly masonry—laid down to make a firm, even surface
  • Plan view- drawing of a structure with the view from overhead, looking down.
  • Road base- aggregate mixture of sand and stone
  • Screed, concrete- to level off concrete to the correct elevation during a concrete pour.
  • Settlement- shifts in a structure, usually caused by freeze-thaw cycles underground
  • Stair landing- A platform between flights of stairs or at the termination of a flight of stairs. Often used when stairs change direction. Normally no less than 3 ft. X 3 ft. Square.
  • Subgrade-native soil that is graded and compacted to provide an even surface to support the sidewalk; should have uniform stiffness to avoid differing frost or expansion characteristics. In some cases, concrete is placed directly on the subgrade, but it is strongly recommended that a granular sub-base be placed between the native soil and the concrete slab.

 

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DECK TERMINOLOGY

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ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS FOR TRAILS/PATHS

NATIONAL CENTER FOR ACCESSIBILITY NATIONAL TRAILS SURFACE STUDY REPORT, 2017 AUTHORS: MONTEMBAULT & YORK

 

 

  • •      Must meet firmness & stability standards for wheelchairs
    • Firmness: resistance to deformation/indentation
    • Stability: resists change from contaminants or applied forces
    • •     Eleven materials studied in report:
      • Crushed stone
      • Fines
      • Packed soils
      • Natural materials bonded to synthetic materials
      • Found differences for different climates/regions
      • All surfaces required maintenance/repair over time

 

 

ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS FOR TRAILS/PATHS

NATIONAL CENTER FOR ACCESSIBILITY NATIONAL TRAILS SURFACE STUDY REPORT, 2014

 

 

  • FIRMNESS & STABILITY
    • Measured by mechanical instrument; Rotational penetrometer
  • BEST RESULTS:
  • ¾ Inch limestone aggregate
  • Klingstone 400 soil stabilizer
  • Stalock stabilizer
    • LIMITATIONS
      • No human testers/wheelchair users involved
      • Cost comparison not completed
        • Long-term maintenance costs not conducted

 

 

SOLUTIONS

RANGE OF MATERIALS AVAILABLE TO INCREASE ACCESSIBILITY


SOLID SURFACES

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SMALL SURFACE MATERIALS

 

 

WOOD FIBERS                                              GRAVEL

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https://www.fibar.com/

 

FIBAR

  • Features:
  • Combines natural LEED certified materials with synthetic underlayment (geotextiles)
  • Materials developed for playgrounds, but could be used for pathways
  • Materials are controlled size and type of

wood fibers: engineered wood fibers

  • Different installation specs for desert/wetter climates
  • Systems available that include drainage and

sidewalls

  • Cons: Cost not publically available, must call for quote (advertised as $1.50 to $10 per square foot)

http://www.erapol.com.au/product s/agency-products/klingstone/

 

  • Features
  • Polyurethane soil stabilizer
  • Inert when cured
  • No mixing required
  • Binds with aggregate
  • Natural appearance
  • Cost: $2-3 sq ft material

KLINGSTONE

 

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  • Cons: application hazards for respiratory, skin, eye; flammable; must properly dispose or store of left-over chemical
  • Noticeable washout in areas at 2 years; must be resurfaced/re-treated

 

http://www.stabilizersolutions.com/ products/stalok-paving-material/

 

STALOK STABILIZER

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  • Features:
  • Polymer bonds with decomposed granite

and other materials

  • Fills pores and locks together
  • Remains flexible
  • Resists weathering
    • Can be formulated for different regions and soil conditions; equestrian applications too
  • Cons: proprietary mixing; costs not publicly available; long-term maintenance costs not known

 

 

 

 

OTHER POLYMER BASED PRODUCTS

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  • SOILTAC®
  • M10 & M50
  • TECHNISOIL G5
  • TOP-SHIELD (TS-100)

 

MODULAR SOLUTIONS http://www.accessrec.com/b

 

  • ACCESS REC mats, decks, & surfaces
  • Features of deck:
  • High-density polyethylene (HDPE)
    • Chemical and weather resistant capabilities
    • UV protected
      • Can be installed permanently or temporarily
      • Can withstand vehicle loads up to 8 tons per axle
  • Easy to maintain and clean
    • sustainable to temperature extremes
    • •   will not warp, rot, crack, or delaminate
      • anti slip patterns
      • Cons: Heavy, one panel weighs 69 lbs. & cost

each-access-mat

 

 

 

http://www.durolawn.com/


MODULAR SOLUTIONS

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  • DUROLAWNFeatures:
    • Non slip surface cellular structure
    • Reduce joint and bone impact while walking on hard surfaces
      • Can be used as an entry mat
      • Allows for dirt, debris and water to fall to the bottom of the mat due to their cellular structure
        • Wheelchair accessibility
        • Turns grass into a wheelchair accessible surface
          • Cons: Cost @ 30sq ft. (approx.

10’x3’ path)=$384 on top of

existing sod ($12.80 sq. ft)

 

 

https://www.mrboardwalk.com/

MODULAR SOLUTIONS

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  • MISTER BOARDWALK
  • Features:
    • Can order in pressure treated (PT), cypress, teak, Trex
    • Can order corner/turn pieces
    • 20 year work life (according to manufacturer)
    • Can be permanently installed or

temporary

  • Cons: 23” x 12 ft. roll = $111 of PT (cheaper than other modular though)

 

https://www.mobi-mat-chair-beach-access-

dms.com/mobi-deck/

MODULAR SOLUTIONS

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  • MOBI-DECK
  • •    Features
  • •     100% recyclable HDPE plastic are UV and weather resistant
    • Resilient to absorbing liquids and

contaminates

  • Permanent or mobile applications
  • Each panel 5’ x 6’ long (86lb. Each)
  • Cons: cost (60” x 33’ section =

$2,199); weight

 

 

 

https://www.zeager.com/


MODULAR SOLUTIONS

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  • WOODCARPET BONDED I SYSTEM
  • Features:
    • Installed on top of surfaces of gravel
    • Drains well, pervious to water
    • Cushiony
    • Impact resistant
    • Looks natural, but is “synthetic”
    • Cons:

 

CONSIDERATIONS

 

  • Will probably “mix” surfaces depending on applications (i.e. Modular around entrances, aggregate on pathways); must design transitions adequately
  • Costs may increase with use of proprietary connectors, borders, geotextile underlayment
  • Arrangements for maintenance is necessary

  • “Bargain basement” materials to build pathways:
    • Used dimensional lumber
    • Pallet slats
    • Other?
    • Vehicle use? Vehicle crossing?
    • ADA guidance can help, but does it need to be followed for custom applications?

 

 

 

 

CONSIDERATIONS

 

  • Who will design it? Professional? Home-designed?
  • What kind of environment? Weather, temperatures, terrain?
  • How much will it cost? Materials, labor, predicted wastage
  • How long will it take?
  • Who will carry out the work? Family, volunteers, contractor, vendor?
  • Permits? Contracts?
  • Questions to ask potential contractors:Https://www.Homeadvisor.Com/ r/15-questions-to-ask- contractors/
  • Https://www.Aarp.Org/livable- communities/info-2014/7-steps-to- hiring-a-contractor.Html

 

 

 

 

REFERENCED MATERIALS

 

  • UNITED STATES ACCESS BOARD: Https://www.Access-board.Gov/guidelines-and- standards/recreation-facilities/outdoor-developed-areas/background/committee-report/trails
  • NATIONAL CENTER ON ACCESSIBILLITY: http://www.ncaonline.org/
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